This 1999 publication, which is available from CRC Press, provides essential reference data in a concise and readily accessible format for over 9,500 vascular plants of commercial importance in various parts of the world. It makes available to both scientists and nonscientists up-to-date scientific names for economically important vascular plants. It includes information garnered during more than two decades of nomenclatural research on economic plants by taxonomists of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS). This research was begun by Edward E. Terrell and first published in the 1977 ARS Agriculture Handbook 505, "A Checklist of Names for 3,000 Vascular Plants of Economic Importance." A second edition of this work, which appeared in 1986, was prepared by Terrell with the participation of the senior author, Steven R. Hill, and William E. Rice. Each previous Handbook provided scientific and English common names for approximately 3,000 economic species.
Information for the second edition became increasingly integrated into the USDA Nomenclature File, which in 1987 formed the basis for the plant taxonomic data of the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) of USDA-ARS. The data provide the nomenclatural framework for over 430,000 germplasm accessions of 10,400 taxa being maintained in NPGS. The vascular plant nomenclature records now include over 57,400 scientific names and data on common names, distribution, literature references, and uses. Through GRIN, enhanced capabilities are now available for accumulating, manipulating, and standardizing taxonomic data and disseminating it via the World-Wide-Web <www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax>.
The botanic and economic coverage of this reference encompasses plants or plant products that are traded, regulated, or are otherwise directly or indirectly important to international commerce. Numerous plants in interstate commerce of larger countries are also included, as well as plants with recognized potential for widespread economic usage or plants having a negative economic impact, such as weeds and poisonous plants.
GRIN taxonomic data continue to be regularly updated to accommodate new information on economic plants. In addition, supplemental data on all plants treated here are contained in GRIN. All this can be subjected to flexible, form-based queries at <www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/taxecon.html>.
Despite extensive efforts to be as thorough and accurate as possible in our treatment of worldwide economic plants, we are faced with a monumental undertaking that surely has yielded some errors or omissions in GRIN data. We welcome the electronic submission (to email@example.com) of any additions or corrections.
DISCUSSION OF CONTENT
All data conform to internationally recognized standards as adopted by the International Union of Biological Science's Commission on Taxonomic Databases (better known as Taxonomic Databases Working Group-TDWG). These standards and the individual data elements to which they apply are discussed below.
Three types of scientific name entries are possible. Names of species or infraspecies (subspecies, varieties, or forms) follow entries for accepted genera. The generic entry includes the genus, author, English common name(s), family name, alternate family name (if applicable), alternate family classification, and parentage for intergeneric hybrids. The eight alternate family names Compositae (Asteraceae), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Gramineae (Poaceae), Guttiferae (Clusiaceae), Labiatae (Lamiaceae), Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Palmae (Arecaceae), and Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) are common and acceptable substitutes for the families indicated, though they lack the standard "-aceae" ending. An example of a generic entry is provided below.
Prosopis L. - MESQUITE - Fabaceae or Leguminosae (Mimosaceae)
GRIN family and generic data are largely derived from Gunn et al. (1992) for seed plants and Kramer and Green (1990) for ferns and fern allies, with subsequent updating from recent literature. A total of 447 families are currently accepted in GRIN's classification of the world's nearly 14,000 accepted genera of vascular plants. Species assigned to 288 of these families and 2,580 genera are included in this publication. To account for the many family names accepted in other classifications, these families have been listed in synonymy for each genus when relevant.
Another type of entry is that of synonyms which contains only two items: the synonym and its correct name, both complete with authors. Synonyms appear in italics and correct names in bold print except when names appear in comments [in square brackets] under other entries, where they are always italicized. Nearly 2,500 important synonym names are included, an example of which is provided below.
The remaining entries are for the approximately 9,500 accepted names. A fully labelled, accepted name entry is provided in Figure 1.
All accepted names in this publication, and all listed synonyms for that matter, may be termed "botanical names," in that their usage conforms to the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code) (ICBN, Greuter et al. 1994). For completeness, quadrinomials and autonyms are given when they are in use for a particular plant. For example,
Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir.
In this quadrinomial the subspecies epithet is an autonym, i.e., it repeats the species epithet and thereby lacks an author (ICBN Article 26.1). This middle epithet may be omitted, if necessary, when the subspecific classification of this variety is not under consideration. The typical variety (that which includes the type) of this species and subspecies, which represents the garden pea, could be expressed as the double autonym Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. sativum. In common usage this is usually designated simply as Pisum sativum L.; however, it must be understood that this collective designation includes all subordinate subspecies and varieties of Pisum sativum (ICBN Article 25.1) and does not refer precisely to the garden pea.
Authors of validly published names are cited for the sake of accuracy (ICBN Article 46.1). In this work complete authors are provided for all names, for example,
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck
Authors’ names have been abbreviated in conformity with the TDWG-endorsed international standard reference, Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt and Powell 1992). Original author's names appear in parenthesis when a later author(s) transferred the original species or infraspecies to another genus or rank. In this example the original name Mucuna utilis Wall. ex Wight was transferred in rank to M. pruriens var. utilis by Baker ex Burck. When certain scientific names have "ex" connecting two sets of authors, the first author(s) (e.g., Wall. or Baker) proposed the name but did not validly publish it; later the second author(s) (e.g., Wight or Burck) validated the name while citing the first author(s). In such cases the first author's name (i.e., that portion preceding the "ex") may be omitted in accordance with current ICBN Article 46.4. Since authorship of the lowest ranking name used should always be provided, the above could be shortened minimally to
Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (Wight) Burck
According to current ICBN Recomendation 50E we have appended the Latin abbreviations nom. cons. and nom. rej. to those generic and specific names which have been formally conserved or rejected and are listed as such in ICBN.
Following the accepted scientific names, a small portion of entries (ca. 3 percent) include comments consisting mostly of parentage statements for hybrids or alternative cultivar group names, whenever such names could be associated with a given taxon from the available literature. Although they are not accepted here, cultivar group names, which are defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Trehane et al. 1995), are increasingly being used especially in horticulture for plants known solely in cultivation. To preserve nomenclatural stability we, following most other sources, have continued to apply existing botanical names to cultivated plants. However, some widely cultivated ornamental plants of complex cultivated origin, such as those commonly known as day-lilies, cannot adequately be treated using available botanical names, and so have been excluded from this account. Because usage of some cultivar group names may eventually predominate over botanical names used here, the former are provided whenever possible. However, they are not treated in the synonymy. Our principal sources of cultivar group names have been Hortus Third (L. H. Bailey Hortorium Staff 1976), the RHS's Dictionary of Gardening (Huxley et al. 1992), and PROSEA (Siemonsma and Piluek 1993).
Four other data items may accompany an accepted scientific name (Figure 1). The first of these is the synonymy, prefixed by the abbreviated heading "Syn." All synonym entries in the Catalog of Economic Plants are listed again under their accepted name. While many accepted name entries provide no synonyms, over 1,900 list one or more synonym names. Synonyms are limited to those names accepted in other recent or current literature.
Proper use of a name is determined by the type of the name, usually an herbarium specimen associated with the original publication, and such matters are dictated by ICBN Articles 8 and 9. To distinguish use of a particular name in a sense that conflicts with its type from proper use of a name, we have used the Latin abbreviation "auct." in lieu of author(s) for these misapplied names (see ICBN Recommendation 50D). A good example of this is Festuca elatior auct. Amer., which in the New World has formerly been misapplied to F. pratensis Huds. The true F. elatior L., nom. rej. (which has recently been typified and subsequently rejected by an International Botanical Congress as listed in ICBN) is a synonym of F. arundinacea Schreb.
In the Catalog of Economic Plants the common name is prefixed by the heading "Cn." Over 19,200 common names are presented, including nearly 7,550 of non-English derivation. Following the alphabetically arranged English or anglicized common names, which appear first, other common names are arranged alphabetically by language or region of usage, the latter indicated by an abbreviation after each name (e.g., Chin. for Chinese, Fr. for French, Ger. for German, Ind. for India, Jap. for Japanese, Ital. for Italian, Kor. for Korean, Port. for Portuguese). English common names begin with lowercase letters, except that proper nouns have an initial capital letter. Generic common names are given in all uppercase letters. Although our accumulation of extra-English common names in GRIN is expanding, representation from many of these languages is still far from complete.
Common names were obtained from over 1,000 different sources, which are provided in GRIN. Several valuable sources for such names were Hortus Third (Bailey Hortorium Staff 1976), Cornucopia: A Source Book of Edible Plants (Facciola 1990), RHS Dictionary of Gardening (Huxley et al. 1992), Zander—Handwörtr-buch der Pflanzennamen (Encke et al. 1993), Multilingual Dictionary of Agronomic Plants (Rehm 1994), the publications of the PROSEA project (Westphal and Jansen 1989, Maesen and Somaatmadja 1989, Verheij and Coronel 1991, 't Mannetje and Jones 1992, Dransfield and Manokaran 1993, Siemonsma and Piluek 1993, Soerianegara and Lemmens 1993, Dransfield and Widjaja 1995), and the many floristic publications that provide common names.
A multitude of local or regional vernacular names for the plants treated are present in the literature, but our aim has been to identify and include only those in more common use. We claim only limited success in this and have doubtless neglected some names that should have been included. For some of the more important economic plants, when particular English or anglicized common names are in widespread use and required for international commerce, we recommend their adoption for such purposes by underscoring them.
To avoid the necessity of treating the multiple variations of a common name that can arise from differences in spelling, word union, or hyphenation (e.g., sugar beet, sugar-beet, or sugarbeet), we have attempted to standardize our treatment of English common names. All English names entered in GRIN follow the guidelines of Kartesz and Thieret (1991) on matters of union or hyphenation of group names and modifiers. Further decisions on joining or separating elements of a common name (excluding matters of hyphenation) follow usage in Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961 ed.). These rules dictate that group names are correctly applied only to certain genera (such as rose for Rosa or vetch for Vicia) or families (e.g., grass for Poaceae). Over 450 "true group" names are provided here for genera. Usage of these true group names for plants in other genera or families requires hyphenation or adjoining to preceding modifiers (such as moss-rose for Portulaca grandiflora or milk-vetch for Astragalus). General terms, such as tree, weed, or wort, that cannot be linked to any particular plant group always require adjoining or hyphenation. A few exceptions to allow usage of some true group names for more than one genus exist, such as pitcherplant for Nepenthes and Sarracenia, especially when genera have been recently dismembered, such as wheatgrass for Agropyron, Elymus, and Elytrigia.
Economic data are preceded by the heading "Econ." GRIN economic plant data are classified to two levels adapted from the TDWG-endorsed Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (Cook 1995), as seen in Table 1. We recognize a total of 17 classes, including 13 from this Standard: food, food additives, animal food, bee plants, invertebrate food, materials, fuels, social uses, vertebrate poisons, non-vertebrate poisons, medicines, environmental uses, and gene sources, with the addition of classes for weeds, harmful organism hosts, CITES Appendix I, and CITES Appendix II. Note that two of these added categories plus vertebrate poisons do not represent beneficial uses, but are mostly negative in their economic impact. The 17 classes are further subdivided into 96 subclasses (Table 1).
Economic data are arranged alphabetically by classes, and within these by subclasses. Our goal has been to include only those economic impacts that are of regional or international importance, or those that potentially may have this importance. We have labelled this latter group by preceding the subclass term with the word "potential." Excluded from consideration, however, are nearly all plants being investigated for their potential pharmacological benefit, as this is too dynamic a group to identify with any degree of permanency, and many other plants with only local ethnobotanical uses. Historical use of a plant that is no longer relevant has generally been omitted as well. Despite our stated intentions, some minor impacts are more likely to have been retained when other major ones were present for a plant. The frequency distribution in this work for each category of economic impact appears in Table 1.
Sources of economic data are referenced in GRIN, but the more important ones are mentioned here. Valuable general references include The Wealth of India: Raw Materials (Manjunath 1948; Sastri 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962; Deshaprabhu 1966; Kristnamurthi 1969; Chadha 1972, 1976a, 1976b), Dictionary of Economic Plants (Uphof 1968), Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa (Burkill 1985, 1994, 1995), The Plant-Book (Mabberley 1987, 1997), Economic Plants of Australia (Lazarides and Hince 1993), Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients (Leung and Foster 1996), and Hortus Third, RHS Dictionary of Gardening, and the volumes of the PROSEA project cited previously. A number of floras have also provided valuable economic data, especially Flora Malesiana series I. Spermatophyta (Steenis et al., 9 volumes, 1948-1996), Flora of Guatemala (Standley et al. 1958-1977), Flora of the U.S.S.R. (English translation, Komarov et al. 1963-1972; Shishkin and Bobrov 1969-1977; Shishkin and Bobrov 1990-1995), Flora of Iraq (Townsend and Guest, 6 volumes, 1966-1985), and the many volumes of the Flora Neotropica series. Many other resources provided useful data relating to specific classes of economic impact and these are mentioned in the discussion below.
Food. This includes plants consumed by humans as major constituents of food preparations, and clearly comprises the most important class economically. Important specialized sources for food data include Plants for Human Consumption (Kunkel 1984), CRC Handbook of Nuts (Duke 1989), some PROSEA volumes (Maesen and Somaatmadja 1989, Verheij and Coronel 1991, Siemonsma and Piluek 1993), the unpublished data for the new Food and Feed Crops of the United States (rev. ed., Markle et al., 1998), and Facciola (1990).
Food additives. Here plants are included that are also consumed, but as minor constituents of food preparations. Particularly useful references for food additives include Tucker (1986) and Tucker and Lawrence (1987) in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (Craker and Simon 1986, 1987), Huxley et al. (1992), and Leung and Foster (1996).
Animal food. We recognize only two subclasses: 1) fodder for plant material harvested and fed to domestic animals, and 2) forage for plant material upon which domestic animals feed themselves. Especially valuable sources for these data include Grass Varieties in the United States (Alderson and Sharp 1995), and the previously cited 't Mannetje and Jones (1992), Lazarides and Hince (1993), and Markle et al. (1998).
Bee plants. No subclasses are used for this use class. While numerous species throughout the world are of some importance as honey plants, an exhaustive treatment of these has not been attempted. Many of the most important ones have been identified for this publication. A useful reference consulted for these data was Ortega Sada (1987).
Invertebrate food. Only a small number of plants serving as hosts for beneficial invertebrates, such as silkworms, have been identified. Doubtless we have missed others of some importance.
Materials. This class includes a number of important economic plants, such as those which furnish fiber, timber, gums, resins, and industrial or essential oils. Among the numerous references providing data, the most important were Important Forest Trees of the United States (Little 1978), Encyclopedia of World Timbers (Boutelje 1980), Uphof (1968), Tucker (1986), Tucker and Lawrence (1987), Mabberley (1987, 1997), Dransfield and Manokaran (1993), Soerianegara and Lemmens (1993), Dransfield and Widjaja (1995), and Leung and Foster (1996).
Fuels. Included here with more traditional sources of fuel are rapidly growing plants with potential to provide biomass for electricity generation. The most important references utilized were Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production (National Academy of Sciences 1980) and Energy Plant Species (El Bassam 1998).
Social uses. This minor use class includes few plants of widespread economic importance, although tobacco and those which provide illicit drugs such as opium or cocaine are of considerable economic impact.
Vertebrate poisons. The economic impact of the poisonous plants classified here is largely negative. Although fish poisons provide a very important benefit in primitive cultures, they are seldom traded commercially and have been treated only superficially. Nearly all plants recorded here are toxic to humans and livestock, collectively classed as "mammals" in level 2. Only a few plants toxic to birds, chiefly poultry, have been distinguished, although most plants poisonous to mammals doubtless apply here also. Our list of poisonous plants is certainly not exhaustive, as many plants other than those treated here would certainly be toxic to humans or domestic animals if they were consumed, but this effect has not been properly documented. Our coverage is restricted to those species whose toxic effects have been established in the plant toxicology literature. We have been aided in this effort by D. J. Wagstaff, former plant toxicologist of U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Data are largely derived from Poisonous Plants of the United States (Kingsbury 1964), Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man (Cooper and Johnson 1984), AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants (Lampe and McCann 1985), Plant Poisonings and Mycotoxicoses of Livestock in Southern Africa (Kellerman et al. 1987), Poisonous Plants: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium (Jones et al. 1992), and Lazarides and Hince (1993).
Non-vertebrate poisons. The plants classified here provide materials that serve as organic pesticides.
Medicines. Here we include plants that serve as sources of specific pharmaceutical agents and those that are widely used, mostly in the crude sense, as "folklore" remedies. Only a portion of the former group are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as drugs in the United States. The list of pharmaceutical chemicals is largely derived from Global Importance of Medicinal Plants (Farnsworth and Soejarto, draft manuscript, 1988). Important sources of folklore medicines, i.e., herbal drugs, include Herbs of Commerce (Foster 1992), Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals (Bisset 1994), and Leung and Foster (1996). As already mentioned, the numerous plants used locally as medicines have been excluded, as have those plants being tested for potential medicinal benefit. It is difficult to determine the current commercial importance of many medicinal plants, so some important ones may have been missed and others included unnecessarily.
Environmental uses. Many valuable economic plants are classified here, including those used for erosion control, soil improvement (i.e., green manures or cover crops), and agroforestry, but most included here are ornamentals. The ornamentals were probably the most difficult to evaluate as to whether or not to include particular species. We have tried to glean from the sources utilized only the most commercially important because an exhaustive treatment of this group is beyond our scope and is available elsewhere. Hybridization has played a major role in the development of many improved cultivars of ornamentals, and some are of complex hybrid origin. Only those which can adequately be represented by binomial or trinomial botanical nomenclature are included. Many are best treated with cultivar or cultivar-group names, which have not been treated or accepted in this account. Among the numerous references providing data on environmental uses, the most important were The European Garden Flora (Walters et al. 1984, 1986, 1989; Cullen et al. 1995, 1997), Manual of Cultivated Broad-leaved Trees and Shrubs (Krüssmann 1984, 1985, 1986), and some mentioned elsewhere: Bailey Hortorium Staff (1976), Huxley et al. (1992), Encke et al. (1993), and Alderson and Sharp (1994).
Gene sources. In addition to known or potential sources of beneficial genes for specific improvements in crop plants, numerous species can be successfully crossed with crop species to provide fertile progeny and thus must be considered important as genetic resource plants. These primary gene pool members have been included for most crops with the designations "related to" or "progenitor of" preceding the crop name at subclass level. Similarly, those plants that have been hybridized extensively to produce important ornamentals are labelled "for ornamental cultivars" at this level. A few species important as models for research in plant biology are included in this category.
Weeds. This class is, like vertebrate poisons, one of negative economic impact. Included here are both weeds of croplands and natural habitats. Those weeds which are listed in the rules of seed-testing organizations like the Association of Official Seed Analysts and the International Seed Testing Association have been labelled "possible seed contaminant." It is difficult to judge the negative costs of some weeds, but we have attemped to include all the most troublesome ones. In this endeavor, we have been guided by several sources, namely CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables (Häfliger and Brun-Hool 1968-1975), The World's Worst Weeds (Holm et al. 1977), A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds (Holm et al. 1979), Grass Weeds (Häfliger and Scholz 1980, 1981), Monocot Weeds (Häfliger et al. 1982), Dicot Weeds (Häfliger et al. 1988), Noxious Weeds of Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson 1992), and World Weeds (Holm et al. 1997) as well as unpublished documents on U.S. federal and state noxious weeds.
Harmful organism host. This class includes plants that serve as alternate hosts for crop pests and plants that serve as test organisms for detecting viral diseases in crops. Useful references include Virus Diseases of Small Fruits (Converse 1987) and the Disease Compendium Series of the American Phytopathological Society.
CITES Appendices I and II. Here we record those plants subject to regulations of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Further details on these regulations are currently available from <www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES>. For genera having all species covered under Appendix I, we have attempted to include every recognized species, although they are not itemized in the Appendix itself. An additional entry of the form "Paphiopedilum spp." has been added to indicate any other species of genera such as Paphiopedilum not already included. Similarly, entries such as "DIDIEREACEAE spp." imply that all members of this family are covered, in this case under Appendix II, although they have not been enumerated. Species of Appendix II all-inclusive genera have only been itemized for smaller genera. Useful references were CITES Cactaceae Checklist (Hunt 1992) and CITES Orchid Checklist (Roberts et al. 1995).
Geographical data are preceded by the heading "Dist." Distributions have been summarized following the TDWG standard World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (Hollis and Brummitt 1992). We have used only area and region from this standard to report distributions. The terrestrial world is divided into nine areas: Africa, Antarctic, Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Pacific, and Southern America. These are further subdivided into a number of regions, as indicated in Table 2 and Figure 2. The areas Northern America and Southern America are not precisely congruent with the continents of North and South America. Northern America includes Canada, U.S.A., and most of Mexico, while Southern America includes Mesoamerica, the West Indies, and South America. The less-familiar regions Malesia and Macaronesia from Hollis and Brummitt (1991) refer to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago and to archipelagos of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Country and state distributions may be obtained from GRIN, but could not be included due to space limitations.
Because GRIN country and state records are linked to region and area data, we have developed the following protocol in our distribution reports. Data are reported in the alphabetical order indicated in Table 2. When three or fewer regions of a particular area were represented among records for a plant, the regions are reported in lieu of the area. When more than three regions are represented, only the area is provided. Report of an area thus implies occurrence in at least four of the subordinate regions. Successive area statements are separated by semicolons, the subordinate regions by commas. Since some GRIN data for countries that span more than one region, such as Canada, Mexico, and United States, are not treated at the state level and thus are unlinked to region data, the countries themselves may be reported in lieu of the included regions. For purposes of the above protocol, these countries are treated as a single region.
Only native or potentially native distributions have been recorded according to this scheme, with cultivated or naturalized distributions provided in a separate comment. For weedy species this distinction is sometimes obscure, and for some widespread species the entire distribution has been summarized in a single comment. Abbreviations used in distribution statements are explained in the "Symbols and Abbreviations" section. Directional abbreviations in distribution comments are in lower case, in contrast to their usage in abbreviations of Table 2. Our distribution data largely reflect what is present in the literature, as these data were not made available to most reviewers. Nevertheless, considerable effort has gone toward making these data as complete and accurate as possible. Because the data are summarized, a distributional report for a plant in a particular region does not imply widespread occurrence in that region but only indicates some distribution within that region. Absence of a report from a particular region or area implies that the plant is not native there, although in occasional cases it may be due to lack of botanical knowledge of an area. These knowledge gaps vary for different regions and plant families, but are generally greater for tropical regions and families.
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS*
*See Table 1 for abbreviations of economic plant data classes and subclasses and Table 2 for abbreviations of geographical areas and regions.
× denotes a cross between two species (e.g., Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum halepense), a binomial for a hybrid (e.g., S. ×almum), or an intergeneric hybrid (e.g., ×Triticosecale).
= follows synonyms and precedes their accepted names; also precedes hybrid formula of hybrids.
[ ] encloses comments, which consist primarily of hybrid formulas or cultivar group names.
auct. auctorum (Latin): of authors.
auct. mult. auctorum multorum (Latin): of many authors.
auct. nonn. auctorum nonnullorum (Latin): of some authors.
auct. pl. auctorum plurimorum (Latin): of most authors.
Cn: precedes common name(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.
cult. cultivated, cultivation.
Dist: precedes distribution in Catalog of Economic Plants.
e. east, e.-c. east-central.
Econ: precedes economic impact(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.
f. forma, one of the lowest taxonomic ranks; or, when following an author, filius (Latin): son (e.g., L. f.: son of Linnaeus).
hort. hortulanorum (Latin): of gardeners.
n. north, n.-c. north-central, n.e. northeast, n.w. northwest.
nom. ambig. nomen ambiguum (Latin): ambiguous name used in different senses which has become a long-persistent source of error.
nom. cons. nomen conservandum (Latin): name conserved in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).
nom. dub. nomen dubium (Latin): dubious name, i.e., application of name uncertain.
nom. illeg. nomen illegitimum (Latin): illegitimate name according to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).
nom. inval. nomen invalidum (Latin): invalid name according to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).
nom. nud. nomen nudum (Latin): name published without description or reference to a published description.
nom. rej. nomen rejiciendum (Latin): name rejected in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).
notho- (subsp. or var.) prefix to the rank of a hybrid taxon below the rank of species.
orth. var. orthographic variant, i.e., an incorrect alternate spelling of a name.
pro hyb. (Latin): as a hybrid.
pro parte (Latin): in part.
pro parte majore (Latin): for the greater part.
pro parte minore (Latin): for a small part.
pro sp. (Latin): as a species.
pro subsp. (Latin): as a subspecies.
pro syn. (Latin): as a synonym.
s. south, s.-c. south-central, s.e. southeast, s.w. southwest.
sensu (Latin): in the sense of.
spp. species (plural); used here to indicate that all species of a genus or family have the indicated economic impact.
subsp. subspecies, a lower taxonomic rank than species.
Syn: precedes synonym(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.
var. variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies and above forma.
w. west, w.-c. west-central.
Alderson, J. and W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States. CRC-Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton. 296 pp.
Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 1290 pp.
Bisset, N. G., ed. 1994. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: a handbook for practice on a scientific basis. Medpharm Scientific Publishers and CRC Press, Stuttgart and Boca Raton. 566 pp.
Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers: names and technical literature. Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, Stockholm. 338 pp.
Brummitt, R. K. and C. E. Powell. 1992. Authors of plant names: a list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 732 pp.
Burkill, H. M. 1985. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1: families A–D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 960 pp.
Burkill, H. M. 1994. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2: families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 636 pp.
Burkill, H. M. 1997. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3: families J–L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 857 pp.
Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1972. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 9: Rh–So. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1976a. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 10: Sp–W. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1976b. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 11: X–Z. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
Converse, R. H., ed. 1987. Virus diseases of small fruits. Agric. Handb. (U.S.D.A.) 631, 277 pp.
Cook, F. E. M. 1995. Economic botany data collection standard. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 146 pp.
Cooper, M. R. and A. W. Johnson. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. H.M.S.O., London. 305 pp.
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LIST OF REVIEWERS
Focko Albers Westf. Wilhelms-Universität Münster GERMANY Asclepiadaceae
Frank Almeda California Academy of Sciences San Francisco, California U.S.A. Melastomataceae
William R. Anderson University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan U.S.A. Malpighiaceae
Clare Archer Botanical Research Institute Pretoria, Transvaal Province SOUTH AFRICA Cyperaceae
George W. Argus Merrickville, Ontario CANADA Salicaceae (Salix)
Peter S. Ashton Cambridge, Massachusetts U.S.A. Dipterocarpaceae
Daniel F. Austin Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida U.S.A. Convolvulaceae
Peter W. Ball University of Toronto Mississauga, Ontario CANADA Chenopodiaceae
Henrik Balslev Institute of Systematic Botany Nordlandsvej 68 Risskov, DK 8240 DENMARK Arecaceae, Juncaceae
Rupert C. Barneby New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Fabaceae, Menispermaceae
Kerry A. Barringer Brooklyn Botanical Garden Brooklyn, New York U.S.A. Aristolochiaceae, Scrophulariaceae
C. C. Berg University of Bergen Bergen NORWAY Cecropiaceae, Moraceae
Vickie Binstock USDA-ARS Beltsville, Maryland U.S.A. Acanthaceae
A. Linn Bogle University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire U.S.A. Hamamelidaceae, Leitneriaceae
Allan J. Bornstein Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri U.S.A. Piperaceae
Roland von Bothmer Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Svalöv SWEDEN Poaceae (Hordeum)
P. V. Bruyns University of Cape Town Rondebosch, Cape Province SOUTH AFRICA Asclepiadaceae
Ricardo Callejas Universidad de Antioquia Medellín, Antioquia COLOMBIA Piperaceae
David F. Chamberlain Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland UNITED KINGDOM Ericaceae
Ross C. Clark Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, Kentucky U.S.A. Aquifoliaceae
W. D. Clayton Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Poaceae
M. J. E. Coode Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Elaeocarpaceae
Richard S. Cowan East Cannington, Western Australia AUSTRALIA Fabaceae (Australia)
Phillip J. Cribb Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Orchidaceae
Carmen L. Cristóbal Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste Corrientes ARGENTINA Sterculiaceae
Thomas B. Croat Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. Araceae
Deena Decker-Walters The Montgomery Foundation, Inc. Miami, Florida U.S.A. Cucurbitaceae
Michael O. Dillon Field Museum Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. Asteraceae
M. Dittrich Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève Chambésy/Genève SWITZERLAND Asteraceae
V. I. Dorofeev Russian Academy of Sciences St.-Petersburg RUSSIA Brassicaceae
John Dransfield Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Arecaceae
Stefan Dressler Rijksherbarium Leiden NETHERLANDS Euphorbiaceae
Urs Eggli Städtische Sukkulentensammlung Zürich SWITZERLAND Aizoaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Cactaceae, Crassulaceae
Uno Eliasson Göteborg University Göteborg SWEDEN Amaranthaceae
Roger P. Ellis Agricultural Research Council Lynn East SOUTH AFRICA Poaceae
Matthias Erben Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München München GERMANY Plumbaginaceae
Cecilia Ezcurra Universidad Nacional del Comahue San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro ARGENTINA Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae
Robert B. Faden Smithsonian Institution Washington, District of Columbia U.S.A. Commelinaceae
Aljos Farjon Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Pinaceae
J. Fontella Pereira Jardim Botânico do Rio deJaneiro Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro BRAZIL Asclepiadaceae
Donna I. Ford West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia U.S.A. Portulacaceae
Donald B. Foreman Royal Botanic Gardens South Yarra, Victoria AUSTRALIA
L. L. Forman Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Menispermaceae
Paul A. Fryxell University of Texas Austin, Texas U.S.A. Malvaceae
Paul Goetghebeur University of Gent Gent BELGIUM Cyperaceae
Peter Goldblatt Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. Iridaceae
Shirley A. Graham Kent State University Kent, Ohio U.S.A. Lythraceae
Peter S. Green Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Oleaceae
Encarnación R. Guaglianone Instituto de Botánica Darwinion San Isidro, Buenos Aires ARGENTINA Cyperaceae
Peter Hanelt Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben GERMANY Brassicaceae, Fabaceae
Thomas G. Hartley CSIRO Canberra, Australian Capital Territory AUSTRALIA Rutaceae
Heidrun E. K. Hartmann Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg GERMANY Aizoaceae, Pedaliaceae
Alistair Hay Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, New South Wales AUSTRALIA Acoraceae, Araceae
Robert R. Haynes University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama U.S.A. Alismataceae, Limnocharitaceae, Potamogetonaceae
Ian C. Hedge Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland UNITED KINGDOM Brassicaceae
Andrew Henderson New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Arecaceae
William J. Hess Morton Arboretum Lisle, Illinois U.S.A. Cornaceae, Rosaceae, Tiliaceae
Steven R. Hill Illinois Natural History Survey Champaign, Illinois U.S.A. Malvaceae, ornamentals, weeds
Olive M. Hilliard Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland UNITED KINGDOM Asteraceae
D. J. N. Hind Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Caryophyllaceae
De-yuan Hong Academia Sinica Beijing PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Campanulaceae
Ding Hou Rijksherbarium Leiden THE NETHERLANDS Anacardiaceae
Chi-ming Hu Academia Sinica Guangzhou, Guangdong PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Berberidaceae
David R. Hunt Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Cactaceae
Hans-Dieter Ihlenfeldt Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg GERMANY Aizoaceae, Pedaliaceae
Hugh H. Iltis University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin U.S.A. Capparaceae
Betsy Rivers Jackes James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville, Queensland AUSTRALIA Vitaceae
Kevin B. Jensen Utah State University Logan, Utah U.S.A. Poaceae (Triticeae)
C. C. H. Jongkind Wenchi Farm Institute Wenchi, Brong Ahafo GHANA Combretaceae
Walter S. Judd University of Florida Gainesville, Florida U.S.A. Ericaceae
Joachim W. Kadereit Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz GERMANY Papaveraceae
Jacquelyn A. Kallunki New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Rutaceae
Lúcia Kawasaki Instituto de Botânica de Säo Paulo Säo Paulo, Säo Paulo BRAZIL Myrtaceae
Carl S. Keener Penn State University University Park, Pennsylvania U.S.A. Ranunculaceae
Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. USDA-ARS Beltsville, Maryland U.S.A. Rubiaceae
Tetsuo Koyama Nihon University Fujisawa City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN Cyperaceae
Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr. University of Florida Fort Pierce, Florida U.S.A. Fabaceae (forages)
Robert R. Krueger USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates Riverside, California U.S.A. Arecaceae (Phoenix), Rutaceae (Aurantioideae)
Job Kuijt University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia CANADA Viscaceae
Ilkka Kukkonen University of Helsinki Helsinki FINLAND Cyperaceae
Thomas G. Lammers Field Museum Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. Campanulaceae
Elias Landolt Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich Zürich SWITZERLAND Lemnaceae
Leslie R. Landrum Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona U.S.A. Myrtaceae
Abdul Latiff Mohamad Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi, Selangor MALAYSIA Vitaceae
Anthonius J. M. Leeuwenberg Agricultural University Wageningen THE NETHERLANDS Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae
Geoffrey A. Levin Illinois Natural History Survey Champaign, Illinois U.S.A. Euphorbiaceae
Magnus Lidén Botanical Museum Göteborg SWEDEN Papaveraceae
J. M. Lock Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Fabaceae
Carlyle A. Luer Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. Orchidaceae
James L. Luteyn New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Ericaceae
Kåre Lye Agricultural University of Norway Aas NORWAY Cyperaceae
Paul J. M. Maas State University of Utrecht Utrecht THE NETHERLANDS Annonaceae
John M. MacDougal Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. Passifloraceae
L. J. G. van der Maesen Agricultural University Wageningen THE NETHERLANDS Fabaceae (Faboideae)
Brian F. Mathew Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Iridaceae, Liliaceae (sensu lato)
Alan W. Meerow University of Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida U.S.A. Amaryllidaceae
James S. Miller Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. Boraginaceae
Regis B. Miller USDA-FS Center for Wood Anatomy Research Madison, Wisconsin U.S.A. timber
John D. Mitchell New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Anacardiaceae
B. P. J. Molloy Landcave Research Lincoln NEW ZEALAND Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae
Michael O. Moore University of Georgia Athens, Georgia U.S.A. Vitaceae
Scott A. Mori New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Lecythidaceae
Prasanta Kumar Mukherjee University of Calcutta Calcutta, West Bengal INDIA Apiaceae
Michael Nee New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York U.S.A. Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae
Dan H. Nicolson Smithsonian Institution Washington, District of Columbia U.S.A. Araceae
Henrik Borgtoft Pedersen Reco Consult Horning DENMARK Arecaceae
Troels Myndel Pedersen Estancia Santa Teresa Mburucuyá, Corrientes ARGENTINA Amaranthaceae
Terence D. Pennington Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Meliaceae, Sapotaceae, Fabaceae (Inga)
M. G. Pimenov Moscow State University Moscow RUSSIAN FEDERATION Apiaceae
John J. Pipoly, III Botanical Research Institute of Texas Fort Worth, Texas U.S.A. Myrsinaceae
James S. Pringle Royal Botanic Gardens Hamilton, Ontario CANADA Gentianaceae
John F. Pruski Smithsonian Institution Washington, District of Columbia U.S.A. Asteraceae
Christopher J. Quinn University of New South Wales Kensington, New South Wales AUSTRALIA Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae
Richard K. Rabeler University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan U.S.A. Caryophyllaceae
Alan Radcliffe-Smith Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Euphorbiaceae
Harald Riedl Naturhistorisches Museum Wien Wien AUSTRIA Boraginaceae
Jens G. Rohwer Institut für Systematische Botanik Heidelberg GERMANY Lauraceae
Yuri R. Roskov Russian Academy of Sciences St.-Petersburg RUSSIA Fabaceae (Asia)
John P. Rourke National Botanic Gardens of South Africa Claremont, Cape Province SOUTH AFRICA Proteaceae
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle
Paris FRANCE Ochnaceae
Carsten Schirarend Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten Hamburg Hamburg GERMANY Rhamnaceae
Gerald J. Seiler USDA-ARS Fargo, North Dakota U.S.A. Asteraceae (Helianthus)
B. K. Simon Department of Environment Indooroopilly, Queensland AUSTRALIA Poaceae
Ernest Small Agriculture Canada Ottawa, Ontario CANADA Fabaceae (Trifolieae)
Rosemary M. Smith Edinburgh, Scotland UNITED KINGDOM Zingiberaceae
George W. Staples Bishop Museum Honolulu, Hawaii U.S.A. Convolvulaceae
Chris M. A. Stapleton Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Poaceae (Bambuseae)
David E. Symon Botanic Garden Adelaide, South Australia AUSTRALIA Solanaceae
Nigel P. Taylor Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond, Surrey, England UNITED KINGDOM Cactaceae
Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky U.S.A. Fabaceae (Trifolium)
Sue A. Thompson Carnegie Museum of Natural History Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania U.S.A. Araceae
Gordon C. Tucker Eastern Illinois University Charleston, Illinois U.S.A. Cyperaceae
Billie L. Turner University of Texas Austin, Texas U.S.A. Asteraceae
Oswaldo Téllez Valdez Universidad Autónoma de México Mexico City, Distrito Federal MEXICO Dioscoreaceae
Peter van Welzen Rijksherbarium Leiden THE NETHERLANDS Sapindaceae
Jan F. Veldkamp Rijksherbarium Leiden THE NETHERLANDS Poaceae
Hendrik J. T. Venter University of the Orange Free State Bloemfontein, Orange Free State SOUTH AFRICA Geraniaceae
Régine Verlaque Université de Provence Case Marseille FRANCE Dipsacaceae
Piet Vorster University of Stellenbosch Matieland, Cape Province SOUTH AFRICA Geraniaceae
Terrence W. Walters Montgomery Foundation Miami, Florida U.S.A. Cucurbitaceae, Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Dieter C. Wasshausen Smithsonian Institution Washington, District of Columbia U.S.A. Acanthaceae
Mark F. Watson Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland UNITED KINGDOM Apiaceae
Susan J. Wiegrefe University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota U.S.A. Aceraceae, Ulmaceae
Dieter H. Wilken Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Santa Barbara, California U.S.A. Polemoniaceae
Peter G. Wilson Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, New South Wales AUSTRALIA Myrtaceae
Karen L. Wilson Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, New South Wales AUSTRALIA Cyperaceae, Casuarinaceae, Polygonaceae
Paul G. Wilson Department of Conservation and Land Management Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia AUSTRALIA Chenopodiaceae, Rutaceae
Takasi Yamazaki University of Tokyo Tokyo JAPAN Scrophulariaceae