WORLD ECONOMIC PLANTS: A Standard Reference

John H. Wiersema & Blanca León

This 1999 publication, which is available from CRC Press, provides essential reference data in a concise and readily accessible format for over 9,500 vascular plants of commercial importance in various parts of the world. It makes available to both scientists and nonscientists up-to-date scientific names for economically important vascular plants. It includes information garnered during more than two decades of nomenclatural research on economic plants by taxonomists of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS). This research was begun by Edward E. Terrell and first published in the 1977 ARS Agriculture Handbook 505, "A Checklist of Names for 3,000 Vascular Plants of Economic Importance." A second edition of this work, which appeared in 1986, was prepared by Terrell with the participation of the senior author, Steven R. Hill, and William E. Rice. Each previous Handbook provided scientific and English common names for approximately 3,000 economic species.

Information for the second edition became increasingly integrated into the USDA Nomenclature File, which in 1987 formed the basis for the plant taxonomic data of the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) of USDA-ARS. The data provide the nomenclatural framework for over 430,000 germplasm accessions of 10,400 taxa being maintained in NPGS. The vascular plant nomenclature records now include over 57,400 scientific names and data on common names, distribution, literature references, and uses. Through GRIN, enhanced capabilities are now available for accumulating, manipulating, and standardizing taxonomic data and disseminating it via the World-Wide-Web <www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax>.

The botanic and economic coverage of this reference encompasses plants or plant products that are traded, regulated, or are otherwise directly or indirectly important to international commerce. Numerous plants in interstate commerce of larger countries are also included, as well as plants with recognized potential for widespread economic usage or plants having a negative economic impact, such as weeds and poisonous plants.

GRIN taxonomic data continue to be regularly updated to accommodate new information on economic plants. In addition, supplemental data on all plants treated here are contained in GRIN. All this can be subjected to flexible, form-based queries at <www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/taxecon.html>.

Despite extensive efforts to be as thorough and accurate as possible in our treatment of worldwide economic plants, we are faced with a monumental undertaking that surely has yielded some errors or omissions in GRIN data. We welcome the electronic submission (to sbml@ars-grin.gov) of any additions or corrections.


DISCUSSION OF CONTENT

All data conform to internationally recognized standards as adopted by the International Union of Biological Science's Commission on Taxonomic Databases (better known as Taxonomic Databases Working Group-TDWG). These standards and the individual data elements to which they apply are discussed below.

Scientific Names

Three types of scientific name entries are possible. Names of species or infraspecies (subspecies, varieties, or forms) follow entries for accepted genera. The generic entry includes the genus, author, English common name(s), family name, alternate family name (if applicable), alternate family classification, and parentage for intergeneric hybrids. The eight alternate family names Compositae (Asteraceae), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Gramineae (Poaceae), Guttiferae (Clusiaceae), Labiatae (Lamiaceae), Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Palmae (Arecaceae), and Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) are common and acceptable substitutes for the families indicated, though they lack the standard "-aceae" ending. An example of a generic entry is provided below.

Prosopis L. - MESQUITE - Fabaceae or Leguminosae (Mimosaceae)

GRIN family and generic data are largely derived from Gunn et al. (1992) for seed plants and Kramer and Green (1990) for ferns and fern allies, with subsequent updating from recent literature. A total of 447 families are currently accepted in GRIN's classification of the world's nearly 14,000 accepted genera of vascular plants. Species assigned to 288 of these families and 2,580 genera are included in this publication. To account for the many family names accepted in other classifications, these families have been listed in synonymy for each genus when relevant.

Another type of entry is that of synonyms which contains only two items: the synonym and its correct name, both complete with authors. Synonyms appear in italics and correct names in bold print except when names appear in comments [in square brackets] under other entries, where they are always italicized. Nearly 2,500 important synonym names are included, an example of which is provided below.

Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. deliciosa (A. Chev.) A. Chev.
=Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson

The remaining entries are for the approximately 9,500 accepted names. A fully labelled, accepted name entry is provided in Figure 1.


Figure 1. Sample of accepted name entry.


All accepted names in this publication, and all listed synonyms for that matter, may be termed "botanical names," in that their usage conforms to the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code) (ICBN, Greuter et al. 1994). For completeness, quadrinomials and autonyms are given when they are in use for a particular plant. For example,

Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir.

In this quadrinomial the subspecies epithet is an autonym, i.e., it repeats the species epithet and thereby lacks an author (ICBN Article 26.1). This middle epithet may be omitted, if necessary, when the subspecific classification of this variety is not under consideration. The typical variety (that which includes the type) of this species and subspecies, which represents the garden pea, could be expressed as the double autonym Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. sativum. In common usage this is usually designated simply as Pisum sativum L.; however, it must be understood that this collective designation includes all subordinate subspecies and varieties of Pisum sativum (ICBN Article 25.1) and does not refer precisely to the garden pea.

Authors of validly published names are cited for the sake of accuracy (ICBN Article 46.1). In this work complete authors are provided for all names, for example,

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck

Authors’ names have been abbreviated in conformity with the TDWG-endorsed international standard reference, Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt and Powell 1992). Original author's names appear in parenthesis when a later author(s) transferred the original species or infraspecies to another genus or rank. In this example the original name Mucuna utilis Wall. ex Wight was transferred in rank to M. pruriens var. utilis by Baker ex Burck. When certain scientific names have "ex" connecting two sets of authors, the first author(s) (e.g., Wall. or Baker) proposed the name but did not validly publish it; later the second author(s) (e.g., Wight or Burck) validated the name while citing the first author(s). In such cases the first author's name (i.e., that portion preceding the "ex") may be omitted in accordance with current ICBN Article 46.4. Since authorship of the lowest ranking name used should always be provided, the above could be shortened minimally to

Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (Wight) Burck

According to current ICBN Recomendation 50E we have appended the Latin abbreviations nom. cons. and nom. rej. to those generic and specific names which have been formally conserved or rejected and are listed as such in ICBN.

Following the accepted scientific names, a small portion of entries (ca. 3 percent) include comments consisting mostly of parentage statements for hybrids or alternative cultivar group names, whenever such names could be associated with a given taxon from the available literature. Although they are not accepted here, cultivar group names, which are defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Trehane et al. 1995), are increasingly being used especially in horticulture for plants known solely in cultivation. To preserve nomenclatural stability we, following most other sources, have continued to apply existing botanical names to cultivated plants. However, some widely cultivated ornamental plants of complex cultivated origin, such as those commonly known as day-lilies, cannot adequately be treated using available botanical names, and so have been excluded from this account. Because usage of some cultivar group names may eventually predominate over botanical names used here, the former are provided whenever possible. However, they are not treated in the synonymy. Our principal sources of cultivar group names have been Hortus Third (L. H. Bailey Hortorium Staff 1976), the RHS's Dictionary of Gardening (Huxley et al. 1992), and PROSEA (Siemonsma and Piluek 1993).

Synonymy

Four other data items may accompany an accepted scientific name (Figure 1). The first of these is the synonymy, prefixed by the abbreviated heading "Syn." All synonym entries in the Catalog of Economic Plants are listed again under their accepted name. While many accepted name entries provide no synonyms, over 1,900 list one or more synonym names. Synonyms are limited to those names accepted in other recent or current literature.

Proper use of a name is determined by the type of the name, usually an herbarium specimen associated with the original publication, and such matters are dictated by ICBN Articles 8 and 9. To distinguish use of a particular name in a sense that conflicts with its type from proper use of a name, we have used the Latin abbreviation "auct." in lieu of author(s) for these misapplied names (see ICBN Recommendation 50D). A good example of this is Festuca elatior auct. Amer., which in the New World has formerly been misapplied to F. pratensis Huds. The true F. elatior L., nom. rej. (which has recently been typified and subsequently rejected by an International Botanical Congress as listed in ICBN) is a synonym of F. arundinacea Schreb.

Common Names

In the Catalog of Economic Plants the common name is prefixed by the heading "Cn." Over 19,200 common names are presented, including nearly 7,550 of non-English derivation. Following the alphabetically arranged English or anglicized common names, which appear first, other common names are arranged alphabetically by language or region of usage, the latter indicated by an abbreviation after each name (e.g., Chin. for Chinese, Fr. for French, Ger. for German, Ind. for India, Jap. for Japanese, Ital. for Italian, Kor. for Korean, Port. for Portuguese). English common names begin with lowercase letters, except that proper nouns have an initial capital letter. Generic common names are given in all uppercase letters. Although our accumulation of extra-English common names in GRIN is expanding, representation from many of these languages is still far from complete.

Common names were obtained from over 1,000 different sources, which are provided in GRIN. Several valuable sources for such names were Hortus Third (Bailey Hortorium Staff 1976), Cornucopia: A Source Book of Edible Plants (Facciola 1990), RHS Dictionary of Gardening (Huxley et al. 1992), Zander—Handwörtr-buch der Pflanzennamen (Encke et al. 1993), Multilingual Dictionary of Agronomic Plants (Rehm 1994), the publications of the PROSEA project (Westphal and Jansen 1989, Maesen and Somaatmadja 1989, Verheij and Coronel 1991, 't Mannetje and Jones 1992, Dransfield and Manokaran 1993, Siemonsma and Piluek 1993, Soerianegara and Lemmens 1993, Dransfield and Widjaja 1995), and the many floristic publications that provide common names.

A multitude of local or regional vernacular names for the plants treated are present in the literature, but our aim has been to identify and include only those in more common use. We claim only limited success in this and have doubtless neglected some names that should have been included. For some of the more important economic plants, when particular English or anglicized common names are in widespread use and required for international commerce, we recommend their adoption for such purposes by underscoring them.

To avoid the necessity of treating the multiple variations of a common name that can arise from differences in spelling, word union, or hyphenation (e.g., sugar beet, sugar-beet, or sugarbeet), we have attempted to standardize our treatment of English common names. All English names entered in GRIN follow the guidelines of Kartesz and Thieret (1991) on matters of union or hyphenation of group names and modifiers. Further decisions on joining or separating elements of a common name (excluding matters of hyphenation) follow usage in Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961 ed.). These rules dictate that group names are correctly applied only to certain genera (such as rose for Rosa or vetch for Vicia) or families (e.g., grass for Poaceae). Over 450 "true group" names are provided here for genera. Usage of these true group names for plants in other genera or families requires hyphenation or adjoining to preceding modifiers (such as moss-rose for Portulaca grandiflora or milk-vetch for Astragalus). General terms, such as tree, weed, or wort, that cannot be linked to any particular plant group always require adjoining or hyphenation. A few exceptions to allow usage of some true group names for more than one genus exist, such as pitcherplant for Nepenthes and Sarracenia, especially when genera have been recently dismembered, such as wheatgrass for Agropyron, Elymus, and Elytrigia.

Economic Importance

Economic data are preceded by the heading "Econ." GRIN economic plant data are classified to two levels adapted from the TDWG-endorsed Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (Cook 1995), as seen in Table 1. We recognize a total of 17 classes, including 13 from this Standard: food, food additives, animal food, bee plants, invertebrate food, materials, fuels, social uses, vertebrate poisons, non-vertebrate poisons, medicines, environmental uses, and gene sources, with the addition of classes for weeds, harmful organism hosts, CITES Appendix I, and CITES Appendix II. Note that two of these added categories plus vertebrate poisons do not represent beneficial uses, but are mostly negative in their economic impact. The 17 classes are further subdivided into 96 subclasses (Table 1).

Economic data are arranged alphabetically by classes, and within these by subclasses. Our goal has been to include only those economic impacts that are of regional or international importance, or those that potentially may have this importance. We have labelled this latter group by preceding the subclass term with the word "potential." Excluded from consideration, however, are nearly all plants being investigated for their potential pharmacological benefit, as this is too dynamic a group to identify with any degree of permanency, and many other plants with only local ethnobotanical uses. Historical use of a plant that is no longer relevant has generally been omitted as well. Despite our stated intentions, some minor impacts are more likely to have been retained when other major ones were present for a plant. The frequency distribution in this work for each category of economic impact appears in Table 1.

Sources of economic data are referenced in GRIN, but the more important ones are mentioned here. Valuable general references include The Wealth of India: Raw Materials (Manjunath 1948; Sastri 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962; Deshaprabhu 1966; Kristnamurthi 1969; Chadha 1972, 1976a, 1976b), Dictionary of Economic Plants (Uphof 1968), Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa (Burkill 1985, 1994, 1995), The Plant-Book (Mabberley 1987, 1997), Economic Plants of Australia (Lazarides and Hince 1993), Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients (Leung and Foster 1996), and Hortus Third, RHS Dictionary of Gardening, and the volumes of the PROSEA project cited previously. A number of floras have also provided valuable economic data, especially Flora Malesiana series I. Spermatophyta (Steenis et al., 9 volumes, 1948-1996), Flora of Guatemala (Standley et al. 1958-1977), Flora of the U.S.S.R. (English translation, Komarov et al. 1963-1972; Shishkin and Bobrov 1969-1977; Shishkin and Bobrov 1990-1995), Flora of Iraq (Townsend and Guest, 6 volumes, 1966-1985), and the many volumes of the Flora Neotropica series. Many other resources provided useful data relating to specific classes of economic impact and these are mentioned in the discussion below.

Food. This includes plants consumed by humans as major constituents of food preparations, and clearly comprises the most important class economically. Important specialized sources for food data include Plants for Human Consumption (Kunkel 1984), CRC Handbook of Nuts (Duke 1989), some PROSEA volumes (Maesen and Somaatmadja 1989, Verheij and Coronel 1991, Siemonsma and Piluek 1993), the unpublished data for the new Food and Feed Crops of the United States (rev. ed., Markle et al., 1998), and Facciola (1990).

Food additives. Here plants are included that are also consumed, but as minor constituents of food preparations. Particularly useful references for food additives include Tucker (1986) and Tucker and Lawrence (1987) in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (Craker and Simon 1986, 1987), Huxley et al. (1992), and Leung and Foster (1996).

Animal food. We recognize only two subclasses: 1) fodder for plant material harvested and fed to domestic animals, and 2) forage for plant material upon which domestic animals feed themselves. Especially valuable sources for these data include Grass Varieties in the United States (Alderson and Sharp 1995), and the previously cited 't Mannetje and Jones (1992), Lazarides and Hince (1993), and Markle et al. (1998).

Bee plants. No subclasses are used for this use class. While numerous species throughout the world are of some importance as honey plants, an exhaustive treatment of these has not been attempted. Many of the most important ones have been identified for this publication. A useful reference consulted for these data was Ortega Sada (1987).

Invertebrate food. Only a small number of plants serving as hosts for beneficial invertebrates, such as silkworms, have been identified. Doubtless we have missed others of some importance.

Materials. This class includes a number of important economic plants, such as those which furnish fiber, timber, gums, resins, and industrial or essential oils. Among the numerous references providing data, the most important were Important Forest Trees of the United States (Little 1978), Encyclopedia of World Timbers (Boutelje 1980), Uphof (1968), Tucker (1986), Tucker and Lawrence (1987), Mabberley (1987, 1997), Dransfield and Manokaran (1993), Soerianegara and Lemmens (1993), Dransfield and Widjaja (1995), and Leung and Foster (1996).

Fuels. Included here with more traditional sources of fuel are rapidly growing plants with potential to provide biomass for electricity generation. The most important references utilized were Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production (National Academy of Sciences 1980) and Energy Plant Species (El Bassam 1998).

Social uses. This minor use class includes few plants of widespread economic importance, although tobacco and those which provide illicit drugs such as opium or cocaine are of considerable economic impact.

Vertebrate poisons. The economic impact of the poisonous plants classified here is largely negative. Although fish poisons provide a very important benefit in primitive cultures, they are seldom traded commercially and have been treated only superficially. Nearly all plants recorded here are toxic to humans and livestock, collectively classed as "mammals" in level 2. Only a few plants toxic to birds, chiefly poultry, have been distinguished, although most plants poisonous to mammals doubtless apply here also. Our list of poisonous plants is certainly not exhaustive, as many plants other than those treated here would certainly be toxic to humans or domestic animals if they were consumed, but this effect has not been properly documented. Our coverage is restricted to those species whose toxic effects have been established in the plant toxicology literature. We have been aided in this effort by D. J. Wagstaff, former plant toxicologist of U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Data are largely derived from Poisonous Plants of the United States (Kingsbury 1964), Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man (Cooper and Johnson 1984), AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants (Lampe and McCann 1985), Plant Poisonings and Mycotoxicoses of Livestock in Southern Africa (Kellerman et al. 1987), Poisonous Plants: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium (Jones et al. 1992), and Lazarides and Hince (1993).

Non-vertebrate poisons. The plants classified here provide materials that serve as organic pesticides.

Medicines. Here we include plants that serve as sources of specific pharmaceutical agents and those that are widely used, mostly in the crude sense, as "folklore" remedies. Only a portion of the former group are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as drugs in the United States. The list of pharmaceutical chemicals is largely derived from Global Importance of Medicinal Plants (Farnsworth and Soejarto, draft manuscript, 1988). Important sources of folklore medicines, i.e., herbal drugs, include Herbs of Commerce (Foster 1992), Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals (Bisset 1994), and Leung and Foster (1996). As already mentioned, the numerous plants used locally as medicines have been excluded, as have those plants being tested for potential medicinal benefit. It is difficult to determine the current commercial importance of many medicinal plants, so some important ones may have been missed and others included unnecessarily.

Environmental uses. Many valuable economic plants are classified here, including those used for erosion control, soil improvement (i.e., green manures or cover crops), and agroforestry, but most included here are ornamentals. The ornamentals were probably the most difficult to evaluate as to whether or not to include particular species. We have tried to glean from the sources utilized only the most commercially important because an exhaustive treatment of this group is beyond our scope and is available elsewhere. Hybridization has played a major role in the development of many improved cultivars of ornamentals, and some are of complex hybrid origin. Only those which can adequately be represented by binomial or trinomial botanical nomenclature are included. Many are best treated with cultivar or cultivar-group names, which have not been treated or accepted in this account. Among the numerous references providing data on environmental uses, the most important were The European Garden Flora (Walters et al. 1984, 1986, 1989; Cullen et al. 1995, 1997), Manual of Cultivated Broad-leaved Trees and Shrubs (Krüssmann 1984, 1985, 1986), and some mentioned elsewhere: Bailey Hortorium Staff (1976), Huxley et al. (1992), Encke et al. (1993), and Alderson and Sharp (1994).

Gene sources. In addition to known or potential sources of beneficial genes for specific improvements in crop plants, numerous species can be successfully crossed with crop species to provide fertile progeny and thus must be considered important as genetic resource plants. These primary gene pool members have been included for most crops with the designations "related to" or "progenitor of" preceding the crop name at subclass level. Similarly, those plants that have been hybridized extensively to produce important ornamentals are labelled "for ornamental cultivars" at this level. A few species important as models for research in plant biology are included in this category.

Weeds. This class is, like vertebrate poisons, one of negative economic impact. Included here are both weeds of croplands and natural habitats. Those weeds which are listed in the rules of seed-testing organizations like the Association of Official Seed Analysts and the International Seed Testing Association have been labelled "possible seed contaminant." It is difficult to judge the negative costs of some weeds, but we have attemped to include all the most troublesome ones. In this endeavor, we have been guided by several sources, namely CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables (Häfliger and Brun-Hool 1968-1975), The World's Worst Weeds (Holm et al. 1977), A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds (Holm et al. 1979), Grass Weeds (Häfliger and Scholz 1980, 1981), Monocot Weeds (Häfliger et al. 1982), Dicot Weeds (Häfliger et al. 1988), Noxious Weeds of Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson 1992), and World Weeds (Holm et al. 1997) as well as unpublished documents on U.S. federal and state noxious weeds.

Harmful organism host. This class includes plants that serve as alternate hosts for crop pests and plants that serve as test organisms for detecting viral diseases in crops. Useful references include Virus Diseases of Small Fruits (Converse 1987) and the Disease Compendium Series of the American Phytopathological Society.

CITES Appendices I and II. Here we record those plants subject to regulations of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Further details on these regulations are currently available from <www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES>. For genera having all species covered under Appendix I, we have attempted to include every recognized species, although they are not itemized in the Appendix itself. An additional entry of the form "Paphiopedilum spp." has been added to indicate any other species of genera such as Paphiopedilum not already included. Similarly, entries such as "DIDIEREACEAE spp." imply that all members of this family are covered, in this case under Appendix II, although they have not been enumerated. Species of Appendix II all-inclusive genera have only been itemized for smaller genera. Useful references were CITES Cactaceae Checklist (Hunt 1992) and CITES Orchid Checklist (Roberts et al. 1995).

Geographical Distribution

Geographical data are preceded by the heading "Dist." Distributions have been summarized following the TDWG standard World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (Hollis and Brummitt 1992). We have used only area and region from this standard to report distributions. The terrestrial world is divided into nine areas: Africa, Antarctic, Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Pacific, and Southern America. These are further subdivided into a number of regions, as indicated in Table 2 and Figure 2. The areas Northern America and Southern America are not precisely congruent with the continents of North and South America. Northern America includes Canada, U.S.A., and most of Mexico, while Southern America includes Mesoamerica, the West Indies, and South America. The less-familiar regions Malesia and Macaronesia from Hollis and Brummitt (1991) refer to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago and to archipelagos of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Country and state distributions may be obtained from GRIN, but could not be included due to space limitations.

Because GRIN country and state records are linked to region and area data, we have developed the following protocol in our distribution reports. Data are reported in the alphabetical order indicated in Table 2. When three or fewer regions of a particular area were represented among records for a plant, the regions are reported in lieu of the area. When more than three regions are represented, only the area is provided. Report of an area thus implies occurrence in at least four of the subordinate regions. Successive area statements are separated by semicolons, the subordinate regions by commas. Since some GRIN data for countries that span more than one region, such as Canada, Mexico, and United States, are not treated at the state level and thus are unlinked to region data, the countries themselves may be reported in lieu of the included regions. For purposes of the above protocol, these countries are treated as a single region.

Only native or potentially native distributions have been recorded according to this scheme, with cultivated or naturalized distributions provided in a separate comment. For weedy species this distinction is sometimes obscure, and for some widespread species the entire distribution has been summarized in a single comment. Abbreviations used in distribution statements are explained in the "Symbols and Abbreviations" section. Directional abbreviations in distribution comments are in lower case, in contrast to their usage in abbreviations of Table 2. Our distribution data largely reflect what is present in the literature, as these data were not made available to most reviewers. Nevertheless, considerable effort has gone toward making these data as complete and accurate as possible. Because the data are summarized, a distributional report for a plant in a particular region does not imply widespread occurrence in that region but only indicates some distribution within that region. Absence of a report from a particular region or area implies that the plant is not native there, although in occasional cases it may be due to lack of botanical knowledge of an area. These knowledge gaps vary for different regions and plant families, but are generally greater for tropical regions and families.


SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS*

*See Table 1 for abbreviations of economic plant data classes and subclasses and Table 2 for abbreviations of geographical areas and regions.

× denotes a cross between two species (e.g., Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum halepense), a binomial for a hybrid (e.g., S. ×almum), or an intergeneric hybrid (e.g., ×Triticosecale).

= follows synonyms and precedes their accepted names; also precedes hybrid formula of hybrids.

[ ] encloses comments, which consist primarily of hybrid formulas or cultivar group names.

Afrik. Afrikaans.

Amer. American.

anon. anonymous.

Arab. Arabic.

auct. auctorum (Latin): of authors.

auct. mult. auctorum multorum (Latin): of many authors.

auct. nonn. auctorum nonnullorum (Latin): of some authors.

auct. pl. auctorum plurimorum (Latin): of most authors.

Chin. Chinese.

contam. contaminant.

Cn: precedes common name(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.

cult. cultivated, cultivation.

Dist: precedes distribution in Catalog of Economic Plants.

e. east, e.-c. east-central.

Econ: precedes economic impact(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.

Eur. European.

f. forma, one of the lowest taxonomic ranks; or, when following an author, filius (Latin): son (e.g., L. f.: son of Linnaeus).

Fr. French.

Ger. German.

Hawai. Hawaiian.

Hind. Hindi.

hort. hortulanorum (Latin): of gardeners.

Ind. India.

Indon. Indonesian.

introd. introduced.

Ital. Italian.

Jap. Japanese.

Kor. Korean.

Mal. Malaysian.

n. north, n.-c. north-central, n.e. northeast, n.w. northwest.

natzd. naturalized.

nom. ambig. nomen ambiguum (Latin): ambiguous name used in different senses which has become a long-persistent source of error.

nom. cons. nomen conservandum (Latin): name conserved in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).

nom. dub. nomen dubium (Latin): dubious name, i.e., application of name uncertain.

nom. illeg. nomen illegitimum (Latin): illegitimate name according to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).

nom. inval. nomen invalidum (Latin): invalid name according to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).

nom. nud. nomen nudum (Latin): name published without description or reference to a published description.

nom. rej. nomen rejiciendum (Latin): name rejected in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 1994).

notho- (subsp. or var.) prefix to the rank of a hybrid taxon below the rank of species.

orth. var. orthographic variant, i.e., an incorrect alternate spelling of a name.

poss. possible.

Port. Portuguese.

pro hyb. (Latin): as a hybrid.

pro parte (Latin): in part.

pro parte majore (Latin): for the greater part.

pro parte minore (Latin): for a small part.

pro sp. (Latin): as a species.

pro subsp. (Latin): as a subspecies.

pro syn. (Latin): as a synonym.

Quich. Quichua.

Russ. Russian.

s. south, s.-c. south-central, s.e. southeast, s.w. southwest.

sensu (Latin): in the sense of.

Sp. Spanish.

spp. species (plural); used here to indicate that all species of a genus or family have the indicated economic impact.

subsp. subspecies, a lower taxonomic rank than species.

Syn: precedes synonym(s) in Catalog of Economic Plants.

var. variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies and above forma.

w. west, w.-c. west-central.


REFERENCES CITED

Alderson, J. and W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States. CRC-Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton. 296 pp.

Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 1290 pp.

Bisset, N. G., ed. 1994. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: a handbook for practice on a scientific basis. Medpharm Scientific Publishers and CRC Press, Stuttgart and Boca Raton. 566 pp.

Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers: names and technical literature. Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, Stockholm. 338 pp.

Brummitt, R. K. and C. E. Powell. 1992. Authors of plant names: a list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 732 pp.

Burkill, H. M. 1985. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1: families A–D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 960 pp.

Burkill, H. M. 1994. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2: families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 636 pp.

Burkill, H. M. 1997. Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3: families J–L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 857 pp.

Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1972. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 9: Rh–So. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.

Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1976a. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 10: Sp–W. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.

Chadha, Y. R., ed. 1976b. The wealth of India, raw materials. Volume 11: X–Z. C.S.I.R., New Delhi.

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LIST OF REVIEWERS

Focko Albers
Westf. Wilhelms-Universität
Münster
GERMANY
Asclepiadaceae

Frank Almeda
California Academy of Sciences
San Francisco, California
U.S.A.
Melastomataceae

William R. Anderson
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
U.S.A.
Malpighiaceae

Clare Archer
Botanical Research Institute
Pretoria, Transvaal Province
SOUTH AFRICA
Cyperaceae

George W. Argus
Merrickville, Ontario
CANADA
Salicaceae (Salix)

Peter S. Ashton
Cambridge, Massachusetts
U.S.A.
Dipterocarpaceae

Daniel F. Austin
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida
U.S.A.
Convolvulaceae

Peter W. Ball
University of Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario
CANADA
Chenopodiaceae

Henrik Balslev
Institute of Systematic Botany
Nordlandsvej 68
Risskov, DK 8240
DENMARK
Arecaceae, Juncaceae

Rupert C. Barneby
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Fabaceae, Menispermaceae

Kerry A. Barringer
Brooklyn Botanical Garden
Brooklyn, New York
U.S.A.
Aristolochiaceae, Scrophulariaceae

C. C. Berg
University of Bergen
Bergen
NORWAY
Cecropiaceae, Moraceae

Vickie Binstock
USDA-ARS
Beltsville, Maryland
U.S.A.
Acanthaceae

A. Linn Bogle
University of New Hampshire
Durham, New Hampshire
U.S.A.
Hamamelidaceae, Leitneriaceae

Allan J. Bornstein
Southeast Missouri State University
Cape Girardeau, Missouri
U.S.A.
Piperaceae

Roland von Bothmer
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Svalöv
SWEDEN
Poaceae (Hordeum)

P. V. Bruyns
University of Cape Town
Rondebosch, Cape Province
SOUTH AFRICA
Asclepiadaceae

Ricardo Callejas
Universidad de Antioquia
Medellín, Antioquia
COLOMBIA
Piperaceae

David F. Chamberlain
Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh, Scotland
UNITED KINGDOM
Ericaceae

Ross C. Clark
Eastern Kentucky University
Richmond, Kentucky
U.S.A.
Aquifoliaceae

W. D. Clayton
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Poaceae

M. J. E. Coode
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Elaeocarpaceae

Richard S. Cowan
East Cannington, Western Australia
AUSTRALIA
Fabaceae (Australia)

Phillip J. Cribb
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Orchidaceae

Carmen L. Cristóbal
Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste
Corrientes
ARGENTINA
Sterculiaceae

Thomas B. Croat
Missouri Botanical Garden
St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A.
Araceae

Deena Decker-Walters
The Montgomery Foundation, Inc.
Miami, Florida
U.S.A.
Cucurbitaceae

Michael O. Dillon
Field Museum
Chicago, Illinois
U.S.A.
Asteraceae

M. Dittrich
Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève
Chambésy/Genève
SWITZERLAND
Asteraceae

V. I. Dorofeev
Russian Academy of Sciences
St.-Petersburg
RUSSIA
Brassicaceae

John Dransfield
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Arecaceae

Stefan Dressler
Rijksherbarium
Leiden
NETHERLANDS
Euphorbiaceae

Urs Eggli
Städtische Sukkulentensammlung
Zürich
SWITZERLAND
Aizoaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Cactaceae, Crassulaceae

Uno Eliasson
Göteborg University
Göteborg
SWEDEN
Amaranthaceae

Roger P. Ellis
Agricultural Research Council
Lynn East
SOUTH AFRICA
Poaceae

Matthias Erben
Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München
München
GERMANY
Plumbaginaceae

Cecilia Ezcurra
Universidad Nacional del Comahue
San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro
ARGENTINA
Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae

Robert B. Faden
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, District of Columbia
U.S.A.
Commelinaceae

Aljos Farjon
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Pinaceae

J. Fontella Pereira
Jardim Botânico do Rio deJaneiro
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
BRAZIL
Asclepiadaceae

Donna I. Ford
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia
U.S.A.
Portulacaceae

Donald B. Foreman
Royal Botanic Gardens
South Yarra, Victoria
AUSTRALIA

L. L. Forman
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Menispermaceae

Paul A. Fryxell
University of Texas
Austin, Texas
U.S.A.
Malvaceae

Paul Goetghebeur
University of Gent
Gent
BELGIUM
Cyperaceae

Peter Goldblatt
Missouri Botanical Garden
St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A.
Iridaceae

Shirley A. Graham
Kent State University
Kent, Ohio
U.S.A.
Lythraceae

Peter S. Green
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Oleaceae

Encarnación R. Guaglianone
Instituto de Botánica Darwinion
San Isidro, Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Cyperaceae

Peter Hanelt
Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung
Gatersleben
GERMANY
Brassicaceae, Fabaceae

Thomas G. Hartley
CSIRO
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
AUSTRALIA
Rutaceae

Heidrun E. K. Hartmann
Institut für Allgemeine Botanik
Hamburg
GERMANY
Aizoaceae, Pedaliaceae

Alistair Hay
Royal Botanic Gardens
Sydney, New South Wales
AUSTRALIA
Acoraceae, Araceae

Robert R. Haynes
University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, Alabama
U.S.A.
Alismataceae, Limnocharitaceae, Potamogetonaceae

Ian C. Hedge
Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh, Scotland
UNITED KINGDOM
Brassicaceae

Andrew Henderson
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Arecaceae

William J. Hess
Morton Arboretum
Lisle, Illinois
U.S.A.
Cornaceae, Rosaceae, Tiliaceae

Steven R. Hill
Illinois Natural History Survey
Champaign, Illinois
U.S.A.
Malvaceae, ornamentals, weeds

Olive M. Hilliard
Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh, Scotland
UNITED KINGDOM
Asteraceae

D. J. N. Hind
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Caryophyllaceae

De-yuan Hong
Academia Sinica
Beijing
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Campanulaceae

Ding Hou
Rijksherbarium
Leiden
THE NETHERLANDS
Anacardiaceae

Chi-ming Hu
Academia Sinica
Guangzhou, Guangdong
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Berberidaceae

David R. Hunt
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Cactaceae

Hans-Dieter Ihlenfeldt
Institut für Allgemeine Botanik
Hamburg
GERMANY
Aizoaceae, Pedaliaceae

Hugh H. Iltis
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
U.S.A.
Capparaceae

Betsy Rivers Jackes
James Cook University of North Queensland
Townsville, Queensland
AUSTRALIA
Vitaceae

Kevin B. Jensen
Utah State University
Logan, Utah
U.S.A.
Poaceae (Triticeae)

C. C. H. Jongkind
Wenchi Farm Institute
Wenchi, Brong Ahafo
GHANA
Combretaceae

Walter S. Judd
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
U.S.A.
Ericaceae

Joachim W. Kadereit
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Mainz
GERMANY
Papaveraceae

Jacquelyn A. Kallunki
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Rutaceae

Lúcia Kawasaki
Instituto de Botânica de Säo Paulo
Säo Paulo, Säo Paulo
BRAZIL
Myrtaceae

Carl S. Keener
Penn State University
University Park, Pennsylvania
U.S.A.
Ranunculaceae

Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr.
USDA-ARS
Beltsville, Maryland
U.S.A.
Rubiaceae

Tetsuo Koyama
Nihon University
Fujisawa City, Kanagawa Prefecture
JAPAN
Cyperaceae

Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
University of Florida
Fort Pierce, Florida
U.S.A.
Fabaceae (forages)

Robert R. Krueger
USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates
Riverside, California
U.S.A.
Arecaceae (Phoenix), Rutaceae (Aurantioideae)

Job Kuijt
University of Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia
CANADA
Viscaceae

Ilkka Kukkonen
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
FINLAND
Cyperaceae

Thomas G. Lammers
Field Museum
Chicago, Illinois
U.S.A.
Campanulaceae

Elias Landolt
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
Zürich
SWITZERLAND
Lemnaceae

Leslie R. Landrum
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona
U.S.A.
Myrtaceae

Abdul Latiff Mohamad
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Bangi, Selangor
MALAYSIA
Vitaceae

Anthonius J. M. Leeuwenberg
Agricultural University
Wageningen
THE NETHERLANDS
Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae

Geoffrey A. Levin
Illinois Natural History Survey
Champaign, Illinois
U.S.A.
Euphorbiaceae

Magnus Lidén
Botanical Museum
Göteborg
SWEDEN
Papaveraceae

J. M. Lock
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Fabaceae

Carlyle A. Luer
Missouri Botanical Garden
St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A.
Orchidaceae

James L. Luteyn
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Ericaceae

Kåre Lye
Agricultural University of Norway
Aas
NORWAY
Cyperaceae

Paul J. M. Maas
State University of Utrecht
Utrecht
THE NETHERLANDS
Annonaceae

John M. MacDougal
Missouri Botanical Garden
St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A.
Passifloraceae

L. J. G. van der Maesen
Agricultural University
Wageningen
THE NETHERLANDS
Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Brian F. Mathew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Iridaceae, Liliaceae (sensu lato)

Alan W. Meerow
University of Florida
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
U.S.A.
Amaryllidaceae

James S. Miller
Missouri Botanical Garden
St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A.
Boraginaceae

Regis B. Miller
USDA-FS Center for Wood Anatomy Research
Madison, Wisconsin
U.S.A.
timber

John D. Mitchell
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Anacardiaceae

B. P. J. Molloy
Landcave Research
Lincoln
NEW ZEALAND
Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae

Michael O. Moore
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia
U.S.A.
Vitaceae

Scott A. Mori
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Lecythidaceae

Prasanta Kumar Mukherjee
University of Calcutta
Calcutta, West Bengal
INDIA
Apiaceae

Michael Nee
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York
U.S.A.
Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae

Dan H. Nicolson
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, District of Columbia
U.S.A.
Araceae

Henrik Borgtoft Pedersen
Reco Consult
Horning
DENMARK
Arecaceae

Troels Myndel Pedersen
Estancia Santa Teresa
Mburucuyá, Corrientes
ARGENTINA
Amaranthaceae

Terence D. Pennington
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Meliaceae, Sapotaceae, Fabaceae (Inga)

M. G. Pimenov
Moscow State University
Moscow
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Apiaceae

John J. Pipoly, III
Botanical Research Institute of Texas
Fort Worth, Texas
U.S.A.
Myrsinaceae

James S. Pringle
Royal Botanic Gardens
Hamilton, Ontario
CANADA
Gentianaceae

John F. Pruski
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, District of Columbia
U.S.A.
Asteraceae

Christopher J. Quinn
University of New South Wales
Kensington, New South Wales
AUSTRALIA
Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae

Richard K. Rabeler
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
U.S.A.
Caryophyllaceae

Alan Radcliffe-Smith
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Euphorbiaceae

Harald Riedl
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Wien
AUSTRIA
Boraginaceae

Jens G. Rohwer
Institut für Systematische Botanik
Heidelberg
GERMANY
Lauraceae

Yuri R. Roskov
Russian Academy of Sciences
St.-Petersburg
RUSSIA
Fabaceae (Asia)

John P. Rourke
National Botanic Gardens of South Africa
Claremont, Cape Province
SOUTH AFRICA
Proteaceae

Claude Sastre
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle
Paris
FRANCE
Ochnaceae

Carsten Schirarend
Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten Hamburg
Hamburg
GERMANY
Rhamnaceae

Gerald J. Seiler
USDA-ARS
Fargo, North Dakota
U.S.A.
Asteraceae (Helianthus)

B. K. Simon
Department of Environment
Indooroopilly, Queensland
AUSTRALIA
Poaceae

Ernest Small
Agriculture Canada
Ottawa, Ontario
CANADA
Fabaceae (Trifolieae)

Rosemary M. Smith
Edinburgh, Scotland
UNITED KINGDOM
Zingiberaceae

George W. Staples
Bishop Museum
Honolulu, Hawaii
U.S.A.
Convolvulaceae

Chris M. A. Stapleton
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Poaceae (Bambuseae)

David E. Symon
Botanic Garden
Adelaide, South Australia
AUSTRALIA
Solanaceae

Nigel P. Taylor
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Richmond, Surrey, England
UNITED KINGDOM
Cactaceae

Norman L. Taylor
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky
U.S.A.
Fabaceae (Trifolium)

Sue A. Thompson
Carnegie Museum of Natural History
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
U.S.A.
Araceae

Gordon C. Tucker
Eastern Illinois University
Charleston, Illinois
U.S.A.
Cyperaceae

Billie L. Turner
University of Texas
Austin, Texas
U.S.A.
Asteraceae

Oswaldo Téllez Valdez
Universidad Autónoma de México
Mexico City, Distrito Federal
MEXICO
Dioscoreaceae

Peter van Welzen
Rijksherbarium
Leiden
THE NETHERLANDS
Sapindaceae

Jan F. Veldkamp
Rijksherbarium
Leiden
THE NETHERLANDS
Poaceae

Hendrik J. T. Venter
University of the Orange Free State
Bloemfontein, Orange Free State
SOUTH AFRICA
Geraniaceae

Régine Verlaque
Université de Provence Case
Marseille
FRANCE
Dipsacaceae

Piet Vorster
University of Stellenbosch
Matieland, Cape Province
SOUTH AFRICA
Geraniaceae

Terrence W. Walters
Montgomery Foundation
Miami, Florida
U.S.A.
Cucurbitaceae, Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae

Wen-tsai Wang
Academia Sinica
Beijing
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Ranunculaceae

Dieter C. Wasshausen
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, District of Columbia
U.S.A.
Acanthaceae

Mark F. Watson
Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh, Scotland
UNITED KINGDOM
Apiaceae

Susan J. Wiegrefe
University of Minnesota
St. Paul, Minnesota
U.S.A.
Aceraceae, Ulmaceae

Dieter H. Wilken
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden
Santa Barbara, California
U.S.A.
Polemoniaceae

Peter G. Wilson
Royal Botanic Gardens
Sydney, New South Wales
AUSTRALIA
Myrtaceae

Karen L. Wilson
Royal Botanic Gardens
Sydney, New South Wales
AUSTRALIA
Cyperaceae, Casuarinaceae, Polygonaceae

Paul G. Wilson
Department of Conservation and Land Management
Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia
AUSTRALIA
Chenopodiaceae, Rutaceae

Takasi Yamazaki
University of Tokyo
Tokyo
JAPAN
Scrophulariaceae