The Biblical World, bridging Africa via Egypt thru Israel and Palestine to Europe and the
Middle East, is at the crossroads of the African and the European Continent. While few of these
species are native to Tropical Africa, many if not most, still flourish today in Egypt and Israel,
on both sides of the Suez Canal. I have had the pleasure of seeing both sides of the Suez Canal
and Mount Sinai, on the day when it reverted from Israel to Egypt. Herewith I present some old,
some, new, some borrowed, some blue observations, on Biblical Botany, especially medicinals,
since so much has happened since the 1983 publication of my Medicinal Plants of the Bible,
now out of print. I now seek new medicinal information on these old Biblical species. Why?
Because more Americans are going to Alternative Practitioners, including religious and herbal
advocates, than to Convention Physicians. And many of these Biblical species have proven
biological activities which could prove synergistic with the New Age patient's faith in religion,
and with the proven placebo effect.
Some even say that the pyramids owe their existence to the fortitude of the laborers, fortified
with garlic and onion, that Cicero's passion may have been in part due to the l-dopa in the faba
bean, that Leah was turned on by the atropine and scopolamine in the roots of the mandrake,
and, incredibly, that the apple of the Bible may have in fact been the pomegranate, now
reportedly the best plant source of the estrogen called estrone. There's even the suggestion that
Solomon treated boils with fig juice. The proteolytic latex of figs is widely used in the third
world, even today, as an antiseptic.
And now for some ABC's! We here in the New World are often jarred to find that in the Biblical
Old World, they mean something differently than we do when they say apple, bean, and corn.
The Biblical Apple may have been what we today call apple, or it may have been apricot or
pomegranate (depending on which scholar you believe), the Bean is what we call the faba bean,
and Corn is what we call wheat.
Perhaps the healthiest recommendation in the Bible is to "eat with bitter herbs", anticipating a
couple millenia the NIH appeal to eat your leafy veggies. The bitter herbs of the Bible have
variously been interpreted to include chicory, dandelion, endive, lettuce, sheep sorrel, and
watercress. Zohary (1982) adds dwarf chicory and poppy-leaved Reichardia, and by close
juxtaposition, rocket. I find it more bitter than the endive, lettuce, and watercross.
It's clear that believing is part of the healing process. NBC News presented Dr. Herbert Benson,
author of Timless Healing, who said that 95% of Americans believed in God, and that 99% of
family physicians believed that faith can help heal. Dr. Benson spoke of healing as a three-legged stool, (1) Self (including beliefs, exercise, relaxation, and nutrition, wherein we'll fit our
Biblical foods and spices) (2) Drugs (wherein we'll fit drugs like l-dopa from faba bean,
morphine from the opium poppy, and many medicinal herbs) and (3) Surgery.
Israeli Botanical Scholar, Michael Zohary (1982), states rather expressly: "Although healing by
plants is not explicitly mentioned in the Bible, herbal remedies were numerous and specific...
The ultimate healer was God, and prayer was therefore the remedy most often prescribed."
Because mentioning medicinal uses of plant would defy "the belief in God's exclusive healing
power, they were not mentioned in the scripture". If we can add the real medicinal potential of
the biologically active compounds in many of these medicinal plants, to the placebo effect, and
to the real belief in God and the Bible, it augurs well for these Medicinal Plants of the Bible.
I've sprinkled the following tabulation of the medicinal plants of the bible with what I assess as purely folk medicinal indications (lower case), healing indications (in CAPITAL LETTERS indicating that the plant clearly contains phytochemicals that could help and even more posotove indications (in CAPSs and BOLD FONT, indicating that the plant has been proven useful for the indications). I believe that my enumerating these indications (and I have enumerated less than half of the folk indications), I can strengthen the faith systems of some readers, and thereby help them heal themselves. In no way, however, am I recommending self diagnosis and/or self medication. I am enumerating those plants that one or another scholarly authority has considered to be a Biblical Plant, and tabulating a few of the real and folk indications for those herbs. Only your health practitioner can advise you as to whether or not you should use these herbs in your healing. I do.
Except for those species preceded by an asterisk *, all of these entries were included in the out-of-print Medicinal Plants of the Bible (Duke and Duke, 1983), illustrated in part by my wife
Peggy. Zohary (1982), for example, added 35 species to my published account of 142 species,
including some important medicinal species like Aloe vera, Calotropis procera, Commiphora
abyssinica, Curcuma longa, Cymbopogon martinii, Hyoscyamus muticus, Lagenaria siceraria,
and Liquidambar orientalis. I have indicated such new inclusions from Zohary with the
Zohary's book embarassed me with a student I had been ill-advising that the apple in the Bible
was either apricot or pomegranate. For her, with apologies for my relying, too staunchly, on my
earlier sources, I quote: "The cultivated flora consisted of plants domesticated in loco or in
nearby countries, like wheat, barley, lentil, pea, (I did not have pea in my earlier book either),
fig, olive, carob, date palm, sycamore, and plants introduced from fairly remote countries, like
the pomegranate, walnut, vine, apple, mulberry, and pistachio. Quite a number of plants have
never grown in the Land, but were imported as drugs or spices - like nard, myrrh, galbanum,
cinnamon, saunders and the like... The Bible mentions lentils, broad beans, and chick-peas (I
missed that one), but bitter vetch and garden peas as well as fenugreek were probably grown
too." (Zohary, 1982)
Israeli authors like Zohary, more familiar with the Isareli Flora and the Bible than am I, should
be better equipped to speculate as to which herbs were really meant in some elusive passages.
I'm both pleased and displeased to note that Zohary, too, leaves a few problems unresolved,
including one involving two major medicinal plants, saffron and turmeric, and one minor
medicinal, safflower, all sources of yellow dyes. All three can be grown in warmer reagions of
Israel, but the turmeric would be difficult. Saffron and safflower would both be easy. Here are
points which Zohary makes! "Saffron (in Hebrew, karkom) is mentioned only once in the Bible"
Some commentators identify it with turmeric which "was never grown" in this country, others
with saffron, which was probably grown only in post-biblical times. There is linguistic support
for both possibilities. "There is no doubt that the sown karkom fields mentioned in the Mishnah
(of the Talmud) refer to Crocus sativus". More data he presents point "to the identification of
biblical karkom as turmeric and not as crocus. . . But doubt arises when one considers another
widely cultivated annual yielding numerous heads of orange flowers."(safflower, Carthamus
tinctorius). Where does this leave me? Should I include just one or all three of the candidates for
the one mention of saffron in the Bible? From the medicinal point of view, turmeric seems even
more important than saffron, which appears even more important than safflower. Ditto from the
likelihood point of view, based on the views of Zohary.
Zohary's account of the Thorns & Thistles reiterates the problems with identifying modern
botanical speciest in historical scriptures written by non-botanists. "More than seventy species of
spiny plants grow among the flora of Israel and more than twenty are mentioned in the Scripture.
No other group of plant names in the Bible is so frequently misidentified and arbitrarily
translated. . . No thorn name in any version of the Bible is reliably translated."
*ABIES CILICICA (Ant. & Ky.) Carr. "Cilician Fir" "Berosh (Biblical)" "They made all your
planks of fir trees from Senir." Ezekiel 27:3-5.
ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Dcl. "Babul" "Egyptian Mimosa" "Thorn" " Bush" (LEGUME
FAMILY) "... The Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush..."
Exodus 3. Cough; DIABETES; Fever, Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids; Sclerosis; Smallpox.
*ACACIA RADDIANA Savi "Common Acacia" "And you shall make upright frames for the
tabernacle of acacia wood." Exodus 26: 15.
ACACIA SEYAL Del. "White Whistling Wood" "Shittim Wood" (LEGUME FAMILY) "...I will
plant in the wilderness... the Shittah tree..." Isaiah 41. Bronchitis; Rheumatism.
ACACIA TORTILIS (Forsk.) Hayne "Umbrella Thorn" "Seyal" "Shittim Wood" (LEGUME
FAMILY) "...And I made an ark of Shittim wood.." Deuteronomy 10. Dermatitis; Worms
ACANTHUS SYRIACUS Boiss. "Nettles" (Biblical) (ACANTHUS FAMILY) "...Among the
bushes they brayed; under the nettles they were gathered together..." Job 30. Astringent;
AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO L. "Corn Cockle" "Cockle" (PINK FAMILY) "...If my land cry
against me...Let thistles grow instead of wheat and cockle instead of barley..." Job 31. Cancer;
*ALCEA ROSEA L. (Syn.;ALCEA SETOSA (Boiss.) Alef.) "Hollyhock" "Purslane (Biblical)"
"Can that which is tasteless be eaten without salt, or is there any taste in the slime of the
purslane?" Job 6:6-7 Cold; COUGH; Cramps; Edema; SORE THROAT; ULCERS.
ALHAGI CAMELORUM Fisch. "Camelthorn" "Manna" (Biblical) (LEGUME FAMILY) "...we
have sent you money to buy burnt-offerings, and sin offerings, and incense, and prepare ye
manna..." Baruch 1. Asthma; Anuria; Bronchitis; Impotence; Leprosy; Obesity; Piles;
ALLIUM CEPA L. "Onion" (LILY FAMILY) "...We remember the fish, which we did eat in
Egypt...the leeks, and the onions..." Numbers 11. ANGINA, CANCER, DIABETES,
*ALLIUM PORRUM L. "Leek" (LILY FAMILY) "...We remember the fish, which we did eat in
Egypt...the leeks, and the onions..." Numbers 11. ANGINA, CANCER, DIABETES,
ALLIUM SATIVUM L. "Garlic" (LILY FAMILY) "...We remember the fish... and the garlick..."
Numbers 11. ANGINA; CANCER, COLDS; DIABETES; FLU; HYPERTENSION,
ALOE PERRYI Baker "Socotrine Aloe" "Aloes" (ALOE FAMILY) "...and brought a mixture of
myrrh and aloes..." John 19. BURNS; CANCER; CONSTIPATION.
*ALOE VERA (L.) Burm. f. "Barbados Aloe" "Aloes" (ALOE FAMILY) "Nicodemus also,
who had at first come to him by night, came bring a mixture of myrrh and aloes about a
hundreds pound weight. They took the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the
spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.." John 19: 39-40. BURNS; CANCER;
*ANABASIS ARTICULATA (Forssk.) Moq. "Jointed Anabasis" "Shuni (Biblical)"
(LAMBSQUARTER FAMILY). "The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni..." Genesis 46: 16.
Edema; Headache; Scabies; Sores; Warts; Wounds.
ANASTATICA HIEROCHUNTICA L. "Jericho Rose", "Mary's Flower", "Palestinian
Tumbleweed", "Wheel" (Biblical) (MUSTARD FAMILY) "... O my God, make them like a
wheel; as the stubble before the wind. . ." Psalms 83. Cold; epilepsy; parturition.
ANEMONE CORONARIA L. "Windflower", "Anemone," "Lily of the Field", "Poppy
Anemone", "Garden Anemone" (Biblical) (BUTTERCUP FAMILY) "...Consider the lilies of
the field, how the grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: And yet I say unto you, that even
Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these..." Matthew 6. Leprosy; malaria;
ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L. "Dill", " Dill Seed", "Garden Dill", "Anise" (Biblical)
(CELERY FAMILY) "...Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of
mint and anise and cummin..." Matthew 23. Cancer, COLIC, DYSPEPSIA; ESTROGENIC.
*MATRICARIA AUREA (Loefl.) Sch. Bip (Syn.ANTHEMIS SP sensu Zohary). "Dog
Chamomile" (ASTER FAMILY) "All flesh is grass, and all its glory like the flower of the
grass.The grass withers, and the flower falls; but the word of the Lord abides forever." I Peter
1:24. Cold; Conjunctivitis; Cough; Debility; Diabetes; ENTERALGIA; Fever; Gingivosis;
Headache; Myalgia; Neuralgia; Neurosis; Toothache; Wounds.
AQUILLARIA AGALLOCHA Roxb. "Eaglewood" "Aloes" (Biblical Old Testament)
(EAGLEWOOD FAMILY) "...All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes..." Psalm 45. Asthma;
CANCER; Dermatitis; Fever; Gout; Hepatitis; Malaria; Rheumatism.
ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA Asso. "White Wormwood" "Wormwood" (Biblical) (ASTER
FAMILY) "...But her end is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged sword..."Proverbs 5.
Bronchitis; COLD; Cough; Fever; Toothache; WORMS.
ARUNDO DONAX L. "Giant Reed", "Spanish Cane", "Reed" (Biblical) (GRASS FAMILY)
"...A reed shaken with the wind..."Matthew 11. Cancer; Dropsy; Dyslactea; Hypertension.
*ASTRAGALUS BETHLEHEMITICUS Boiss. "BethlehemTragacanth" "Gum"(Biblical)
(LEGUME FAMILY) "A little balm and a little honey, gum, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and
almonds." Genesis 43: 11. BURNS; CANCER; COUGH; Diarrhea.
ASTRAGALUS GUMMIFER Labill "Tragacanth" "Gum" (Biblical) "Spice" (Biblical)
(LEGUME FAMILY) "A little balm and a little honey, gum, myrrh, piustachio nuts, and
almonds." Genesis 43: 11. "...I have gathered my myrrh with my spice..." Song of Solomon 5.
BURNS; CANCER; COUGH; Diarrhea.
ATRIPLEX HALIMUS L. "Sea Purslane", "Mallow" (Biblical) "Shrubby Orach"
(LAMB'SQUARTER FAMILY) "...Who cuts up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for
their meat..." Job 30. Dermatitis; Hyperacidity; Sores; Ulcers.
BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) Delil "Desert Date", "Jericho Balsam" "Balm" (Biblical)
(DESERT DATE FAMILY) "...Is there no balm in Gilead, is there no physician there?..."
Jeremiah 8. ANTISEPTIC; Burns; Cough; Herpes; Colic; Malaria; Rheumatism; Syphilis.
BOSWELLIA CARTERI Birdwell "Olibanum" "Frankincense" (Biblical) (COPAL FAMILY)
"...Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense, myrhh and
aloes, with all the chief spices..." Song of Solomon 4. Bilharzia: Dysentery; Fever; Gonorrhea;
*BOSWELLIA SACRA Flueckiger "Frankincense" (COPAL FAMILY) Take sweet spices,
stacte, and onycha, and galbanum, sweet spices with pourre frankincense. . . and make an
incense blended as by the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy." Exodus 30: 34-5.
BRASSICA NIGRA (L.) Koch "Black Mustard" (MUSTARD FAMILY) "...The kingdom of
heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field: Which
indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs..." Matthew
13. Arthritis; BRONCHITIS; CANCER; COLDS; Pluerisy; Pneumonia; Rheumatism.
BUXUS LONGIFOLIA Boiss. "Boxwood" "Box (Biblical) (BOXWOOD FAMILY)"...I will set
in the desert the fir tree, and the pine, and the box tree together... " Isaiah 41. Cancer; Leprosy,
Malaria; Rheumatism; Syphilis; Worms.
*CALOTROPIS PROCERA (Ait.) Ait.f. "Giant Milkweed" "Apple of Sodom" "Mudar"
"Osher"(Arabic) "...(I) in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that divine fire,
and the traces or shadows of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in
their fruits, which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with
your hands they dissolve into smoke and ashes." Josephus, Jewish Wars Book IV 8:4. Astma;
Cardiopathy; Cough; Dysentery; Elephantiasis; Scabies; Sunstroke; Ulcers.
CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. "Caper", "Caper-Bush", "Alcaparro", " Desire (Biblical)" (CAPER
FAMILY) "...fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper
shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home..." Ecclesiastes 12.
Arthritis; Cancer; Dysentery; Fractures; Malaria; Ophthalmia; Sciatica.
*=SENNA ALEXANDRINA Miller (Syn. CASSIA SENNA L).
CEDRUS LIBANI Barr "Cedar of Lebanon" (CEDAR FAMILY) "...let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebannon..." Judges 9. ...Behold...a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches...Ezekiel 31. Asthma; Bronchitis; Burns; Cancer; Dermatitis; Tuberculosis William Cullen Bryant beautifully praised the cedars, clearly predicting my sentiments:
"The groves were God's first temples,
Ere man learned
To hew the shaft..."
CENTAUREA CALCITRAPA L. "Star-Thistle" (ASTER FAMILY) "...Thorns also and thistles
shall it bring forth to thee..." Genesis 3. Cancer; Gravel; Headache; Jaundice' Malaria;
*CENTAUREA IBERICA Spreng.. "Spanish-Thistle" (ASTER FAMILY) "...Thorn and thistles
shall grow up on their altars." Hosea 10:8.
*CEPHALARIA SYRIACA (L.) Schrad. "Syrian Scabious" "Weeds" (TEASEL FAMILY) "The
kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field.; but while men
were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and went away." Matthew
CERATONIA SILIQUA L. "Carob", "Algarrobo"," Carob Bean", " Locust (Biblical)", " John's
Bread", "St. John's Bread" (LEGUME FAMILY) "...John had his raiment of camel`s hair, and a
leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey..." Matthew 3. Asthma;
CANCER; Cough; Hoarseness; HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
CERCIS SILIQUASTRUM L. "Judas Tree" "Redbud" (LEGUME FAMILY) "...And he cast
down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself..." Matthew
27. Catarrh; Headache.
*CHRYSANTHEMUM CORONARIUM L. "Crown Daisy" "Garland" (ASTER FAMILY) "Let
the lowly brother boast in his exaltation, and the rich in his humiliation, because like the flower
of the grass he will pass away. James I: 9-10. AIDS; DYSPEPSIA; Gonorrhea; Itch;
*CICER ARIETINUM L. "Chick Pea" "Provender (Biblical) "And the oxen and the ases that till
the ground will eat salted provender, which has been winnowed with shovel and fork." Isaiah 30:
24. CANCER: Constipation ; Dermatosis; Dyspepsia; Itch; Leprosy; Smallpox; Sunstroke.
CICHORIUM ENDIVIA L. "Endive" (ASTER FAMILY) "...eat it with unleavened bread and
bitter herbs..." Numbers 9. Dyspepsia; Fever; Gout, Headache; Jaundice; Splenosis; Tumor.
CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. "Chicory", "Succory", "Witloof Chicory" , "Radichetta",
"Asparagus Chicory" (ASTER FAMILY) "...And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with
fire, and unleavened breads; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it..." Exodus 12. AIDS; Asthma;
CANCER; DIABETES; Dysmenorrhea; Impotence; INSOMNIA; Splenitis; Tachycardia.
*CICHORIUM PUMILUM Jacq.. "Dwarf Chicory" "Bitter Herb" (Biblical) (ASTER FAMILY)
"...with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it." Exodus 12:8. AIDS; Cancer; Dropsy;
CINNAMOMUM CASSIA Blume "Saigon Cinnamon", "Cassia Bark", " Cassia (Biblical) "
(LAUREL FAMILY) "...the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, Take thou also unto thee principal
spices...of cassia five hundred shekels..." Exodus 30. DIABETES; Dysmenorrhea; DYSPEPSIA;
PAIN; FEVER; Rheumatism; Vaginitis.
CINNAMOMUM VERUM J.S. Presl. "Ceylon Cinnamon" (LAUREL FAMILY) "...And the
merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their...cinnamon, and
odours, and ointments..." Revelation 18. "...Take thou also unto thee principal spices...of sweet
cinnamon...Exodus 30. DIABETES; Dysmenorrhea; DYSPEPSIA; PAIN; FEVER;
CISTUS CRETICUS L. "European Rock Rose"," Ladanum" " Myrhh (Biblical) (ROCKROSE
FAMILY) "...A company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead with their camels, bearing spicery
and balm and myrrh..." Genesis 37. Asthma; Catarrh; Dysentery; Dysmenorrhea; Dyspnea.
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (L.) Schrad. "Colocynth", " Bitter Apple", " Wild Gourd
(Biblical)," " Gall (Biblical)" (GOURD FAMILY) "...Behold, I will feed them, even this people,
with wormwood, and give them water of gall to drink..." Jeremiah 9. CANCER;
CONSTIPATION; Fever; Neuralgia, Rheumatism; Sciatica; Splenomegaly; WORMS;
CITRULLUS LANATUS (Thunb.) Matusmara et Nakai "Watermelon", " Sandia", "Patilla"
(GOURD FAMILY) "...We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers,
and the melons..." Numbers 11. Cystitis; Dyspepsia; Gonorrhea; Fever; PROSTATITIS.
*CITRUS MEDICA L. "Citron" "Etz hadar=goodly trees"(Biblical) "Ethrog" (CITRUS
FAMILY) "And you shall take on the first day the fruit of goodly trees" Leviticus 23: 40.
Bronchosis; Dyspepsia; Enterosis; Lumbago; Seasickness.
*COMMIPHORA ABYSSINICA (Berg.) Engl. "Myrrh" (COPAL FAMILY) "Your robes are all
fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia." Psalms 45:8.
COMMIPHORA AFRICANA Engl. "African Myrrh" "Bdellium" (COPAL FAMILY) "...out of
the ground made the Lord God to grow evey tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food;
...there is bdellium..." Genesis 2. Cramps; Dyspepsia; Fever; Hepatitis; Ophthalmia.
COMMIPHORA MYRRHA (Nees) Engl. "Myrrh" (COPAL FAMILY) "...six months with oil of
myrrh, and six months with sweet odours, and with other things for the purifying of the
women..." Esther 2. Bronchorrhea; GINGIVITIS; Leucorrhea; SORE THROAT; STOMATITIS;
COMMIPHORA GILEADENSIS (L.) Engl. (Syn.: COMMIPHORA OPOBALSAMUM (L.)
Engl). "Balsam", "Balsam of Gilead", " Balm (Biblical)" (COPAL FAMILY) "...they traded in
thy market wheat of Minnith, and pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm... "Ezekiel 27. Cold;
Dyspepsia; Flu; Infections; Wounds.
CONIUM MACULATUM L. "Hemlock" "Poison Hemlock" (CELERY FAMILY)...judgment
springeth up as hemlock in the furrows of the field...Hosea 10 "...for you have turned judgment
into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock..." Amos 6. Asthma; Bronchitis;
Erysipelas; Insomnia; POISON.
CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. "Coriander" (CELERY FAMILY) "...And the manna was as
coriander seed..." Numbers 11. DYSPEPSIA; HALITOSIS; Impotence; Neuralgia; Rheumatism;
CROCUS SATIVUS L. "Saffron Crocus" "Saffron" (IRIS FAMILY) "...Thy plants are an
orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard...and saffron; calamus
and cinnamon..." Song of Solomon 4. CANCER; Chickenpox; Dysmenorrhea; Measles; Mumps;
CUCUMIS MELO L. "Muskmelon", "Cantaloup", "Honeydew", "Mango Melon" (GOURD
FAMILY) "...We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the
melons..." Numbers 11. Cancer; Dyspepsia; Eczema; Freckles; Menorrhagia.
CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. "Cucumber" (GOURD FAMILY) "...as a lodge in a garden of
cucumbers, as a besieged city..." Isaiah 1. Acne; Burns; Cold; Herpes; Sunburn.
CUMINUM CYMINUM L. "Cumin" (CELERY FAMILY) "...for ye pay tithe of mint and anise
and cummin..." Matthew 23. Asthma; Dermatitis; Dysentery; Impotence; Syncope; Tachycardia.
CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS L."Gopherwood" "Cypress" (CYPRESS FAMILY) "...He
heweth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress and the oak..." Isaiah 44. Bronchitis; Dyspepsia;
Hemorrhoids; Orchitis; Splenitis.
*CURCUMA LONGA longa L. "Turmeric" "Saffron" (Biblical) (GINGER FAMILY) "...Thy
plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard...and
saffron; calamus and cinnamon..." Song of Solomon 4. ARTHRITIS; BRONCHITIS;
DYSPEPSIA; LARYNGITIS; LYMPHOMA; RHEUMATISM; FUNCTIONAL CLAIMS:
Antiinflammatory;Carminative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Stomachic.
*CYMBOPOGON MARTINII Stapf. "Ginger Grass" "Palmarosa" "Aromatic Cane" (Biblical)
(GRASS FAMILY) "Take the finest spices: of liquid myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet-smelling cinnamon half as much, that is, two hundred and fifty, and of aromatiuc cane, two
hundred and fifty." Exodus 30:23.
CYNOMORIUM COCCINEUM L. "Juniper (Biblical)" (CYNOMORIUM FAMILY) "...who cut
up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat..." Job 30. Colic; Constipation;
Dysentery; Impotence; Nephrosis; Sterility.
CYPERUS PAPYRUS L. "Papyrus", "Bulrush", " Rush (Biblical)" (SEDGE FAMILY) "...Can
the rush grow up without mire? can the flag grow without water?..." Job 8. Cancer; Fistula;
DIOSPYROS EBENUM Koerng "Date-Plum" "Ebony (Biblical)" (PERSIMMON FAMILY) "...They brought thee for a present horns of ivory and ebony..."Ezekiel 27. Cancer; Itch; Leprosy;
DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON Roxb. "Ebony Persimmon" (PERSIMMON FAMILY) "...They
brought thee for a present horns of ivory and ebony..."Ezekiel 27. Dermatitis; Smallpox; Ulcers;
*ECHINOPS VISCOSUS DC. "Globe Thistle" "Brier" (ASTER FAMILY) "I will flail your
flesh with the thorns of the wilderness and with briers" Judges 8:7.
ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA L. "Oleaster", " Russian Olive". " Olive (Biblical)" (RUSSIAN
OLIVE FAMILY) "...Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine..." Nehemiah
8. Bronchitis; Burns; Catarrh; Constipation; Fever; Nauralgia; Wounds.
*ERUCA SATIVA L. "Garden Rocket" "Oroth (Biblical)" "Gargir (Arabic)" "One of them went
out into the field to gather oroth (herbs), and found a wild vine and gathered from it his lap full
of wild gourds, and came and cut them up into the pot of pottage, not knowing what they were.
And they poured out for the men to eat." II Kings 4: 39-40.
FERULA GALBANIFLUA Boiss and Buhse "Galbanum" (CELERY FAMILY) "...Moses, take
unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum..." Exodus 30. Allergy; Bronchitis;
Cancer' Caries; Colds; Dyspepsia; Inflammations.
*FERULA GUMMOSA Boiss. "Galbanum" (CELERY FAMILY) "I grew tall ... like cassia and camel's thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices, and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor, like galbanum, onycha and stacte, and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle." Ecclesiasticus 24: 14-5.
FICUS CARICA L. "Fig Tree" (MULBERRY FAMILY) "...And Isaiah said, take a lump of figs. And they took and laid it on the boil and he recovered..." II Kings 20. CANCER; LEUCODERMA; RINGWORM; Thrush; Wounds.
FICUS SYCOMORUS L. "Mulberry Fig", "Sycamore Fig", "Sycomore" (MULBERRY
FAMILY) "...I was an herdman, and a gatherer of sycomore fruit..." Amos 7. Burns; Cancer;
Cirrhosis; Dermatosis; Dyslactea; Scrofula; Sore Throat.
FRAXINUS ORNUS L. Manna Ash (OLIVE FAMILY) "...Behold, we have sent you money to
buy burnt offerings, and sin offerings, and incense, and prepare ye manna..." Baruch 1.
CONSTIPATION; Fever; Gonorrhea; Malaria.
GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM L. "Cotton" (MALLOW FAMILY) "...There were white cotton
curtains and blue hangings caught up with cords of fine linen..." Ester 1. CANCER;
CONTRACEPTIVE; Dermatitis; Dyslactea; Gout; Malaria.
*GUNDELIA TOURNEFORTII L. "Tournefort's Gundelia" "Tumbleweed" (ASTER FAMILY) "O my God, make them like whirling dust, like chaff before the wind."
*HALOXYLON PERSICUM Bge. "White Saxaul" "Adah" (Biblical) "Ada (Arabic) "Lamech
said to his wives 'Adah and Zilla, hear my voice'" Genesis 4: 23.
*HAMMADA SALICORNICA (Moq.) Iljin "Hammada" "Lye"(Biblical) "Rimth" (Arabic)
(LAMBSQUARTER FAMILY) "Though you wash youself with lye and use much soap, the stain
of your guilt is still before me..." Jeremiah 2:22.
HEDERA HELIX L. "Ivy" (ARALIA FAMILY) "...they were compelled to go in procession to
Baccus carrying ivy..." Il Maccabees 6. Cancer; Corns; Impotence; Malaria; Rheumatism;
HORDEUM VULGARE L. "Barley" (GRASS FAMILY) "...Let thistles grow instead of wheat
and cockle instead of barley..." Job 31. DYSPEPSIA; Fractures; Orchitis; Parotitis; Sunstroke;
HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS L. "Hyacinth", "Lily of the Valley (Biblical)" (LILY FAMILY) "...I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys..." Song of Solomon 2. Dysuria; Jaundice;
*HYOSCYAMUS AUREUS L. "GoldenHenbane" "Shikkeron"(Biblical) (POTATO FAMILY)
"The bundary goes out to the shoulder of the hill north of Ekron, then the boundary bends round
to Shikkeron, and passes along to Mount Baalah, and goes out to Jabneel." Joshua 15: 11.
*HYOSCYAMUS MUTICUS L. "Henbane" "Shikkeron"(Biblical) (POTATO FAMILY) "The
bundary goes out to the shoulder of the hill north of Ekron, then the boundary bends round to
Shikkeron, and passes along to Mount Baalah, and goes out to Jabneel." Joshua 15: 11.
IRIS PSEUDACORUS L . "Yellow Flag", "Lily (Biblical)" (IRIS FAMILY) "...he shall grow as
the lily, and cast forth his roots as Lebanon..." Hosea 14. Bruises; Cholera; CONSTIPATION;
Hepatosis; Rheumatism; Sciatica.
JUGLANS REGIA L. "Carpathian or Persian Walnut", "English Walnut", "Nuts (Biblical)"
(WALNUT FAMILY) "...I went down into the garden of nuts to see the fruits of the valley, and
to see whether the vine flourished, and the pomegranates budded..." Song of Solomon 6.
Alopecia; Cancer; Flu; Gingivitis; Halitosis; Headache.
JUNCUS EFFUSUS L. "Bog Rush" , " Soft Rush", " Flag (Biblical)" (RUSH FAMILY) "...The
seeds and the flags shall wither..." Isaiah 19> Anuria; Cough; Dropsy; Insomnia; Sore Throat;
JUNIPERUS EXCELSA Bieb. "Grecian Juniper", "Algum (Biblical)" (JUNIPER FAMILY)
"...Send me also cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees, out of Lebanon..." II Chronicles 2.
Cough; Dyspepsia; Hepatosis; Rheumatism; Wounds.
JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS L. "Brown Juniper", "Cade", "Heath (Biblical)" "Prickly Juniper",
"Cedar" (JUNIPER FAMILY) "...For he shall be like the heath in the desert... " Jeremiah 17.
Alopecia; Cancer; Dermatitis; Eczema; Leprosy; Pruritis; Psoriasis.
*JUNIPERUS PHOENICIA L. "Phoenician Juniper" "Aroer" (Biblical); Arar"(Arabic) "From
Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of the Arnon." Deuteronomy 2:36.
LACTUCA SATIVA L. "Lettuce" (ASTER FAMILY) "...eat it with unleavened bread and bitter
herbs..." Numbers 9. Burns' Cough; Cancer; Impotence; INSOMNIA; Nymphomania.
*LAGENARIA SICERARIA (Mol.) Standl. "Bottle Gourd" "Dilean" Zenan. Hadashah, Migdal-Gad, Dilean..." Joshua 15:37-8.
LAURUS NOBILIS L. "Bayleaf", "Sweet Bay", "Grecian Laurel", "Green Bay (Biblical)"
(LAUREL FAMILY) "...I have seen the wicked in great power, and spreading himself like a
green bay tree..." Psalm 37 DIABETES; Dyspepsia; Earache; Insomnia; MIGRAINE; PAIN.
LAWSONIA INERMIS L. "Henna", "Egyptian Privet", "Mignonette", "Camphire (Biblical)"
(LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY) "...My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the
vineyards..." Song of Solomon 1. CANCER; Dermatitis; Inflammation; SUNBURN;
LENS CULINARIS Medik. "Lentil" (LEGUME FAMILY) "...Then Jacob gave Esau bread and
pottage of lentiles; and he did eat..." Genesis 25. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME; SPINA
LILIUM CANDIDUM L. "Madonna Lily" (LILY FAMILY) "...to feed in the gardens, and to
gather lillies..." Song of Solomon 6. CANCER; Corns; Dermatitis; Dropsy; Epilepsy.
LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. "Flax", "Linen (Biblical)" (FLAX FAMILY) "...And he took it
down, and wrapped it in Linen... "Luke 23. Arthritis; Bronchitis; CANCER; CARDIOPATHY;
Cold; DERMATITIS; INFLAMMATION; Rheumatism.
*LIQUIDAMBAR ORIENTALIS Miller "Storax" "Sweet Gum" "Balm" (Biblical) (STORAX
FAMILY) "...Ishmaelites coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing gum, balm, and myrrh,
on their way to carry it down to Egypt." Genesis 37: 25.
LOLIUM TEMULENTUM L. "Darnel", "Tares (Biblical)" (GRASS FAMILY) "...But while
men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat..." Matthew 13. Colic; Leprosy;
MIGRAINE; Rheumatism; Toothache.
LYCIUM EUROPAEUM Linn. "European Box Thorn", " Desert Thorn", "Bramble (Biblical)"
(POTATO FAMILY) "...let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon..."
Judges 9. Cramps; Hepatosis; INFLAMMATION; Splenosis; Tumors.
*MALUS SYLVESTRIS Mill. "Apple" (ROSE FAMILY) "Sustain me with raisins, refresh me with apples; for I am sick with love." Song of Solomon2:5. CONSTIPATION.
MALVA SYLVESTRIS L. "Blue Mallow" (MALLOW FAMILY) "...who cut up by mallows by
the bushes..." Job 30. COLD, COUGH, Gravel; INFLAMMATION; Jaundice; SORE THROAT.
MANDRAGORA OFFICINARUM L. "Loveapple", "Mandrake" (POTATO FAMILY) "...The
mandrakes gave a smell..." Song of Solomon 7. ASTHMA; INSOMNIA; COUGH; HAYFEVER;
*MATRICARIA AUREA (Loefl.) Sch. Bip (Syn.ANTHEMIS SP sensu Zohary. "Dog
Chamomile" (ASTER FAMILY) "All flesh is grass, and all its glory like the flower of the
grass.The grass withers, and the flower falls; but the word of the Lord abides forever." I Peter
1:24. Cold; Conjunctivitis; Cough; Debility; Diabetes; ENTERALGIA; Fever;
Gingivosis;Headache; Myalgia; Neuralgia; Neurosis; Toothache; Wounds.
MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) Huds. "Biblical Mint" "Horsemint" "Mint" (MINT FAMILY)
"...for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs..." Luke II. COLD Dermatitis;
DYSPEPSIA; HEADACHE; Impotence; PAIN; RHEUMATISM.
MORUS NIGRA L. "Black Mulberry", "Purple Mulberry", "Sycamine (Biblical)" (MULBERRY
FAMILY) "...And to the end they might provoke the elephants to fight, they shewed them the
blood of grapes and mulberries..." I Maccabees 6. Conjunctivitis; Dysmenorrhea; Fever;
MYRTUS COMMUNIS L. "Myrtle" (MYRTLE FAMILY) "...I will plant in the wilderness the
cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil tree..." Isaiah 41. "...Go forth unto the mount
and fetch olive branches, and pine branches, and myrtle branches, and palm branches..."
Nehemiah 8. Asthma; bronchitis; Cancer; Hemorrhoids; Polyps; Smallpox; TUBERCULOSIS.
NARCISSUS TAZETTA L. "Narcissus", "Buttercup", " Rose (Biblical)" (AMARYLLIS
FAMILY) "...The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall
rejoice, and blossom as the rose..." Isaiah 35. CANCER; Epilepsy; Fever; Mastitis; Ophthalmia.
NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI DC. "Spikenard" (VALERIAN FAMILY) "...Thy plants are
an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits: camphire with spikenard..." Song of Solomon
4. ARRHYTHMIA; CARDIOPATHY; Chorea; CRAMPS; DYSMENORRHEA; Epilepsy;
Headache; INSOMNIA; Leprosy.
NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE R. Br. "Watercress" (MUSTARD FAMILY) "...Eat it with
unleavened bread and bitter herbs..." Numbers 9. Asthma; CANCER; COLD; Dermatitis;
NERIUM OLEANDER L. "Rose (Biblical)" (DOGBANE FAMILY) "...Hearken unto me, ye
holy children, and bud forth as a rose growing by the brook of the field..." Ecclesiasticus 39.
POISONOUS: Cancer; Cardiopathy; Dermatitis; Edema; Hypertension; Leprosy; Ringworm.
NIGELLA SATIVA L. "Black Cumin", "Fitch (Biblical)" (BUTTERCUP FAMILY) "...For the
fitches are not thrashed with a threshing instrument. ..but the fitches are beaten out with a
staff..." Isaiah 28. ARTHRITIS; ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS; Colic; Cough; Dermatitis;
DYSMENORRHEA; Orchitis; RHEUMATISM.
*NOTOBASIS SYRIACA (L.) Coss. "Syrian Thistle" "Thorn" (ASTER FAMILY) "I will flail
your flesh with the thorns of the wilderness and with briers" Judges 8:7.
NYMPHAEA ALBA L. "Waterlily", " Lotus", "Lily (Biblical)" (WATERLILY FAMILY)
"...And upon the top of the pillars was lily work..." I Kings 7. Cancer; Cramps; Diarrhea; Fever;
OLEA EUROPEA L. "Olive (Biblical)" (OLIVE FAMILY) "...His branches shall spread, and his
beauty shall be as the olive tree..." Hosea 14. CANCER; CARDIOPATHY; Dermatitis;
HYPERTENSION; Sore Throat; Sunburn.
ORIGANUM MARU L. "Egyptian Marjoram" " Hyssop (Biblical)" (MINT FAMILY) "...He
spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon to the hyssop that grows out of the wall. I Kings
4:33." COLD; COLIC; Polyps; RHEUMATISM; Sprain; Swelling.
*ORIGANUM SYRIACUM L. "Syrian HYssop"" Hyssop (Biblical)" (MINT FAMILY) "...Purge
me with hyssop and I shall be clean..." Psalms 51 COLD; COLIC; Polyps; RHEUMATISM;
ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM L. "Star of Bethlehem", "Dove's Dung (Biblical)" (LILY
FAMILY) "...and the fourth part of a cab of dove's dung for five pieces of silver. .." II Kings 6.
POISONOUS Adenopathy; Cachexia; Debility; Infections; Parotitis.
PALIURUS SPINA-CHRISTI Mill "Crown of Thorns (Biblical)" (BUCKTHORN FAMILY)
"...And when they had platted a crown of thorns..." Matthew 27. Diarrhea; Dystonia; Dysuria.
*PANCRATIUM MARITIMUM L. "Sea Daffodil" "Sea-Shore Lily" (AMARYLLIS FAMILY)
"I will be as the dew to Israel; he shall blossom as the lily, he shall strike root as the poplar"
Hosea 14: 5.
PANICUM MILIACEUM L. "Proso Millet", "Millet (Biblical)", "Pannag (Biblical)" (GRASS
FAMILY) "...Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet and
fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof..." Ezekiel 4. Abscesses;
Cancer; Gonorrhea; Infection; Momordicism.
*PAPAVER RHOEAS L. "Common Poppy", "Flanders Poppy", (POPPY FAMILY) "All flesh
is grass, and all its beauty is like the flower of the field...The grass withers, the flower fades; but
the word of our God will stand for ever." Isaiah 40: 6-8.
PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. "Opium Poppy", "Poppyseed Poppy", "Gall (Biblical)" (POPPY
FAMILY) "...they gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof
he would not drink..." Matthew 27. CANCER; COUGH; Dysentery; INSOMNIA; Impotence;
PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. "Date Palm" (PALM FAMILY) "...and brought them to Jericho,
the city of palm trees..." II Chronicles 28. Asthma; Cough; Fever; Gonorrhea; Toothache;
PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (Cav.) Triri. ex Steud. "Common Reed" "Pen (Biblical)" (GRASS
FAMILY) "...I will not with ink and pen write unto thee..." Ill John 13. Burns; Bronchitis;
Cholera; Diabetes; Jaundice' Leukemia.
PINUS BRUTIA Tenore "Brutian Pine", "Thick Tree (Biblical)" (PINE FAMILY) "...Go forth
unto the Mount, andfrtch olive branches, and pine branches...and myrtle branches, and palm
branches, and branches of thick trees to make booths... " Nehemiah 8. Catarrh; Cough;
Gonorrhea; Hepatosis; Nephrosis; Rheumatism.
PINUS HALEPENSIS Mill. "Aleppo Pine", "Fir (Biblical)" (PINE FAMILY) "...as for the stork,
the fir trees are her house..." Psalms 104. Catarrh; Cough; Gonorrhea; Hepatosis; Nephrosis;
*PINUS PINEA L. "Stone Pine" "Holm" (Biblical). "He cuts down cedars; of he chooses a
holm tree or an oak and lets it grow strong amonbg the trees of the forest; he plants a cedar and
the rain nourishes it." Isaiah 44:14.
PISTACIA LENTISCUS L."Mastic", "Mastick Tree (Biblical)" (CASHEW FAMILY) "...who
answered, Under a mastick tree..." Susanna 51. Cancer; Cholecocystosis; Cough; Diarrhea;
Hepatosis; Itch; Rheumatism.
PISTACIA TEREBINTHUS L. "Cyprus Turpentine", "Teil Tree", "Turpentine Tree (Biblical)"
(CASHEW FAMILY) "...As the turpentine tree I stretched out by branches..." Ecclesiasticus 24.
Cancer; Cough; Diarrhea; Fever; Inflammation.
PISTACIA VERA L. "Pistacio-nut", " Nuts (Biblical)" (CASHEW FAMILY) "...carry down the
man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts and almonds..." Genesis
43. Amenorrhea; Bruises;Cough; Dysentery; Impotence; Pruiritus; Rheumatism.
PLATANUS ORIENTALIS L. "Plane Tree", " Chestnut (Biblical)" (SYCAMORE FAMILY)
"...And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chestnut tree..." Genesis 30.
Cancer; Diarrhea; Dysentery; Inflammation; Ophthalmia; Rheumatism.
POPULUS ALBA L."Poplar (Biblical)" (WILLOW FAMILY) "...and Jacob took him rods of
green poplar..." Genesis 30. ARTHRITIS; Dermatitis; FEVER; Rheumatism; Snakebite;
POPULUS EUPHRATICA Oliv. "Euphrates Aspen", " Willow (Biblical)" (WILLOW FAMILY)
"...We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof..." Psalms 137. ARTHRITIS;
Dermatitis; FEVER; Rheumatism; Snakebite; Strangury; TOOTHACHE.
PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. "Apricot" , " Chinese Almond", "Apple (Biblical)" (ROSE
FAMILY) "...A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver..." Proverbs 25
POISONOUS SEED; Asthma; CANCER; Cough; Laryngitis; Ophthalmia; Rheumatism.
PRUNUS DULCIS (Mill.) D.A. Webb "Almond" (ROSE FAMILY) "...and carry down the man
a present, a little balm, a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds..." Genesis 43. Acne;
Asthma; CANCER; Cough; Dermatitis; Laryngitis; Neuralgia.
PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS L. "Red Saunders", "Almug (Biblical)" (LEGUME FAMILY)
"...brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees..." I Kings 10. Dermatosis; DYSENTERY;
Fever; Headache; Inflammation; Malaria; Toothache.
PUNICA GRANATUM L. "Pomegranate", "Grenada" (POMEGRANATE FAMILY) "...I would
cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate..." Song of Solomon 8.
Bronchitis; CANCER; Conjunctivitis; DYSENTERY; DYSMENORRHEA; ESTROGENIC;
HEMORRHOIDS; INFERTILITY; SORE THROAT; STOMATITIS; WORMS.
QUERCUS AEGILOPS L. "Valonia Oak", " Dyer's Oak". "Oak (Biblical)" (OAK FAMILY)
"...And as an oak, whose substance is in them, when the cast their leaves..." Isaiah 6. Burns;
QUERCUS COCCIFERA L. "Kermes Oak" " Scarlet (Biblical)" (OAK FAMILY) "...And he
shall take to cleanse the house two birds, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop..." Leviticus
14. Cancer; Fever; Sores; Wounds.
QUERCUS ILEX L. "Holly Oak", " Oak (Biblical)" (OAK FAMILY) "...and she was buried
beneath Bethel under an oak..." Genesis 35. Cacoethes; Cancer; Fever; Hepatosis; Tumors.
*REICHARDIA TINGITANA (L.) Roth. "Poppy-leaved Reichardia" "Bitter Herb" (Biblical)
(ASTER FAMILY) "...with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it." Exodus 12:8.
RETAMA RAETAM (Forsk.) Webb. & Berth."White Broom", "Juniper (Biblical)" (LEGUME
FAMILY) "...went a day's journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper
tree..." I Kings 19. Arthritis; Diarrhea; Fever; Ophthalmia; Pain; Sore.
RHAMNUS PALAESTINA Boiss "Palestine Buckthorn", "Hedge (Biblical)" (BUCKTHRON
FAMILY) "...whoso breaketh an hedge, a serpent shall bite him..." Ecclesiastes 10. Cancer;
RICINUS COMMUNIS L. "Castorbean", " Palma Christ", " Gourd (Biblical)" (SPURGE
FAMILY) "...And the Lord God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it
might be a shadow over his head...Jonah 4. Abscess; Bunion; CANCER; Conjunctivitis;
DERMATITIS; Gout; Headache; Lumbago; Rheumatism; Sciatica.
ROSA PHONECIA Boiss. "Phoenician Rose" (ROSE FAMILY) "...whereup they grew roses and
lilies..." 11 Esdras 2. SCURVY.
*RUBIA TINCTORUM L. "Dyer's Madder" "Puah" (Biblical) (COFFEE FAMILY) "...There
arose to deliver Israel Tola, the son of Puah, son of Dodo..." Judges 10: 1.
*RUBUS SANGUINEUS Friv. "Bramble" "Thorn"(Biblical) (ROSE FAMILY) "Thorns and
snares are in the way of the perverse; he who guards himself will keep far from them. Proverbs
RUBUS SANCTUS Schreb. "Blackberry ", "Bramble (Biblical)" (ROSE FAMILY) "...nor of a
bramble bush gather thy grapes..." Luke 6.
RUMEX ACETOSELLA Linn. "Sheep Sorrel" (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY) "...eat it with
unleavened bread and bitter herbs..." Numbers 9. Cancer; Dyspepsia; Epithelioma; Fever;
RUSCUS ACULEATUS L. "Butchers Broom", "Knee Holly", "Brier (Biblical)" (BUTCHER'S
BROOM FAMILY) "...And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel..."
Ezekiel 28. Chilblains; Dyspnea; Dysuria; FEVER; Jaundice; Nephrosis.
RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. "Rue", "Garden Rue", "German Rue", "Herbygrass" , "Herbe of
Grace" (CITRUS FAMILY) "...But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all
manner of herbs..." Luke Il. POISONOUS; Colic; CRAMPS; Dyspepsia; Epilepsy; Hysteria;
SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. "Sugarcane", " Sweet Cane (Biblical)" (GRASS FAMILY)
"...Thou has bought me no sweet cane with money..."Isaiah 43. Cancer; Cold; Cough;
Dysentery; Hemorrhoids; Laryngitis; Pertussis; Sore Throat.
SALICORNIA EUROPEA L. "Glasswort", " Sope (Biblical)" (LAMBSQUARTER FAMILY)
"...for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fuller's sope..." Malachi 3. Cancer; Tumors.
SALIX ALBA L. "Willow" (WILLOW FAMILY) "...And they shall spring up as among the
grass, as willows by the water course..." Isaiah 44. ARTHRITIS; COLD: FEVER: FLU:
SALIX BABYLONICA L. "Weeping Willow", " Willow (Biblical)" (WILLOW FAMILY)
"...We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof..."Psalms 137 ARTHRITIS;
COLD; FEVER; FLU; RHEUMATISM; TOOTHACHE.
SALIX FRAGILIS Linn. "Crack Willow", "Red-Wood Willow ", "Kashmir Willow" (WILLOW
FAMILY) "...the willows of the brook compass him about..." Job 40. ARTHRITIS; COLD;
FEVER; FLU; RHEUMATISM; TOOTHACHE.
SALSOLA KALI L. "Glasswort", "Saltwort" (LAMBSQUARTER FAMILY) "...for though thou
wash thee with nitre, and take thee much sope..." Jeremiah 2. Cancer; Dropsy; Dysmenorrhea;
SALVIA JUDAICA Boiss. "Judean Sage", "Candlestick (Biblical)" (MINT FAMILY) "...And he
made the candlestick of pure gold..." Exodus 37.
*SARCOPOTERIUM SPINOSUM (L.) Spach. "Thorny Burnet" "Thorn" (Biblical) (ROSE
FAMILY) "Therefore I will hedge up her way with thorns. . ." Hosea 2: 6.
SAUSSUREA LAPPA (Decaisne) C.B. Clarke "Indian Orris", " Kuth", "Costus Oil" "Cassia
(Biblical)" (ASTER FAMILY) "...All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia..."
Psalms 45. ASTHMA; BRONCHITIS; CHOLERA; COUGH; Dermatosis; Dyspepsia;
Smallpox; Stomachache; Tuberculosis.
*SCOLYMUS HISPANICUS L. "Golden Thistle", "Thistles" (ASTERACEAE) "...Thorns shall
grow over its strongholds, nettles and thistles in its fortresses." Isaiah 34: 13.
*SCOLYMUS MACULATUS L. "Golden Thistle", "Brambles" (ASTERACEAE) "...As a lily
among brambles, so is my love among maidens." Song of Solomon 2: 2.
*SCIRPUS LACUSTRIS L. "Lake Rush" "Agmon (Hebrew) "Reed" (Biblical) "So the Lord cut
off from Israel head and tail, palm branches and reed in one day.
*SENNA ALEXANDRINA Miller (Syn. CASSIA SENNA L). "Alexandrian Senna" "Indian
Senna" "Senna" "Burning Bush (Biblical) (LEGUME FAMILY) "And the angel of the Lord
appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and lo, the bush was
burning. . ." Exodus 3:2. CONSTIPATION; Cramps; Gastrosis.
SILYBUM MARIANUM Gaertn. "Thistles", "Milk Thistle" (ASTERACEAE) "...Thorns also
and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field..." Genesis 3.
Asthma; Calculus; CIRRHOSIS; Fever; HEPATITIS; JAUNDICE; Pluerisy; PSORIASIS;
SINAPIS ARVENSIS L. "Charlock", "Field Mustard" " Nettle (Biblical)" (MUSTARD
FAMILY) "...it was all grown over with thorns and nettles had covered the face..." Proverbs 24.
Arthritis; BRONCHITIS; CANCER; COLDS; Pluerisy; Pneumonia; Rheumatism.
SOLANUM INCANUM L. "Sodom Apple", "Palestine Nightshade", "Brier (Biblical)" "Jericho
Potato" (POTATO FAMILY) "...and it shall burn and devour his thorns and briers in one day..."
Isaiah 10. POISONOUS: CANCER; Dermatitis; MELANOMA; Pleurisy; Sore Throat;
SOLANUM SODOMEUM L. "Vine of Sodom" (POTATO FAMILY) "...For their vine is of the
vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah..." Deuteronomy 32. POISONOUS: CANCER;
Cystitis; Dermatitis; MELANOMA; Pleurisy; RINGWORM; Sore Throat; Toothache.
SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) Moeiich "Sorghum", "Milo", "Broomcorn", "Hyssop (Biblical)"
(GRASS FAMILY) "...they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his
mouth..." John 19. Burns; Cancer; Dysuria; Epilepsy; Flu; Measles; Nephrosis; Stomachache.
STYRAX BENZOIN Dryand "Onycha (Biblical)" (STORAX FAMILY) "...Take unto thee sweet
spices, stacte and onycha..." Exodus 30. BRONCHITIS; Cancer; LARYNGITIS; Mastitis;
STYRAX OFFICINALIS L "Stacte (storax)" (STORAX FAMILY) "...Take unto thee sweet
spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each
shall there be a like weight: And thou shalt make it a perfume..." Exodus 30.(How's that for an
early perfume recipe) Arthritis; BRONCHITIS; Cancer; Cold; Hysteria; Sores; Spermatorrhea.
*SUEDA SPP "Sea Blite" "Shahor"=Black (Hebrew)" "Ashhur" (Biblical) " Ashhur, the father
of Tekoa, had two wives." I Chronicles 4:5.
TAMARIX APHYLLA (L.) Karst "Tamarisk", " Grove (Biblical)" (TAMARISK FAMILY)
"...And Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba. .." Genesis 21. Eczema; Infertility; Impotence;
Ophthalmia; Psoriasis; Splenitis; Syphilis.
TARAXACUM OFFICINALE Weber ex Wigg. "Dandelion" (ASTER FAMILY) "...eat it with
unleavened bread and bitter herbs..." Numbers 9. CANCER; DIABETES; HEPATITIS;
TETRACLINIS ARTICULATA (Vahl) Masters "Sandarac", " Thyine (Biblical)" (CYPRESS
FAMILY) "...and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory..." Revelation 18. Dermatitis;
TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. "Fenugreek" "Leek (Biblical)" (LEGUME FAMILY)
"...We remember the fish...and the leeks..." Numbers 11.Alopecia; DIABETES; DYSLACTEA;
Dyspepsia; HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA; Leukorrhea; MICROMASTIA; Pain;
TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. "Wheat" "Corn (Biblical)" (GRASS FAMILY) "...And he slept and
dreamed the second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and
good..." Genesis 41. Diarrhea; Leprosy; Menorrhagia; Neurasthenia; Sunstroke; Syphilis;
TRITICUM SPELTA L. "Spelt" " Rie (Biblical)" (GRASS FAMILY) "...But the wheat and the
rie were not smitten..." Exodus 9. Aegilops.
*TULIPA MONTANA Lindl. "Mountain Tulip" (LILY FAMILY) "The flowers appear on the
earth, the time of singing has come, and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land." Song of
Solomon 2: 12.
TYPHA AUSTRALIS Schum & Thonn. "Cattail", "Reed (Biblical)" (CATTAIL FAMILY)
"...and they smote him on the head with a reed... " Mark 15. Epilepsy; Insanity; Tumors;
*ULMUS CANESCENS Melv. "Hairy Elm" "Neshem" (Arabic).
URTICA DIOICA L. "Stinging Nettle", "Common Nettle" , "Greater Nettle" (NETTLE
FAMILY) "...and thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses
thereof..." Isaiah 34. ALLERGY; ARTHRITIS; HAY FEVER; PROSTATITIS;
URTICA PILULIFERA L. "Roman Nettle", "Nettles (Biblical)" (NETTLE FAMILY) "...the pleasant places for their silver, nettles shall possess them..." Hosea 9. ALLERGY; ARTHRITIS; HAY FEVER; PROSTATITIS; RHEUMATISM.
VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (L.) Nash "Vetiver", "Calamus (Biblical)" (GRASS FAMILY)
"...bright iron, cassia and calamus, were in thy markets... " Ezekiel 22. Boils; Burns; Colic;
Epilepsy; Fever; Flu; Hepatitis; Yellow Fever.
*VIBURNUM TINUS L. "Viburnu," "Plane" (Biblical) "Murran (Arabic)" "I will set in the
desert the cypress, the plane, and the pine, to beautify the place of my sanctuary..." Isaiah 60: 13.
VICIA FABA L. "Broadbean", " Fava Bean", " Horsebean" , "Windsorbean" , "Tickbeans (small
types)" (LEGUME FAMILY) "...and flour, and parched corn, and beans..." II Samuel 17.
CANCER; DRUNKENESS; ESTROGENIC; IMPOTENCE; PARKINSONISM; Pneumonia.
VITIS ORIENTALIS (Lam.) Boiss. "Wild Grape (Biblical)" (GRAPE FAMILY) "...and he
looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes..." Isaiah 5. Arthritis;
CARDIOPATHY; HERPES; HYPERTENSION; Rheumatism; TUBERCULOSIS.
VITIS VINIFERA L. "Vine (grape)" (GRAPE FAMILY) "...But they shall sit every man under
his vine and under his fig tree..."Micah 4. Arthritis; CARDIOPATHY; HERPES;
HYPERTENSION; Rheumatism; TUBERCULOSIS.
XANTHIUM SPINOSUM L. "Clotbur", "Cockleburr", "Thorns (Biblical)" (ASTER FAMILY)
"...and thorns shall come up in her palaces... Isaiah 34. Diarrhea; Dyspepsia; Osteosis; Rabies;
*ZILLA SPINOSA (L.) Prantl "Spiny Zilla" "Silon=Thorn'"(Bible) (MUSTARD FAMILY)
"And for the house of Israel there shall be no more a brier to prick or a thorn to hurt them among
all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt." Ezekiel 28: 24.
ZIZIPHUS SPINA-CHRISTI (L.) Willd. "Syrian Christ Thorn", "Thorns (Biblical)"
(BUCKTHORN FAMILY) "...Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?..." Matthew 7.
Arthritis; CANCER; Hepatosis; MELANOMA; Ophthalmia; Rheumatism; Toothache; Tumor.
ZOSTERA MARINA L. "Eelgrass", "Grass-Wrack", "Sea-Wrack", " Weeds (Biblical)"
(EELGRASS FAMILY) "...the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my
head..." Jonah 2. Diarrhea.
*ZYGOPHYLLUM DUMOSUM Boiss. "Bean Caper" "Elim"(Biblical) "And they set out from
Marah, and came to Elim; at Elim there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees..."
Numbers 33: 9.
Source:Duke, J. A. 1983. Medicinal Plants of the Bible. (Illustrated by Peggy K. Duke) Out of
print Trado-Medic Books, Buffalo, NY. 233 pp.
*Except species with asterisks, (after Zohary, 1982).
Alon, A. 1978. The Natural History of the Land of the Bible. Double-day & Co., Garden City,
N.Y. 276 pp.
Anderson, A.W. 1957. Plants of the Bible. Philosophical Library,Inc., New York. 72 pp.
Bailey, C., and Danin, A. 1981. "Bedouin Plant Utilization in Sinai and Negev." Economic
Botany 35 (2): 145-162.
Balfour, J .H. 1851. Phytotheology or Botanical Sketches Intended to Illustrate the Works of
God. Johnstone & Hunters. London. 242 pp.
Balfour, J.H. 1857. The Plants of the Bible: Trees and Shmbs. T. Nelson & Sons. London. 54 pp.
Batanouny, K.H. 1981. Ecology and Flora of Qatar. Alden Press, Oxford. 245 pp.
Boulos, L. 1983. Medicinal Plants of North Africa. Reference Publications, Algonac, Mich. 286
Callcott, M. 1842. A Scripture Herbal. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. London. 544 pp.
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Plants in Palestine. The Sheldon Press. London. 196 pp.
Darom, D. s. d. Die Schonsten Pflanzen der Bibel. Palphot Ltd. P.O. Box 2. Herzlia 46 100. 47 .
Harrison, R.K. 1966. Healing Herbs of the Bible. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 58 pp.
Hernandez Mesa, M. undated. Las Plantas Biblicas. Sus Propiedades Medicinales y su
Applicacion Practica por 1os Sistemas Homeopatico y Natural. Bogota.
King, E.A. 1975. Bible Plants for American Gardens. Dover, New York. 204 pp. (originally
published by MacMillan, 1941).
Galil, J. 1968. "An Ancient Technique for Ripening Sycomore Fruit in East Mediterranean
Countries." Economic Botany 22: 178-190.
Ghazanfar SA. 1994. Handbook of Arabian Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 265
Moldenke, H.N. 1954. "The Economic Plants of the Bible." Economic Botany 8:152-163.
Moldenke, H.N. and Moldenke, A.L. 1952. Plants of the Bible.Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham,
Mass., 328 pp.
Osborn, D.J. 1968. "Notes on Medicinal and Other Uses of Plants in Egypt." Economic Botany
Palevitch D., Yaniv Z., Dafni, A. and Friedmen, J. 1986. Medicinal Plants of Israel: An
Ethnobotanical Survey. Pp. 281-345 in Craker LE and Simon JE, eds. Herbs, Spices, and
Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture and Pharmacology Vol. 1. Oryx
Philips, H.J. 1958. Lebanese Folk Cures. Vol. II. Some Lebanese Materia Medica. Univ.
Microfilms Internat. 457 pp. (Ph.D. Thesis, Anthropology; Columbia U.)
Shewell-Cooper, W.E. 1962. Plants and Fruits of the Bible. Darton, Longman & Todd. London.
Strong, J. 1890. The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. 41st printing. 1981. Abingdon,
Nashville. 1340 pp.
Tackholm, V. and Drar, M. 1973. Flora of Egypt. Vol. 1. Reprint. Otto Koeltz Antiquariat,
Koenigstein. 574 pp.
Temple, A.A. 1929. Flowers and Trees of Palest ine. Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge. London. 148 pp.
Walker, W. 1957. All the Plants of the Bible. Harper and Bros., New York. 244 pp.
Zohary, M. 1966-present. Flora Palaestina. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. 8 Vols.
(4 of plates) to date.
Zohary, M. 1982. Plants of the Bible. Cambridge University Press. New York. 223 pp.