Module 19. Botanicals Generally Recognized As Safe

This list is a compilation of all botanicals which appear on the FDA's GRAS list, a list of food additives which are Generally Recognized As Safe by a consensus of scientific opinion. You will note that most items listed carry notations or restrictions like "flavorings for use in alcoholic beverages." Many herbs are listed by the FDA because of their use in liqueurs and as components of natural flavorings prior to 1958, when the food additive regulations were written. However, alternative uses of the plant, such as flavoring water in an herbal tea, are presumably also safe, and the FDA has taken no action against any product on their list.

Many herbal products fall into a "gray area" of regulation. Around half of the herbs sold by the herb industry are not on the GRAS list, but are widely imported and sold for food use. Their omission from the list does not imply that they are not safe (for instance barley and arrowroot are not GRAS food additives).

This list is excerpted from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 Parts 172, 182, 184, and 186. It is a complete listing of botanicals accepted by the FDA for food additive use, but does not include all plant derivatives; for instance some plant gums, waxes and resins have not been included. All substances used for flavoring use are included. The following is an explanation of the abbreviations used in the list. In many cases species other than those listed are also used, and share the same common name. Our thanks to Dr. James Duke for his invaluable help in reviewing the taxonomic classifications on the list.

Abbreviations used on the list:

Ext Extracts

Fla Flavorings

Oil Oils

Olr Oleoresins (total fat-soluble extract - oils, waxes, resins, volatile and fixed oils)

Pr Less than 25 ppm prussic acid - a natural toxin

Seas Seasonings

Sp Spice

SF Safrole-free (a carcinogenic natural toxin)

TF Thujone-free (another natural toxin)

Herb Research Foundation

Herbs on the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) List


Acacia (Gum Arabic) Acacia vera (A. spp.) Fla; Emulsifier

Alfalfa Medicago sativa L. Sp; Fla

Algae: Red and brown Species approved: Sp; Sea; Fla;

BROWN ALGAE: Analipus japonicus, Flavor enhancer

Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia and adjuvant.

fusiforme, Kjellmaniella gyrata,

Laminatia spp., Macrocystis

pyrifera, Petalonia fascia,

Scytosiphon lomentaria, Undaria


RED ALGAE: Gloiopeltis furcata,

Porphyra spp., Rhodymenia spp.

Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Sp; Olr; Oil;

(P. dioica (L.) Merr. Ext

Almond, bitter Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Oil; Olr; Ext

P. armeniaca (apricot), Free of prussic acid

P. persica (L.) Batsch (peach)

Aloe Aloe barbadensis Mill. or spp. Fla

Althaea (root, flowers) Althaea officinalis L. Fla

Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Sp; Seas; Fla;

= H. moschatus Moench Oil; Olr; Ext

(Abelmoschus moschatus Moench)

Amyris Amyris balsamifera L. Fla

Angelica Angelica archangelica or spp. Sp; Seas; Fla

(root, seed, stem) Oil; Olr; Ext

Angola weed Rocella fuciformis Fla*

Angostura Galipea officinalis Hancock Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil;

(Cusparia bark) Ext; Olr

Anise Pimpinella anisum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Anise, Star Illicium verum Hook.f. Sp; Fla

Apricot kernel Prunus armeniaca L. Ext used with Sp; Seas; Fla

Artemisia (wormwood) Artemisia spp. Fla; TF

Artichoke leaves Cynara scolymus Fla*

Asafetida Ferula assa-foetida L., F. Spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Balm (Lemon Balm) Melissa officinalis L. Oil; Sp; Fla; Olr

Balsam, fir Abies balsamea (L.) Mill Fla

Balsam of Peru Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch. Oil; Ext; Olr

Basil, bush Ocimum minimum L. Sp; Fla

Basil, sweet Ocimum basilicum L. Oil; Ext; Sp; Fla; Olr

Bay Laurus nobilis L. Oil; Ext; Sp; Fla;Olr

Benzoin resin Styrax spp. Fla*

Bergamot Citrus aurantium L. Oil; Ext; Olr

(Bergamot Orange) subsp bergamia Wright et Arn.

Blackberry bark (Rubus fruticosus L.) & all Fla

Rubus species in subgenus Eubatus

Bois de Rose Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. Oil; Ext; Olr

Boldus (Boldo) leaves Peumus boldus Mol Fla*

Boronia flowers Boronia megastigma Nees. Fla

Bryonia root Bryonia alba L & B. dioica Jacq. Fla*

Buchu leaves Barosma betulina Bartl. et Wendl. Fla

B. crenulata (L.) Hook, B. serratifolea Willd.

Buckbean leaves Menyanthes trifoliata L. Fla*

Cacao Theobroma cacao L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Cajeput Melaleuca leucadendron L. & spp. Fla

Calendula Calendula officinalis L. Sp; Fla; Seas

Calumba root Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Meirs Fla*

Camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Fla; SF


Cananga Cananga odorata Hook.f. Oil; Ext; Olr

et Thoms.

Capers Capparis spinosa L. Sp; Seas: Fla

Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L or Oil; Ext; Olr;

C. annuum L. Sp; Seas

Caraway Carum carvi L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Caraway, black Nigella sativa L. Sp; Seas; Fla

(black cumin)

Cardamon (cardamom) Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua L. Oil; Olr; Ext

Carrot Daucus carota L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Cascara Sagrada Rhamnus purshiana DC Fla

Cascarilla bark Croton eluteria Benn. Oil; Ext; Olr

Cassia Cinnamomum cassia, Sp; Seas; Fla;

C. loureirii & C. burmanni Oil;Ext: Olr

Cassie flowers Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Fla

Castor oil Ricinus communis L. Fla

Castoreum Castor fiber L. Sp; Seas; Fla;

and C. canadensis Kuhl. Oil;Ext; Olr

Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd. Fla

Cayenne pepper Capsicum frutescens L. Sp; Seas; Fla


Cedar, white Thuja occidentalis L. Fla; TF

(leaves, twigs)

Celery seed Apium graveolens L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Centuary Centaurium umbellatum Gilib Fla*


(English or Roman) Anthemis nobilis L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

(German/Hungarian) Matricaria chamomilla L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Cherry, Wild, bark Prunus serotina Ehrh. Oil; Ext; Olr

Cherry pits Prunus avium L., Fla; Pr

P. cerasus L.

Cherry - laurel leaves Prunus laurocerasus L. Fla; Pr

Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil;Ext; Olr

Chestnut leaves Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh Fla

Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Chirata Swertia chirata Buch. - Ham Fla*

Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Cinchona (red, yellow) Cinchona spp. Fla; 83 mcg alkaloid

Cinnamon Cinnamomum spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Citronella Cymbopogon nardus Rendle. Oil; Ext; Olr

Citrus peels Citrus spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Clary (Clary Sage) Salvia sclarea L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Clover Trifolium spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Cloves Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Oil; Sp; Seas;

(Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Fla; Ext; Olr

** Merr. & Perry)

Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. & spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Coffee Coffea spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Cola nut Cola spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Copaiba S.American spp. of Fla

Copaifera L.

Cork oak Quercus suber occidentalis L.

or Q. occidentalis F. Gray or

(Quercus suber L. ** Terrell) Fla*

Corn silk Zea mays L. Ext; Fla - 4-30 ppm

Costmary Chrysanthemum balsamita L. Fla*

Coriander Coriandrum sativum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke. Fla

Cubeb Piper cubeba L.f. Fla

Cumin (Cummin) Cuminum cyminum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Cumin, black Nigella sativa L. Sp; Seas; Fla

(Black Caraway)

Curacao (orange peel) Citrus aurantium L. Oil;Ext;Olr

Currant, black, Ribes nigrum L. Fla

(buds & leaves)

Cusparia bark Galipea officinalis Hancock Oil; Ext; Olr

Damiana leaves Turnera diffusa Willd. Fla

Dandlion root Taraxacum officinale Weber Oil; Ext; Olr

(and whole plant) & spp.

Davana Artemisia pallens Wall. Fla

Dill Anethum graveolens L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Dill, Indian Anethum sowa Roxb. Fla

Dittany (fraxinella) Dictamnus albus L. Fla*


Dittany of Crete Origanum dictamnus L. Fla

Dog Grass (Quackgrass) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Oil; Ext; Olr

Dragon's Blood Daemonorops spp. Fla


Dulse Rhodymenia palmata Ext

(see also Red algae)

Elder tree leaves Sambucus niger L. Fla*; Pr

Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Sp; Seas; Fla

& S. niger L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Elecampane rhizome Inula helenium L. Fla*

(and root)

Elemi Canarium commune L. Fla

Erigeron Erigeron canadensis L. Fla

Estragole or Estragon Artemisia dracunculus L. Sp; Seas; Fla;

(Tarragon) Oil; Ext; Olr

Eucalyptus leaves Eucalyptus globulus Labill Fla

Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Sweet, finocchio F. vulgare var dulce (DC.) Sp; Seas; Fla

Foenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Fir, "pine" Abies sibirica Lebed., Fla

(needles & twigs) A. alba Mill, A. sachalinesis

Masters or A. mayriana Miyabe

et Kudo.

Fir, balsam, needles Abies balsamea (L.) Mill Fla

(and twigs)

Galanga (Galangal) Alpinia officinarum Hance. Oil; Olr; Ext; Sp; Seas; Fla

Galanga, greater Alpinia galanga Willd Fla*

Gambir (Catechu, pale) Uncaria gambir Roxb. Fla

Garlic Allium sativum L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Genet flowers Spartium junceum L. Fla

Gentian rhizome, root Gentiana lutea L. Fla

Gentian, stemless Gentiana acaulis L. Fla*

Geranium, fragrant Pelargonium spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Germander, chamaedrys Teucrium chamaedrys L. Fla*

Germander, golden Teucrium polium L. Fla*

Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Glycyrrhiza Glycyrrhiza glabra L., G. spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Grains of Paradise Amomum melegueta Rosc. Sp; Seas; Fla

Grapefruit Citrus paradisi Macf. Oil; Ext; Olr

Guaiac Guaiacum spp. Fla

Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK. Fla

Guava Psidium spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Gum ghatti Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb.)Wall. Emulsifier

Gum tragacanth Astragalus gummifier Labillard. Emulsifier

Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L. Fla

Hemlock needles, twigs Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Fla

T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.

Hibiscus (Roselle) Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Fla*

Hickory, bark Carya spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Hops Humulus lupulus L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Horehound Marrubium vulgare L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Horsemint Monarda punctata L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Horseradish Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib. Sp; Seas; Fla

(Armoracia rusticana **

Gaertn., Mey., & Schreb.)

Hyacinth, flowers Hyacinthus orientalis L. Fla

Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Iceland Moss Cetraria islandica Ach. Fla*

Imperatoria Peucedanum ostruthium (L.)

Koch (Imperatoria ostruthium (L.)**) Fla

Immortelle Helichrysum augustifolium DC. Oil; Ext; Olr

Iva Achillea moschata Jacq. Fla*

Jasmine Jasminum officinale L. & J. spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Juniper Berries Juniperus communis L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Karaya gum Sterculia spp.

Kola nut Cola spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Labdanum Cistus spp. Fla

Laurel berries, leaves Laurus nobilis L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Oil; Ext; Olr

Lemon Balm (Balm) Melissa officinalis L. Oil; Sp; Fla; Olr

Lemon Grass Cymbopogon citratus DC. Oil; Ext; Olr

C. flexuosus Stapf.

Lemon Peel, Fruit Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. Oil; Ext; Olr

Lemon Verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Fla*

(Aloysia triphylla ** (L.'Her.) Britt.)

Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra & G. spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Lime Citrus aurantifolia Swingle. Oil; Ext; Olr

Linaloe wood Bursera delpechiana Poiss. & B. spp. Fla

Linden flowers Tilia spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Linden leaves Tilia spp. Fla*

Locust Bean (Carob) Ceratonia siliqua L. Oil; Olr; Ext

Lovage Levisticum officinale Koch. Fla

Lungwort Sticta pulmonacea Ach. Fla

Lupulin (Hops) Humulus lupulus L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt. Oil; Ext; Olr

Maidenhair Fern Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Fla*

Malt (extract) Hordeum vulgare L., other grains Oil; Ext; Olr

Mandarin Citrus reticulata Blanco. Oil; Ext; Olr

Maple, Mountain Acer spicatum Lam. Fla

Marigold, pot Calendula officinalis L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Marjoram, pot Majorana onites (L.) Benth; Sp; Seas; Fla

(Origanum onites (L.)**)

Marjoram, sweet Majorana hortensis Moench. Sp; Seas;

(Origanum majorana L.**) Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Maté (Matté) Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Oil; Ext; Olr

Melissa (Balm) Melissa officinalis L. Oil; Sp; Fla; Olr

Menthol (Peppermint) Mentha piperita L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Mimosa flowers (Black Wattle) Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Fla

Mullein flowers Verbascum spp. Fla*

Mustard, black, brown Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Mustard, white, yellow Brassica hirta Moench. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Myrrh Commiphora spp. Fla

Myrtle Myrtus communis L. Fla*

Naringin (Grapefruit) Citrus paradisi Macf. Oil; Ext; Olr

Neroli, bigarade Citrus aurantium L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Oak, English, wood Quercus robur L. Fla*

Oak, white, wood Quercus alba Fla*

Oak moss Evernia spp. Fla; TF

Olibanum Boswellia carteri, Birdw. B. spp. Fla

Onion Allium cepa L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Opopanax Opopanax chironium Koch. Fla

Orange, bitter (flowers, peel) Citrus aurantium L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Orange, sweet Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Oil; Ext; Olr

(flowers, leaves, peel)

Oregano Lippia spp. Sp; Seas; Fla

Origanum Origanum spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

Orris root Iris germanica L. & I. pallida Lam. Fla

Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Oil; Ext; Olr

Pansy Viola tricolor L. Fla*

Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil, Ext; Olr

Parsley Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Mansf. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Passion Flower Passiflora incarnata L. Fla

Patchouly Pogostemon cablin Benth. and Fla

P. heyneanus Benth.

Peach kernel Prunus persica Sleb et Zuce. Ext used with sp; Seas; Fla

Peach leaves Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Fla*; Pr

Peanut Arachis hypogaea L.

Pennyroyal, American Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. Fla

Pennyroyal, European Mentha pulegium L. Fla

Pepper, black, white Piper nigrum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Pepper, red Capsicum frutescens, C. annuum Sp; Seas; Fla

Peppermint Mentha piperita L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Peruvian Balsam Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch Oil; Ext; Olr

Petitgrain Citrus aurantium L. Oil; Ext; Olr

(bitter orange)

Pimenta Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Oil; Ext; Olr

Pine, needles, twigs Fla

dwarf Pinus mugo Turra var. pumilio

(Haenke) Zenari

Scotch P. sylvestris L.

Pine bark, white Pinus strobus L. Fla*

Pine oil, white Pinus palustris Mill., P. spp. Fla*

Pipsissewa leaves Chimaphila umbellata Nutt. Oil; Ext; Olr

Pomegranate Punica granatum L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Poplar buds Populus balsamifera, P. Fla*

candicans Ait., P. nigra L.

Poppy Seed Papaver somniferum L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Pot Marigold Calendula officinalis L. Sp; Seas; Fla

(see Marigold, pot)

Pot Marjoram Majorana onites (L.) Benth;

(see Marjoram, pot) (Origanum onites (L.)** Sp; Seas; Fla

Prickly Ash bark Xanthoxylum americanum Mill. Oil; Ext; Olr

Quassia Picrasma excelsa (Sw.) Planch, Fla

Quassia amara L.

Quebracho bark Aspidosperma quebracho Fla

-blanco Schlecht,

(Quebrachia lorentzii (Griseb).

Quillaia (Soapbark) Quillaja saponaria Mol Fla

Quince seed Cydonia oblonga Miller. Ext used with Sp, Seas, Fla

Red saunders Pterocarpus santalinus L. Fla*

Rhatany root Krameria triandra Ruiz

et Pav, K. argentea Mart. Fla

Rhubarb root Rheum rhaponticum L. Fla*

R. officinale Baill. R. spp. Fla

Rose buds, flwrs., Rosa spp. Oil; Ext; Olr

fruit (hips and leaves)

Rose Geranium Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. Oil; Ext; Olr

Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa Fla*

Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Rosin Pinus spp. Fla*

Rue Ruta graveolens L., Fla not to

R. montana L.,R. bracteosa L. exceed 2 ppm.

R. chalepensis L.

Rue oil Ditto Fla not to exceed 10 ppm

Saffron Crocus sativus L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Sage Salvia officinalis L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Sage, Greek Salvia triloba L. Sp; Seas; Fla: Oil; Ext; Olr

St.John's Bread (carob) Ceratonia siliqua L. Oil; Olr; Ext

St.John's Wort leaves Hypericum perforatum L. Fla* - Hypericin-free

Sandalwood, white, Santalum album L. Fla

(yellow, East Indian)

Sandarac Tetraclinis articulata Fla*

(Vahl.), Mast

Sarsaparilla Smilax aristolochiaefolia Fla*

Mill, S. regelii Killip et Morton, S. febrifuga

Kunth, or S. spp.

Sassafras leaves Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Fla, Safrole-free

Savory, Summer, Winter Satureja spp. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Schinus molle Schinus molle L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Senna, Alexandrian Cassia acutifolia Delile Fla

Serpentaria (Virginia Snakeroot) Aristolochia serpentaria L. Fla*

Sesame Sesamum indicum L. Sp; Seas; Fla

Simaruba bark Simaruba amara Aubl Fla*

Sloe Berries (Blackthorn Berries) Prunus spinosa L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Snakeroot, Canadian (Wild Ginger) Asarum canadense L. Fla

Snakeroot, Virginia (Serpentaria) Aristolochia serpentaria L. Fla*

Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Spruce needles, twigs Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, Fla

P. mariana (Mill.) BSP.

Star Anise (see Anise, Star) Illicium verum Hook. f. Sp; Fla

Styrax (Storax) Liquidambar orientalis Mill. Fla

or L. styraciflua L.

Tagetes (marigold) Tagetes patula L., Fla - as oil

T. erecta L., T. minuta L. only

(T. glandulifera Schrank)

Tamarind Tamarindus indica L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Tangerine (mandarin) Citrus reticulata Blanco. Oil; Ext; Olr

Tansy Tanacetum vulgare L. Fla*, TF

Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Tea Thea sinensis L.;

(Camellia sinensis L. Ktze.**) Oil; Ext; Olr

Thistle, Blessed (Holy Thistle) Cnicus benedictus L. Fla*

Thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Thyme, Wild or Creeping Thymus serpyllum L. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

Thymus capitatus Thymus capitatus Hoffmg. Fla

(Spanish "origanum") et Link

Tolu Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms Fla

Triticum (Dog grass) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Oil; Ext; Olr

Tuberose Polianthes tuberosa L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Tumeric; Turmeric Curcuma longa L.; Sp; Seas; Fla;

(Curcuma domestica Val.**) Oil; Ext; Olr

Turpentine (Pine oil) Pinus palustris Mill., P. spp. Fla*

Valerian rhizome, Valeriana officinalis L. Fla

Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Andr., Sp; Seas; Fla;

V. tahitensis J.W.Moore Oil; Ext; Olr

Veronica Veronica officinalis L. Fla*

Vervain, European Verbena officinalis L. Fla*

Vetiver Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf. Fla

Violet flowers, leaves Viola odorata L. Oil; Ext; Olr

Violet, Swiss Viola calcarata L. Fla

Walnut husks (hulls), Juglans nigra L., or Fla

leaves and green nuts J. regia L.

Wild Cherry Bark Prunus serotina Ehrh. Oil; Ext; Olr

Woodruff, sweet Asperula odorata L. Fla*

(Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.)

Wormwood (Artemisia) Artemisia spp. Fla; TF

Yarrow Achillea millefolium L. Fla*, TF

Yerba Santa Eriodictyon californicum Fla

(Hook. et Arn.) Torr.

Ylang-Ylang Cananga odorata Hook.f. et Thoms. Oil; Ext; Olr

Yucca, Joshua-Tree Yucca brevifolia Engelm. Fla

Yucca, Mohave Yucca schidigera Roezl Fla

et Ortgies(Y. mohavensis Sarg.)

Zedoary bark Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. Sp; Seas; Fla; Oil; Ext; Olr

* = "Approved for use as flavoring in alcoholic beverages; see Paragraph One (1), Page One (1)."

** = "Currently accepted binomial recorded as first entry; outdated binomial used by FDA on original GRAS List is recorded in parentheses." 2/18/93/rc [7/16/84]