XANTHIUM CATHARTICUM H.B.K.: Casamarucha (C)
XANTHOSOMA CARACU Koch & Bouche: Yautia (S); Yautia horqueta (S). Young leaves of this
and other species are used as a potherb. Tubers of several other species are edible after processing.
XANTHOSOMA VIOLACEUM Schott: Primrose malanga (E); Badu (P); Coco (P); Oto (P); Tarkwa
(Cu); Montogoyo (Ch); Rascadera (C). The oto, a favorite Panama vegetable tends to become
naturalized. The tuberous roots are edible cooked with the taro and name constituting the bulk of
many of the sancochos of Panama gently seasoned with aji and heavily seasoned with culantro. The
young leaves, when boiled and chopped, constitute a satisfactory potherb. Cuna Indians are said to
reproduce the faces of criminals on the leaves.
XIMENIA AMERICANA L.: Tallowwood (E); Caimito de monte (C); Ciruelo (C); Espino brujo;
Limoncillo (C) Manzanilla (P); Pepenance (CR) . The fruits are edible raw or cooked.
They are made into a beer in South America. The seeds are edible roasted but are rather dangerous.
They are someticme pulverized and mixed with sago starch to make bread. They are used by some
Europeans to make a "sloe gin". Young leaves serve as a potherb. The seed oil is placed on hollow
teeth before extraction in Africa. The roots are chewed for toothache and are also used for sleeping
sickness, fevers, ringworm, and venereal diseases, and to stop vomiting and diarrhea. In the Antilles,
a syrup prepared from the fruits is used for rheumatism and dropsy.
XIPHIDIUM CAERULEUM Aubl.: Palmita (P); Soskia (Cu) . Bayano Cuna use the plant
as a cure for female problems (!).
XYLOPIA FRUTESCENS Aubl.: Malagueto chico (P); Malagueto hembra (P). Panama Negroes are
said to use the grains in place of pepper. This was formerly used as a cordage source.
XYLOPIA MACRANTHA Triana & Planch.: Azotacaballo (C); Coroba (P); Malagueto (C); Rayado
(P). The fruits are greedily eaten by pigs, and have been mixed with chocolate as a beverage.
Medicinally the plant is used for toothaches and stomachaches and as a stimulant. Ground fruits are
drunk in wine as a counterpoison.