(B)--Bocas del Toro (E)--English

(C)--Colombian Spanish (J)--Jamaican

(Db)--Choco (N)--Nicaraguan Spanish

(CA)--Central American Spanish (P)--Panamanian Spanish

(CR)--Costa Rican Spanish (S)--Spanish in general

(Cu)--Cuna (W)--Western Panama

(D)--Darien Spanish (!)--Personally gathered information

(Ch)--Not defined, but in text

(CR/ROC)--Costa Rican data from Rafael Ocampo

Tico Ethnobotanical Dictionary

- A -

Aba: Bombacopsis (N); Pithecellobium (Cu)

Ababol: Papaver (C)

Abaca: Musa (CR)

Abanico: Celosia (P)

Abanico chino: Amaranthus (S)

Abarco: Cariniana (C)

Abataque: Zantholoxylum (C)

Abebe: Renealmia (C)

Abejon: Cassia (CR); Stanhopea (C)

ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) Moench. Okra (E); Algalia (C); Candia (C); Gombo (C); Gumbo (J); Guicombo (C); Lagarto (C); Naju (P). (Fig. 1). Young okra is good as a vegetable or a pickle; roasted seeds are eaten on toast, sometimes used as a coffee substitute. The fruits are considered antispasmodic, used to treat bites of venomous animals.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medic. Musk okra (E); Wild okra (J); Algalia (C); Almizclillo (C); Lagarto (C). (Fig. 2). Cultivated elsewhere for the musk-scented seeds, used in perfumery, and as a fiber plant. In Panama, the plant is apparently cultivated only as an ornament.

Abetoa: Coleus (Cu)

Abgi: Unidentified cultivated shrub (probably Rubiaceae) used by the Bayano Cuna to stain hammocks black (!).

Abgigastuet: Indigofera (Cu)

ABRASIVE: A coarse-leaved plant used for washing dishes, Curatella, Luffa, Miconia, Pavonia, Solanum, Waltheria.

Abraza palo: Ficus (P)

Abrojito: Tribulus (C)

Abrojo: Alternanthera (C); Cenchrus (CR); Kallstroemia (C); Sloanea (CR); Triumfetta (P)

ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. Crab's eye (E); Rosary pea (E); Jequerite (C); Ojo de cangrejo (P); Peronilla (C,D). (Fig. 3). Raw seeds are very poisonous, have served as a contraceptive (4 to 6 white or black seeds are taken daily for several days after each menstruation). Seeds are used as necklace ornaments. Powdered seeds are used as a snuff for headache; boiled seeds used as an aphrodisiac. Roots used as a licorice substitute, chewed as an aphrodisiac, diuretic, for sore throat, and for rheujmatism. Macerated leaves are said to be styptic and to remove freckles. The leaves taste sweet, and a decoction of the leaves and roots is widely used for cought, colds, and colic.

Abugi: Indigofera (Cu)

Acabu: Zanthoxylum (P)

Acacia: Acacia (E); Leucaena (E)

Acacia de aguijote: Parkinsonia (N)

Acacia de Catharino: Prosopis (N)

ACACIA FARNESIANA (L.) Willd. Sweet acacia (E); Aromo (P); Pela (C); Una de Cabra (C). (Fig. 4). The gum is used as a famin food. Flowers are put between linens to scent them and to protect them from moths. Flowers are attractive to bees. Crushed fruits yield an astringent used in conjunctivitis, diarrhea, etc.; also used to mend broken dishes. Bark is considered febrifugal and is tied around the joints by West Indians to alleviate rheumatism.

ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA (Jacq.) Dugand Ex Croizat. Dildoe (E); Dildo espinoso (C); Pitajaya (C). Fruits of this, as of all cacti, are safe to sample, avoiding spines and minute hairs that are present on several varieties. the plant is diuretic. These cacti are fairly common in thorn forests of the Azuero Peninsula (!).

ACANTHOSPERMUM AUSTRALA (Loefl.) Kuntze. Cancer de loma (C).

ACANTHOSPERMUM HISPIDUM DC. Pacado mortal, espuela de caballo, ericito playero, cacharro, el trejo (C).

Acapalti: Iva (C)

Acapro: Tecoma (C)

Acedera (de montana): Oxalis (CR); Trifolium (CR)

Acedejo: Thevetia (C)

Aceite: Calophyllum (C); Copaifera (C); Phyllanthus (C)

Aceite maria: Calophyllum (C)

Aceite de palo: Podocarpus (C)

Aceituno: Guettarda (C); Humiriastrum (C); Simarouba (CR, CR/ROC, P); Vitex (C)

Aceituno negrito: Simarouba (N)

Acerola: Malpighia (CR)

Acesiva: Zamia (C)

Ache: Clarisia (C)

Acheri: Phyllanthus (C)

Achicoria: Elephantopus (CR); Eryngium (CR)

Achihuite: Bixa (C)

ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. Yarrow (E); Colchon de pobre (C). (Fig. 5). Leaves used occasionally as a soup vegetable, or as tea or tobacco substitutes. Aerial parts are regarded as depurative.

Achiote: Bixa (S)

Achiote de monte: Sloanea (C)

Achiotillo: Caryocar (C); Fuchia (CR); Lindackeria (C); Mayna (C); Vismia (CR, C)

Achira: Canna (C)

Achira de monte: Alpinia (C)

Achirilla: Curcuma (C)

Achon: Xylopia (C)

Achoncha: Cyclanthera (C)

Achote: Bixa (P)

Achote de monte: Ampelocera (C)

Achotillo: Banara (C); Vismia (CR)

Achueriala: Lippia (Cu)

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. Prickly chaff-flower (E); Rabo de gato (S) (Fig. 6). Leaves are eaten as a vegetable (6% protein). The seeds, though emetic, have served as famine food, also used to treat hydrophobia and snakebite. The branches serve as a toothbrush and the ashes are used for salt. Macerated roots are used on scorpion stings.


ACROCLINIUM ROSEUM Hook. Inmortales dobles (C)

ACROCOMIA ANTIOQUENSIS Posada-Arango. Corozo (C); Corozo a molado (C); Corozo caucano (C); Corozo grande (C). The seeds are a source of oil, and the leaves a source of fiber. The flowers are said to be pectoral.

ACROCOMIA PANAMENSIS Bailey. Prickley palm (E); Coyai (CR); Palma de vino (P); Pacora (P). The seeds are a source of oil, relished by cattle. Sweet sap of this and related species are used to make wine. Root of A. mexicana is regarded as a cure for diabetes.

ACROSTICHUM AUREUM L. Mangrove fern (E); Esnargan (Cu); Helecho de manglar (S). Young leaves and fiddleheads are edible raw or cooked. The leaves are emollients, sometimes used for thatch; rhizomes vulnerary. The Cuna use the young fiddleheads to extract fish bones from the throat (!). The plant is used as a medicinal bath for infants (!).

Acuapar: Hura (C)

Acuasia: Quassia (C)

Acuruco: Mutingia (C)

ADANSONIA DIGITATA L. Baobob (E,S) (Fig. 7). The young leaves are eaten as a pot-herb and in soups. The bark and leaves are eaten asa famine food; powdered, they serve as a substitute for salt and pepper. The seeds are febrifugal and are made into a gruel; roasted seeds are applied to aching teeth. Shoots of germinating seeds are edible.

Adelpha: Petrea (P)

ADENANTHERA PAVONINA L. Redhead (E); Coralitos (S) (Fig. 8). The leaves are served as famine food. Macerated leaves are used in gout and rheumatism; husked seeds are said to have an agreeable taste. Powdered seeds hasten suppuration of boils and cure prickly heat. The bark is used for washing clothes and hair, and the wood was formally the source of a red dye.

ADENOSTEMMA LAVERIA (L.) Kuntze. Dona Juana (C). Used in the Choco to wash wounds, and around Sautata regarded as a snakebite cure.

ADIANTUM sp. Maidenhair Fern (E); Culantrillo de piedra (P). This fern is regarded as an emmenagogue and expectorant.

Adonis: Duranta (C)

Adonis blanco: Duranta (C)

Adonis morado: Duranta (C)

Adorate: Pisonia (C)

Adyanya peso: Trichilia (C)

AECHMEA MAGDALENAE (Andre) Andre ex Baker. Pingwing (J); Pita (S) (Fig. 9). The acid fruits are edible raw or cooked, better for making beverages. Fibers in leaves are used for making rope and methods for commercial production are being studied in the Choco.

AEGIPHILA MARTINICENSIS Jacq. Contra culebra (P); Juan de la Verdad (P) (Fig. 10. The plant is considered alexeritic and aphrodisiac.

Afaja: Trichilia (C)

Agallo: Caesalpinia (P)

Agapanto: Agapanthus (CR)

AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L. Hierba hemostatica (C); Retentina (C); Mejorana (S); Chiba (C); Manrubio, Yerba de chino; Marrubio blanco, Yerba de chivo, Mastranto (Fig. 11). A valued hemostatic in Colombia, used elsewhere to treat venereal diseases.

Agra: Vitia (CR)

Agraz: Gouania (C); Vitis (C); Coccoloba (C)

Agrecejo: Gossyopiospermum (C)

Agu: Allium (Cu)

Agua libia: Senecio macrophyllus (C)

Aguacate: Persea (S)

Aguacate asca: Styrax (CR)

Aguacate del monte: Nectandra (P)

Aguacatia: Panopsis (S)

Aguacatilla: Hernandia (CR); various Lauraceae (CR); Persea (P)

Aguacatillo cordillero: Beilschmiedia (C)

Aguacaton: Ocotea (CR,P); Persea (P)

Aguacharaco: Protium (C)

Aguacolda: Sobralia (C)

Aguadija: Odontoglossum (C)

Aguadulce: Palicourea (C)

Aguaje: Chelyocarpus (C); Mauritia (C)

Aguakkalat: Eryngium (Cu)

Aguama: Bromelia (S)

Aguarras: Ocotea (C); Tetragastris (C)

Aguatillo de tierra firma: Grammadenia (C)

Agujade arrea: Casearia (C); Xylosma (C)

Agujilla: Ladenbergia (CR)

Ahumada: Cassia (N)

Ahuyama: Cucurbita (C)

Aikra: Gliricidia (C)

Aili: Avicennia (Cu); Conocarpus (Cu); Laguncularia (Cu); Rhizophora (Cu)

AIPHANES CARYOTIFOLIA (H.B.K.) Wendl. Chascara (C); Corozo de chascara (C); Mararay (C); Palma de chascara (C). The seeds are oily and edible.

Air Plant: Bryophyllum (E)

Air Potato: Dioscorea (E)

Aje de monte: Stemmadenia (C); Thevetia (C)

Ajenjibre: Zingiber (C)

Ajenjibrillo: Paspalum (CR)

Ajenjillo cimarron: Gnaphalium (CR)

Ajenjo: Artemisia (Cr, C)

Aji: Capparis (C); Capsicum (P); Caryocar (CR); Clarisia (C); Coccoloba (C); Diplotrophis (C)

Aji canella: Drimys (C)

Ajicillo: Heisteria (P)

Ajicito: Toxicodendron (C); Capparis (C)

Aji de monte: Stemmandenia (C); Thevetia (C)

Ajillo: Capparis (C); Capsicum (P); Caryocar (CR); Nothoscordum (CR); Petiveria (CR, CR/ROC)

Ajito: Capparis (C)

Ajo: Allium (P); Caryocar (CR); Cassipourea (P); Parkia (D)

Ajonjoli: Sesamum (S)

Akee: Blighia (J)

Ala de angel: Begonia (P); Bignonia (P)

Alacran: Heliotropium (CR,P)

Alacrancillo: Heliotropium (CR); Parosela (CR)

Alagua: Carludovica (C)

Ala de murcielago: Passiflora (P)

Alampana: Lantana (C)

Alasant: Ormosia (CR)

Alazano: Calycophyllum (C,P)

Albaca: Ocimum (D)

Albahaca: Ocimum (CR, CR/ROC)

Albahaca cimarrona: Salvia (CR)

Albarco: Cariniana (C)

Albarica: Aiphanes (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C); Desmoncus (C)

Albarina: Centaurea cyanus (C)

Albarracin: Bocconia (C)

Alcabu: Zanthoxylum (P)

Alcanfor: Cinnamomum (P)

Alcaparra: Capparis (C); Cleome (S)

Alcaparro: Adipera (C)

Alcareto: Aspidosperma (P); Sickingia (P)

Alchoncha: Sechium (C)

Alcornoque: Sechium (C)

Alcornoque: Bowdichia (C); Licania (CR); Mora (CR,P); Ormosia (P); Terminalia (CR)

Alcotan: Baccharis (CR); Cissampelos (S); Piper (CR)

ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. Candlenut tree (E); Nuez de India (S) (Fig. 12). The nuts, stimulant and sudorific, are edible after roasting; strung as candlenuts.

ALEXERITIC: A substance to counteract infection or poison. Acalypha, Achyranthes, Aegiphila, Albizia, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Asclepias, Caesalpinia, Cassia, Chiococca, Cissampelos, Clavija, Cocos, Coffes, Dracontium, Entada, Euphorbia, Fevillea, Gustavia, Hibiscus, Jatropha, Lantana, Mikania, Mimosa, Musa, Nicotiana, Piper, Pluchea, Quassia, Sapindus, Simaba, Tabebuia, Tamarindus, Thevetia, Vernonia, Xylopia.

Alfaje: Trichilia (P)

Alfajillo: Podocarpus (P); Trichilia (P)

Alfenique: Dialium(CR)

Alfombra: Mollugo (S)

Alfombrillo hediendo: Lantana (C)

Alforjon: Fagopyrum (C)

Algalia: Abelmoschus (C)

Algarrobo: Cassia (C); Ceratonia (S); Hymenaea (P); Pithecellobium (CR); Prosopis (P)

Alagodon: Cochlospermum (P); Gossypium (S)

Algodoncillo: Baccharis (C); Hibiscus (P)

Algodon lechero: Calotropis (C)

Algodon de monte: Leuhea (C); Thespesia (C)

Algodon de seda: Calotropis (S)

Algofar: Scleria (C)

ALIBERTIA EDULIS (L.Rich.) A.Rich. Guayabita de monte (D); Lagartillo (P); Madrona de comer (P); Torompito (P); Trompo (P); Wild guava (J). The fruits are eaten by all frugivores, including humans.They are also used by children to make tops.

Alicito: Toxicodendron (CR)

Aligo: Alnus (C); Tessaria (C)

Alisito: Toxicodendron (C)

Aliso: Alnus (C); Vernonia (C); Tessaria integrifolia (C)

Alita: Albizia (C)

Allagua: Phytelephas (C)

Alligator apple: Annona (E)

Alligator pear: Persea (E)

Alligator weed: Philoxerus (E)

ALLIUM spp. Garlic (E); Onion (E); Agu (Cu); Aguakalat (Cu); Ajo Cebolla (S); Dawawat (Cu); Palu (cu); Pida (Ch) (Fig. 13). Presently unknown in the wild, onion has been used more than 4000 years. Garlic, A. sativum L., is regarded as antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, cordiment, diaphoretic, emmenagogic, expectorant, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, and vermifugal; it is used in home remedies for bronchitis, colds, earaches, hysteria, nervous conditions and toothache. The juice can be used to mend china. Oil from the seeds is applied externally to rheumatics. Garlic oil, mixed with cebo de Cuba, is used like a mustard plaster in Panama. Onions are eaten raw or cooked and used for seasoning pickles, curries, stews, "sancochos", etc.(!). They are used as a home remedy for bronchitis, catarrh, colic, dropsy, fever, flatulence, hangover, and scurvy. They are regarded as aphrodisiac, carminative, emmenagogic, and soporific when used internally. They are used externally to treat earaches and insect bites. Maje Choco women, having difficulty delivering, receive a stomach massage with cooking oil mixed with oniion, garlic, oregano, and hierba poleo (perhaps Kallstroemia). Some Indians believe they also repel snakes; the odor repels some humans, so it might actually repel snakes. My Cuna guide from Nargana rubbed his legs with sliced onion to "prevent snakebite" (!). In Western Panama, onions are placed in the eaves of bohiuos as a bat repellent (!); a bat and snake repellent would be useful morale builders for the newcomer in Panama.

Almacigo: Bursera (P)

Alma negra: Bertholettia (C); Dussia (C); Sweetia (C); Swartzia (C)

Almendro: Andira (CR) Buchenavia (C); Dipteryx (P,C); Terminalia (S)

Almendro americano: Terminalia (C)

Almendro de la India: Terminalia (C)

Almendron: Attalea (C); Caryocar (C)

Almirajo: Patinoa (Ch)

Almizcle: Hedyosmum (C)

Almizclillo: Hibiscus (C)

Almond: Dipteryx (E); Terminalia (E)

Almoradua: Eupatorium (C)

Almoraduz: Eupatorium inulaefolium (C)

Almorrana: Alternanthera (C)

ALOE VERA (L.) Burm. F. Barbados aloe (E); Sabila (C). The yellow juice is a famous burn remedy. Crushed leaves are used as a cataplasm for boils and ulcers; its yellow resin is cathartic, emmenagogic, insecticidal, vermifugal; used by mothers to make their nipples distasteful to weaning children. Plant used for asthma and ulcers.

ALOPECIA: The state of being bald. Treated or prevented with Achras, Calocarpum, Capraria, Cocos, Colocasia, Giricidia, Guazuma, Gynerium, Persea, Stachytarpheta, Sterculia.

Alousia: Lippia (C)

Alpiste: Phalaris (C)

ALSOPHILA RUFA Fee. Tree Fern (E); Tasi (C). The pith, like a slimy potato, is used as a survival food in the Choco.

Altamica: Chrysanthemum (CR)

Altamisa: Ambrosia cumanensis (C)

Altasara: Phytolacca (C)

ALTERATIVE: A substance used empirically to alter the course of a disease favourably. Calotropis, Centella, Erechtites, Guaiacum, Lepidium, Musa, Phytolacca, Portulaca, Rumex, Solanum, Thespesia, Tragia.

ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS (L.) R.Br. Sanguinaria (S) (Fig. 14). the leaves serve as a famine food.

Alucema: Artemisia sodiroi (C)

Aluk: Cedrela (CR)

Alum: Alnus (CR)

Alumbre: Tabebuia (C)

Alverja: Pisum (C)

Amamor: Zanthoxylum (C)

Amancal: Thevetia (C)

Amancay: Thevetia (P)

Amancayo: Plumeria (C)

Amansa mujer: Prioria (C,P)

Amansapeon: Psoralea (C)

Amapola: Lycoseris crocata (C); Malvaviscus (CR); Papaver (C); Tagetes (P)

Amapola amarilla: Hibiscus (P)

Amapola mexicana: Argemone (C)

Amapolilla: Malvaviscus (CR)

Amaranth, blood: Amaranthus (E)

AMARANTHUS spp. Amaranth (E); Pigweed (E); Bledo (C,P); Calalu (P) (Fig. 15). the seeds serve as a grain, and the leaves as a potherb (3-6% protein). The plant finds its way into home cures for venereal diseases.

Amargo: Aspidosperma (C); Centrolobium (P); Coussarea (C); Coutabea (C); Palicourea (C); Psychotria (C); Simaba (C); Simarouba (P); Vatairea (P); Welfia (C)

Amargon: Taraxacum (CR)

Amargoso: Eupatorium angustifolium (C)

Amarillo: Aniba (C); Bucida (P); Centrolobium (D); Lafoensia (P); Nectandra (C); Terminalia (P)

Amarillo carbonero: Oncoba (P)

Amarillo fruto: Lafoensia (P)

Amarillo guayaquil: Centrolobium (P)

Amarillo negro: Lafoensia (P)

Amarillo real: Terminalia (P)

Amarillon: Terminalia (CR)

Amarrabollo: Meriania (C)

Amarradiablo: Schnella (C)

Amata: Ficus (S)

Ambuca: Piptadenia (C); Poponax (C)

Ame: Inga (C)

AMBEICIDE: A substance which kills ameba. Anacardium, Carica, Cephaelis, Chenopodium, Couma.

Amolao: Acrocomia (C)

Amores casados: Asclepias (P)

Amor seco: Acaena (C)

AMYRIS ELEMIFERA L. Torchwood (E); Tea (S). The wood is highly flammable; good for torches. (Fig. 16)

Anabaptista: Vismia (C)

ANACARDIUM EXCELSUM (B.&B.) Skeels. Wild cashew (E); Caracoli (C); Espave (P); Pinuwala (Cu). The fruit is eaten by most frugivores, including man. The bark is used as a fish poison; a favorite wood for dugouts in Darien and San Blas (!). Patino notes that the fruits are consumed as a bread stuff, and the trees are used for cacao shade trees.

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Cashew (E); Maranon (S); Uaipinu (Cu); Merey (C) (Fig. 17). The cashew, an excellent food source, is widely cultivated and naturalized in the savannahs of Panama. The swollen stalk of the cashew nut, termed the "apple", is more in demand among Latins than the nut. The antiscorbutic "apple" may be eaten raw, but the hull is astringent, and the nut must be avoided until after it has been roasted (!). Cashews belong to the poison oak family, and hypersensitive people might be wary of the whole cashew plant. The wood was responsible for the "swizzle-stick epidemic" in Georgia in 1958. When roasting the nut, one should carefully avoid the smoke, as it is very caustic. The nuts, once roasted, are very nutritious, having high fat, protein, and vitamin A content. Roasted nuts in Asia are mixed with palm sugar and coconut meat to form a sweetmeat. In Indonesia, the nuts are fried in coconut oil. In Africa, they are boiled in soups. The "apple" juice may be fermented to form alcoholic beverages or vinegars, or made into jelly. The young leaves are eaten raw with rice in Java and Malaya. Cuna Indians shave bark from this and Spondias to make a tea, sweetened to taste, for asthma, colds, and congestion. This is followed by drinking the juice from banana stems to restore strength (Perrin, p.c. 1968) and contain 4-5% protein. The bark of some species of Anacardium is used as a fish poison, and the flesh of the fish is not rendered toxic by the process. The juice exuding from incisions in the bark is used as an indelible ink. An acrid oil in the hull of the fruit has served as an anesthetic. The seed oil is believed to be amebicidal and alexeritic, and is used to treat gingivitis, malaria, and syphilitic ulcers. The fruit is reputedly antiscorbutic. The juice of the fruit is used to treat haemoptysis. The sap is said to be discutient, fungicidal, and repellent. A gargle of the leaf decoction is used for sore throat. Gum from the bark is said to be obnoxious to insects. Similar uses are reported for cardol. the oil has been used to kill mosquito larvae in Los Santos. A tea is made from the pinkish inner bark, effective in diabetes (!). In Cuba, resin used in cold treatments.

Anaco: Erythrina (C)

Anaja: Maximiliana (C)

ANALGESIC: A substance for killing pain. Bocconia, Indigofera, Piscidia, Tabebuia, Thevetia, Zanthoxylum.

Anamu (o): Petiveria (P)

ANANAS BRACTEATUS (Lind.) Schult. Pina de Playon (C). The sweet fruits are edible.

ANANAS COMOSUS (L.) Merr. Pineapple (E); Osi (Cu); Pina (S); Shiju (Ch). Pineapple is cultivated in various parts of the lowlands of Panama, those from Taboga Island having been highly praised. Darien negroes cook the rind with rice, cream and sugar to make 'chicha de pina'. The rind is also an ingredient in 'mazamoro de platano'. Pineapples produced at Curiche in the humid Choco Department are excellent(!), although pineapples are probably adapted better to semiarid areas such as the Pearl Islands(!). Pineapple fares best in acid, organic, and well-aerated soils. the juice of the fruit is regarded as antiscorbutic, Cholagogic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogic, refrigerant, and useful in jaundice. The juice of the leaves is regarded as anthelmintic, ecbolic, emmenagogic, and purgative. Young vegetative buds are an ingredient in a medicine for respiratory ailments in Choco children. An excellent long-lasting fiber is obtained from the leaves.

ANAPHRODISIAC: A substance to reduce sexual desire. Coffea, Dieffenbachia, Nymphaea, Peperomia.

Anatto: Bixa (E)

Anbuque: Poponax (C)

ANDIRA INERMIS L. Cabbagebark (E); Almendro (CR); Arenillo (P); Carne asado (CR); Cocu (P); Congo (C); Dividive (C); Pilon (P); Quira (P) (Fig. 18). The poisonous seeds of this honey tree are anthelmintic, febrifugal, purgative, and vermifugal. The bark is used as a barbasco, narcotic, purgative, and vermifuge. Smoke from the wood is said to be injurious to the eyes. The wood is best suited for heavy construction.

ANEMIA: A deficiency in red corpuscles. Musa.

Angarilla: Chloroleucon (C)

Angela: Moringa (C)

Angelina: Andira (C); Genipa (C)

Angelito: Caesalpinia (C); Genipa (C)

Angel trumpet: Datura (E)

Angero: Enterolobium (C)

Angolito: Ziziphus (C)

Angucha: Bejaria (C)

Anguito: Rauvolfia (C)

Angustora del Brasil: Esenbeckia (C)

ANIBA PERUTILIS (Jim ?Authority?) Chachajo (C); Comino (C). An esteemed fine-grained timber species in Colombia, very resistant to termites.

Anil: Indigofera (S)

Anileto: Hamelia (CR)

Anime: Casearia (C); Dacryodes (C); Protium (C,P); Polymnia (C); Tetragastris (P)

Anime blanca: Protium (C)

Aninga: Montrichardia (C)

Anis: Pimpinella (S)

Anise: Pimpinella (E)

Anisillo: Hedyosmum (C); Pectis (CR); Piper (CR); Tagetes (CR)

Anjera: Enterolobium (C)

Annatto: Bixa (E)

ANNONA CHERIMOLIA Mill. Bichichinejo (Ch); Chirimoya (C); Usisuti (Cu). Once classified as one of the three best tropical fruits, they take from five or more years to bear fruit.

ANNONA GLABRA L. Pond apple (E); Anon de puercu (P); Corazon cimarron (C) (Fig. 19). The fruits are edible, raw or preserved. Light wood, especially of the roots, is used for cork and floats.

ANNONA MURICATA L. Soursop (E); Guanabana (S); Nejo (Ch); Suiti (Cu) (Fig. 20). The edible ripe fruits, a good source of vitamins B and C and phosphorus, are made into jellies, preserves, and a delicious beverage (!). Some people chew them up and expectorate the plp in soups. The seeds are insecticidal and piscicidal. A leaf decoction is used to expel head lice. The leaves are made into a tea consumed by the negroes of Darien and Puerto Obaldia. The flowers and leaves are used in the Truando sector to combat kidney problems.

ANNONA PURPUREA Moc. & Sesse. Guanabana torete (P); Guanacona (C). The fruits, with the flavour of pawpaw, are believed by some Indians to induce fever. Darien Negroes insert leaves in their beds to keep spirits of the dead from molesting them.

ANNONA RETICULATA L. Custard apple (E); Anon (S); Anon injerto (C); Anon pelon (C); Corazon (C) (Fig. 21). The fruits are edible; attract turtles and fish when they fall into swamps. The roots are used against epilepsy. The bark is tonic and astringent.

ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. Sugar apple (E); Anon (S) (Fig. 22). The edible fruits are applied to contusions as a cataplasm. The leaves serve as a barbasco, as a poultice to heal ulcers and boils, and to kill lice and extract guinea worms. Crushed leaves, applied to a fainted person's nostrils, are said to hasten revival. On the other hand, in Colombia, leaves are placed under children's pillows so they will sleep better(!). The seeds are insecticidal, and said to kill lice.

ANODYNE: A substance for killing pain. Bocconia, Carica, Coleus, Datura, Etada, Jessenia, Myroxylon, Persea, Piscidia, Tamarindus, Zanthoxylum.

Anon: Annona (P); Rollinia (CR)

Anona: Annona (P); Rollinia (P)

Anon de azucar: Annona (C)

Anoncito: Rhamnus (C)

Anoncito de tierra firma: Psychotria (C)

Anon domestico: Annona (C)

Anonillo: Desmopsis (B); Guatteria (CR); Rollinia (CR)

Anonillo de cerro: Annona (CR)

Anon pelon: Annona (C)

Anon de puerco: Annona (P)

ANREDERA BASELLOIDES (H.B.K.) Baill. Maderia vine (E); Arroz con coco (C). The leaves are eaten as a potherb. The tubers are edible.

Anta: Corozo (C); Phytelephas (Ch)

ANTHELMINTHIC: Killing certain types of worms. Achras, Allamanda, Allium, Ananas, Andira, Annona, Asclepias, Carapa, Carica, Cassia, Chenopodium, Coffea, Cyperus, Lawsonia, Mammea, Mangifera, Melia, Momordica, Musa, Passiflora, Pentaclethra, Plumeria, Portulaca, Punica, Sechium, Simarouba, Spigelia, Vernonia.

ANTHEMIS NOBILIS L. Manzanilla de Castilla (C)

ANTHURIUM ACUTANGULUM Engl. A tea of the plant is used by the Choco for whooping cough.

ANTHURIUM RIGIDULUM Schott. Maicillo (CR). The purple fruits are said to be edible.

ANTIBILIOUS: A substance used to treat disorders of the gall bladder. Ananas, Annona, Caesalpinia, Cecropia, Cicer, Desmodium, Eclipta, Euphorbia, Imperata, Momordica, Musa, Polypodium, Solanum, Terminalia, Urera, Vetiveria.

ANTICYSTITIS: Clitoria, Hymenaea.

ANTIDIARRHETIC: A substance for counteracting diarrhea. Acacia, Adenathera, Anacardium, Annona, Avicennia, Bidens, Brownea, Bursera, Byrsonima, Capraria, Carapa, Casuarina, Celosia, Chrysobalanus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Crescentia, Cupania, Drepanocarpus, Elephantopus, Emilia, Erechtites, Euphorbia, Faramea, Haematoxylum, Hernandia, Hymenaea, Hyptis, Ipomoea, Jacobinia, Laguncularia, Mangifera, Melia, Mucuna, Musa, Nectandra, Piscidia, Pistia, Pitcairnea, Psidium, Psoralea, Quassia, Randia, Scoparia, Sida, Simarouba, Spathodea, Spondias, Stachytarpheta, Terminalia, Tourneforita, Triumfetta, Trophis, Waltheria, Wigandia, Ximenia, Zornia.

ANTIDOTAL: A substance used to counteract a noxious substance. Clitoria, Coffea, Colocasia, Gustavia, Maranta, Musa, Saccharum.

ANTIDYSMENORRHEIC: A substance used to relieve painful menstruation. Chrysobalanus, Cissampelos, Dieffenbachia, Mangifera, Morinda, Musa, Ocimum, Persea, Turnera.

ANTIECBOLIC: A substance to counteract an abortifacient. Cissampelos.

ANTIEMETIC: A substance to prevent vomiting. Cocos, Ximenia.

ANTIEPILEPTIC: A substance to prevent or alleviate convulsive seizures. Achras, Andira, Annona, Bixa, Caesalpinia, Calocarpum, Cedrela, Cestrum, Coleus, Cordia, Echinodorus, Eugenia, Indigofera, Parkinsonia, Pothomorphe, Sapindus.

ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS Hook. & Arn. Coral vine (E); Bellisimia (C); Cadena de Amor (P); Colacion (S); Coralillo (P); Coralito (P); Enredadera (P) (Fig. 23). The tubers are said to be edible when cooked.

ANTIHEMORRHAGIC: A substance used to prevent excessive bleeding. Brownea, Caesalpinia, Cajanus, Cecropia, Chrysophyllum, Cissampelos, Citrus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Commelina, Cyathula, Dendropogon, Entada, Equisetum, Eryngium, Gossypium, Guarea, Guazuma, Mangifera, Melochia, Momordica, Mucuna, Musa, Pithecellobium, Psidium, Psychotria, Punica, Rhizophora, Scoparia, Sechium, Solanum, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Turnera, Urera, Vernonia, Waltheria.

ANTIHEPATITIC: A substance for the diseases of the liver. Achras, Ananas, Annona, Bursera, Carapa, Cassia, Cecropia, Ceratonia, Citrus, Cochiospermum, Desmodium, Eleusine, Equisetum, Escobedia, Guazuma, Hymenaea, Jatropha, Lepidium, Nasturtium, Ophioglossum, Paullinia, Pothomorphe, Pseudelephantopus, Psidium, Quassia, Rheedia, Tamarindus.

ANTINEPHRITITIC: A substance used to ameliorate infection of the kidney. Abrus, Cassia, Citrus, Cucurbita, Cyperus, Equisetum, Guaiacum, Guazuma, Moringa, Paullinia, Poeppigia, Renealmia, Rheum, Solanum, Tabebuia.

ANTINEURALGIC: A substance used to alleviate the pain associated with irritated nerves. Allium, Moringa.

ANTIPERODIC: A substance used to counteract malaria or periodic fever (see also MALARIA). Caesalpinia, Cassia, Coffea, Lucuma.

ANTIRHEUMATIC: A substance used to alleviate rheumatism (pain, swelling, and deformity of the joints). Abrus, Adenanthera, Allium, Aniba, Annona, Apeiba, Aristolochia, Bramia, Bursera, Cannabis, Carapa, Cardiospermum, Cassia, Chiococca, Chlorophora, Cissus, Clematis, Clusia, Cocos, Coix, Croton, Dendropogon, Dieffenbachia, Dioscorea, Echites, Eupatorium, Guaiacum, Hamelia, Hura, Hymenaea, Hyptis, Ipomoea, Lantana, Melia, Mikania, Moringa, Myroxylon, Ocimum, Parmentiera, Plumbago, Porophyllum, Pothomorphe, Psychotria, Ricinus, Salvia, Siparuna, Steculia, Tamarindus, Trichilia, Urera, Wigandia, Ximenia.

ANTISCORBUTIC: A substance used to prevent scurvy. Allium, Anacardium, Ananas, Batis, Bramia, Celosia, Citrus, Hymenaea, Lycopersicon, Mangifera, Moringa, Musa, Nasturtium, Oxalis, Portulaca, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Sesuvium, Tamarindus.

ANTISEPTIC: A substance used to kill germs. Allium, Anacardium, Cocos, Faramea, Piper, Spondias, Tamarindus, Theobroma.

ANTISPASMODIC: A substance used to alleviate sustained, often painful, contractions of the muscles. Abelmoschus, Adansonia, Annona, Aristolochia, Bocconia, Boerhaavia, Bursera, Calotropis, Cannabis, Capparis, Cassia, Ceiba, Cestrum, Chenopodium, Clavija, Croton, Datura, Dipteryx, Echinodorus, Eclipta, Indigofera, Justicia, Lawsonia, Melia, Moringa, Muntingia, Pandanus, Passiflora, Peperomia, Petiveria, Spondias, Swietenia, Tournefortia, Vernonia.

ANTISPLENITIC: A substance used to alleviate inflammation of the spleen. Carapa, Carica, Cissampelos, Luffa.

ANTITETANIC: A substance used to counteract or alleviate the condition tetanus (tonic spasm of voluntary muscles). Carapa, Enallagma, Swietenia.

ANTIVENEREAL: A substance used to counteract venereal diseases. Amaranthus, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Arrabidaea, Bauninia, Bocconia, Bursera, Calotropis, Capparis, Capraria, Casearia, Cassia, Cecropia, Chamissoa, Chiococca, Cissus, Clematis, Commelina, Conocarpus, Copaifera, Corchorus, Costus, Crescentia, Drepanocarpus, Eichhornia, Elaeis, Entada, Equisetum, Genipa, Geonoma, Gouania, Guaiacum, Hippomane, Ipomoea, Isotoma, Jacaranda, Jatropha, Luffa, Mangifera, Mikania, Musa, Myroxylon, Parsonia, Petiveria, Piper, Piscidia, Pistia, Plumeria, Polypodium, Pothomorphe, Prioria, Protium, Pseudelephantopus, Ricinus, Sabicea, Scoparia, Serjania, Smilax, Solanum, Spondias, Tagetes, Tephrosia, Tetracera, Thespesia, Tournefortia, Trichilia, Turnera, Waltheria, Ximenia.

Anum: Spondias (C)

Apamate: Tabebuia (C)

Apazote: Chenopodium (S)

APEIBA TIBOURBOU Abul. Monkey comb (E); Burio (CR); Cadillo (C); Cortezo (P); Erizo (C); Fruta de piojo (P); Guacimo (C); Majagua (CR); Malgano (C); Peinecillo (CR); Peine de mico (P,C). The fruits, with their numerous oil=rich seeds, are a favorite with frugivores, and might serve as a famine food for man. The bark contains a rough fiber used for rope making. The plant is regarded as a rheumatism cure. It is said to be used for making rafts in Colombia, and has been used for tinder in primitive fire-making.

APERIENT: A mild laxative. Argemone, Clitoria, Hibiscus, Sesamum, Sesbania, Tamarindus.

Apgi: Paullinia (Cu)

APHRODISIAC: A substance which stimulates sexual desire. Abrus, Aegiphila, Allium, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Avicennia, Bambusa, Bixa, Byrsonima, Cannabis, Capsicum, Ceiba, Celosia, Centella, Cocos, Daucus, Desmodium, Dieffenbachia, Drepanocarpus, Elaeis, Eryngium, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Hyptis, Lepidium, Lippia, Momordica, Moringa, Mucuna, Musa, Myristica, Ocimum, Pandanus, Passiflora, Persea, Petiveria, Peperomia, Rhynchosia, Seasmum, Turnera, Typha.

APHTHOSIS: Hoof and mouth disease. Bidens, Byrsonima, Citrus, Euphorbia, Lagerstroemia, Spondias, Tournefortia.

Apio: Apium (S)

Apior: Dieffenbachia (Cu)

Apompo: Pachira (C)

APOPLEXY: A loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion as a result of obstruction of arterial flow to the brain. Treated with Tamarindus.

Aporromia: Musa (Ch)

Apotocaum: Diffenbachia (Ch)

APPENDICITIS: Inflammation of the appendix. Erythrina.

Aqui: Blighia (P)

Arabian Jasmine: Jasminum (E)

ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. Peanut (E); Cacahuate (C); Mani (P) (Fig. 24). The seeds are edible, raw or roasted; seedlings are also edible. Few, if any, peanuts are cultivated along Route 17. They are cultivated on the Azuero Peninsula and around Unguia for food and oil production.

Aramillo: Lysiloma (W)

Arana: Hibiscus (C); Dalechampia (C); Epidendrum (C); Maxillaria (C).

Arana-gato: Solanum (P); Zanthoxylum (C)

Arara: Capparis (C)

Arbol de amor: Gliricidia (C)

Arbol de balsamo: Myroxylon (P)

Arbol de la Cruz: Brownea (C)

Arbol de la Brujas: Parmentiera (P)

Arbol de diablo: Morisonia (C)

Arbol de fuego: Delonix (S)

Arbol de lluvia: Samanea (CR)

Arboloco: Montanoa (C); Polymnia (C)

Arboloco bogotano: Polymnia pyramidalis (C)

Arboloco de Bogota: Montanoa (C)

Arboloco hueco: Polymnia pyramidalis (C)

Arbol de pan: Artocarpus (S)

Arbol de paraiso: Melia (C)

Arbol de las perlas: Moringa (S)

Arbol de sal: Avicennia (S)

Arbol Santo: Jatropha (P)

Arbol de seda: Calotropis (C)

Arbol de viajero: Ravenala (C)

Arbolito: Phyllanthus (C)

Arcabuco: Cupania (C)

Archucha: Cyclanthera (C)

Arco: Tabebuia (C)

ARDISIA sp. Fruta pava (P); Iskarmas (Cu); Margarita (P); Tucuico (CR); Uvito (P). The fruits, with a grape-like flavor, are often gathered and eaten by woodsmen (!). Bayano Cuna use the plant medicinally and the berries to stain their bodies (!).

Arebalo: Cupania (C)

Areng-kra: Clusia (CR)

Arenillero: Hura (C)

Arenillo: Andira (P); Catostemma (C); Dipterodendron (C); Hura (C); Leonia (C); Ternstroemia (C); Weinmannia (C)

Arepito: Ampelocera (C)

Arepo: Piscicia (C)

Argelina: Solanum (C)

ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. Prickly poppy (E); Cardosanto (C). The narcotic weeda are demulcent, emetic, expectorant, laxative, and are used for cancer, itch, and scabies, and applied externally for headache. The seed-oil is used for illumination and soap-making.

Argentina: Cynodon (C)

Arguaco: Pera (C)

ARISTOLOCHIA ARBORESCENS L. Dutchman's pipe (E); Snakeroot (E); Flor de culebra (D); Mato (C). This is a favorite snakebite medicine in Darien. the leaves and/or roots are abortifacient; emmenagogic, febrifugal, sudorific, and are used for chills, colds, dysentery, and venereal disease.

ARISTOLOCHIA MAXIMA L. Cuajilote (CR). The fruits are edible.

Arito: Phyllanthus (C)

Ariza: Brownea (P); Maytenus (C)

Armanga: Baccharis decussata (C)

Arnica: Miconia (C); Senecio formosus (C); Taraxacum (CR)

Arnica ceniza: Senecio niveo-aureus (C)

Arnica de monte: Trixis radialis (C)

Aroma-ieron: Acacia (C)

Aromo: Acacia (S); Calliandra (P); Prosopis (C)

Aromo real: Poponax (C)

Arponcito: Bidens (P)

ARRABIDAEA CHICA (Humb. & Bonpl.) Verlot. Bija (S). The vine yields a pink dye popular with the island Cuna.

Arracacha: Arracacia (C)

Arracache: Vochysia (C)

Arracacho: Montrichardia (C)

Arracachuelo: Rumex (C); Spananthe (C); Ranunculus (C)

ARRACACIA XANTHORRHIZA Bancroft. Arracacha (C); Sacarracacha (C). The rhizomes are eaten in stews and soups; also boiled or fried, used to make chichas. The petioles are boiled to make a medicine for a microbe between the toes.

Arracheche: Mouriri (P)

Arraclan: Rhamnus (C)

Arrapau: Triplaris (Ch)

Arrayan: Eugenia (C); Malpighia (C); Myrcia (P); Myrica (CR); Myrtus (C); Psidium (P); Satyria (CR); Vaccinium (CR); Weinmannia (CR)

Arrayancito: Malpighia (C); Myrcia (C)

Arrecachillo: Myrrhidendron (CR)

Arrocillo: Echinochloa (C); Oryza (C)

Arrowhead: Sagittaria (E)

ARROW POISON: A substance used to poison arrows. Calotropsis, Dioscorea, Diospyros, Drepanocarpus, Euphorbia, Hippomane, Hura, Lonchocarpus, Mucuna, Paullinia, Pedilanthus, Pentaclethra, Perebea, Petiveria, Piscidia, Strychnos.

Arrowroot: Maranta (E)

Arroz: Oryza (S)

Arroz con coco: Anredera (C)

Artemisia: Ambrosia (C)


Artera: Cassia (C)

ARTHRITIS: Inflammation of the articulating surfaces of the joints. Treated with Achras, Bramia, Chiococca, Dioscorea, Ipomoea, Oryza, Polygonum, Trichilia.

ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS (Parkinson) Fosberg. Breadfruit (E); Breadnut (E); Arbol de pan (S); Fruta de pan (S); Madupura (Cu); Pan de Pepita (S); Pantriba (Ch) (Fig. 25). Breadfruits, the main cargo of the H.M.S. Bounty, are still cultivated in Panama. The seeded varieties are capable of natural regeneration (!). Breadfruits of good quality rarely produce seeds and the fruits are eaten, picked before they are ripe, while the pulp is still white and mealy. They are baked, boiled or sliced and "french-fried". Occasionally they may be eaten raw. For storage, it is best to bake or roast, then slice and sun-dry. In some Pacific Islands, they are fermented to form a malodorous paste baked into cakes. Seeds of the seeded varieties are boiled or roasted like chestnuts by the Darien Negroes (!). A fiber can be obtained from the bark and thge latex is used for caulking boats. The leaves may be fed to livestock.

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA L. Jackfruit (E); Jaca (S) (Fig. 26). The jackfruit or jaca has dozens of sectors, each with one seed, surrounded by a yellow, pulpy mass with a strong odor. The pulp is eaten raw or cooked; or may be fermented to yield an alcoholic beverage with a strong odor and peculiar flavor. The seeds are usually more palatable to the Yankee than the fruits and when roasted have the flavor of chestnuts. Seeds are often ground into flour, each fruit yielding more than a pound of flour. Unripe fruits may be cut up and cooked in stews and soups. Flowering shoots and very young fruits of the jackfruit are also eaten in salads and spicy stews. Young flower clusters are eaten with syrup and agar-agar in java. A milky juice especially prevalent in the fruits, may be used as birdlime to ensnare birds. The juice also is used as a cement. In the Philippines, slices of the ripe fruit are placed in beds to discourage bedbugs.

Arunagatro: Pisonia (C)

Arvejas: Pisum (C)

Arvellano: Garcia (C)

Asca: Styrax (CR)

Ascae: Desmodium (Cu)

ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L. Bencenuco (C); Malcasada (P); Milkweed (E); Nino muerto (P); Pasorin (P); Quiebraejo (C); Viborana (CR); Yuquillo (P) (Fig. 27). In Honduras, the milky sap is used as a vermifuge; dried latex is said to induce sneezing. In Panama, it is reported to be a leprosy cure and a vermifuge. The inflorescence is used as a hemostatic and to cure gonorrhea.

Asnaludo: Thibaudia (C)

ASPILIA TENELLA (H.B.K.) Blake. Papunga falsa; Guasquilla (C)

Assa: Euterpe (C)

ASTER LAEVIS L. Hortensis (C)

ASTER MARGINATUS H.B.K. Cerrajita cimarnona, Tavera (C)

ASTER SINENSIS L. Montenegro (C)

ASTHMA: Condition of the respiratory system associated with continuous difficulty in breathing. Treated with Aegiphila, Allium, Aloe, Bixa, Boerhaavia, Brosimum, Calotropis, Carica, Cassia, Cecropia, Chenopodium, Cissampelos, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Coleus, Cornutia, Curatella, Datura, Drymaria, Eclipta, Erythrina, Euphorbia, Hymenaea, Isotoma, Lantana, Lecythis, Lippia, Luffa, Mangifera, Manicaria, Moringa, Mucuna, Musa, Myroxylon, Petiveria, Plumbago, Rhizophora, Sapindus, Solanum, Sterculia, Tamarindus, Terminalia.

Astillo: Cedrela (C)

ASTRINGENT: A mildly binding substance. Acacia, Anacardium, Annona, Bixa, Crescentia, Hesperomeles, Mangifera, Musa, Myrcia, Portulaca, Psidium, Punica, Sapindus, Terminalia, Zea.

ASTROCARYUM STANDLEYANUM Bailey. Black palm (E); Chonta (P); Chunga (P); Guerregue (C); Pejibaye (CR) (Fig. 28). The fruits, cabbages, and seedlings are edible (!). The spines are flammable, even in wet weather (!). The hard wood is used for making bows, arrows, canes, etc. A good fiber is obtained from the leaves.

Astromelia: Lagerstroemia (C)

ASTRONIUM GRAVEOLENS Jacq. Conzalo alves (E); Ronron (CR); Tibigaro (C); Yamato (C); Diomate (C); Gusanera (C); Potrico (C); Quebracha (C); Zorro (P) (Fig. 29). The lumber is exported to the United States for plywood; it polishes and works well, and is weather and moisture resistant.

Astrominica: Lagerstroemia (S)

Asue: Persea (Cu)

Aswe: Persea (Cu)

Atadero: Carludovica (P)

Ataja sanhgre: Bedsleria (C)

Atana: Inga (CR)

Ate: Protium (C)

ATTALEA AMYGDALINA H.B.K. Almendron (C); Milpesos (C); Taparo (C). The oily seeds are edible. Young fruits yield a pipa-like beverage (!).

ATTALEA COHUNE Mart. Cohune palm (E). The cabbage is edible; the fruits are made into sweetmeats, also used for livestock fodder. Seed oil is used for cooking, illumination, and soapmaking. Sap is used for winemaking. The leaves are used for thatch.

Atusara: Phytolacca (C)

Auoso: Capparis (C)

Auree: Campnosperma (P)

Auso: Capparis (C)

Australian pine: Casuarina (E)

Auyama: Cucurbita (C)

Avellana: Eupatorium (C); Carica (C)

Avelluelo: Vochysia (C)

Avena: Avena (S)

AVENA SATIVA L. Oats (E); Avena (S). The oats make an excellent cereal, rarely, if ever, cultivated in lowland Panama.

AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. Bilimbi (E); Grosella carambola (C) (Fig. 30). Fruits are edible (!). Flowers are made into preserves; fruit juice removes stains from linens.

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. Carambola (E,S); Grosella caranbola (C); Tiriguro (CR) (Fig. 31). Occasionally cultivated in lowland Panama, the acid fruits are edible and are used for jellies and drinks. The tart juice is used to remove rust and tarnish from metals.

AVICENNIA GERMINANS L. Black mangrove (E); Aili (Cu); Calumate (CR); Mangle salado or negro (P); Palo de sal (CR). the seeds are toxic until germinating, then they are edible cooked. The leaves are coated with salt. The bark is used for tanning. The flowers are much visited by bees. Gum from the trunk is used for throat infections. Smoke from the wood is said to be an effective mosquito smudge. Ashes are added to water for washing clothes. The tree is used for charcoal, fuel, construction, and tanning.

Avichuri: Brosimum (C); Couma (C)

Avicur: Couma (C)

Avinge: Andira (C); Geoffroya (C)

Avinje: Chlorophora (C)

Avispilla de canastilla: Hibiscus (N)

Avispo: Eurya (C)

Avispon: Hibiscus (CR)

Avocado: Persea (E)

Ayahuasca: Banisteriopsis (C)

Ayote: Cucurbita (C)

Ayuelo: Dodonaea (C); Erythroxylum (C)

Azabuche: Pithecellobium (C)

Azafran: Bocconia (C); Crocus (C); Curcuma (C)

Azaharcillo: Hillia (CR)

Azari: Cornutia (CR)

Azota-caballo: Luehea (C); Phytolacca (CR); Pithecellobium (CR,P); Xylopia (C)

Azota-cabeza: Philodendron (P); Syngonium (P)

Azote: Hampea (P)

Azucarerito: Paullinia (C)

Azucarero: Miconia (C)

Azucena: Cattleya (C); Lilium (C,CR); Plumeria (C); Thevetia (C)

Azuceno: Elaeagia (C); Plumeria (C); Saurauia (C); Thevetia (C)

Azufaifa: Ziziphus (C)

Azufre: Curatella (C); Roupala (C)

Azul: Jacobinia (CR)

Azulejo: Centaurea (C)

Azulina: Petraea (C); Plumbago (C)

Azulito: Petraea (C)

Azullillo: Hamelia (CR)

Azul de mata: Jacobinia (CR); Justicia (CR/ROC)

- B -

Baba: Gliricidia (P)

Babaco: Carica (C)

Bacaba: Oenocarpus (C)

Bacao: Theobroma (C)

BACCHARIS spp. Chilca (C); Chilco (C); Ciro (C)

Bachelor's button: Gomphrena (E)

Baco: Gustavia (C)

BACTERICIDE: A substance used to kill bacteria. Allium, Genipa, Neurolaena.

BACTRIS MINOR Jacq. Black Palm (E); Cana brava (C); Lata (C); Lata hembra (C); Lata de playon (C); Uvero de lata (C). The pulp of the fruit is edible (fruits of Bactris species are edible). The leaves furnish forage during the dry season.

BACTRIS sp. Black palm (E); Mongololo (D). The young fruit is edible, with the flavor of coconut. At maturity it is nearly as hard as the ivory palm (!).

Badea: Magnolia (P); Passiflora (C)

Badu: Xanthosoma (C)

Bagala: Renealmia (C)

Bagamani: Tapirira (P)

Bagari: Piptadenia (C)

Bagata: Dussia (C)

Bagre: Adelia (C); Trichilia (C)

Baguar: Hamelia (CR,N)

Baho: Platymiscium (C)

Bailador: Guarea (C)

Bajagua: Cassia (C)

Bala: Gliricidia (P); Spondias (CR)

Bala de canon: Couroupita (C)

Balata: Manilkara (C,P)

Balaustre: Centrolobium (C)

Balazo: Monstera (C)

Ballico: Lolium (C)

Balloon vine: Cardiospermum (E)

Ballotica: Calliandra (C)

Balsa: Bombax (CR); Heliocarpus (N); Ochroma (S)

Balsa blanca: Hampea (C)

Balsam Capivi: Copaifera (J); Myroxylon (J)

Balsam copaiba: Copaifera (P)

Balsaminito, Balsamito: Momordica (S); Myrospermum (C)

Balsamo: Momordica (S); Myroxylon (N)

Balsamo de Malagalpa: Myroxylon (N)

Balsamo de Maracaibo: Copaifera (C)

Balsa Montanero: Trema (C)

Balsam Pear: Momordica (E)

Balsam of Peru: Myroxylon (E)

Balsillo: Croton (S)

Balso: Apeiba (C); Heliocarpus (C)

Baltran: Phragmotheca (C)

Balu: Erythrina (C)

Bambali: Scabiosa (CR)

Bambito: Nectandra (P); Ocotea (P)

Bambito colorado: Ocotea (P)

Bamboo: Bambusa (E); Guadua (E)

Bamboo palm: Oenocarpus (E)

Bambu: Bambusa (P); Guadua (E)

Bambudo: Pterocarpus (C); Pachira (C)

BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd. Bamboo (E); Bambu (S); Chogro (Ch); Nala (Cu). In Latin America, bamboos are used mostly for construction, not for the culinary role that they play in the Orient. Various bamboos are cultivated, but mostly for ornamental and construction. Most bamboo species produce shoots, or "spears", which are edible. Bitterness (and poisonous principles?) is removed by changing the water several times during cooking. Toughness can be ameliorated by cutting the shoots into thin slices. Shoots about 15 inches tall and 3 inches in diameter are at a good stage for cooking, but Panamanian Chinese prefer them before they have emerged from the soil (!). Leaf sheaths should be peeled away, as should be parts of the shoot that were in contact with the ground, especially if they have turned gray. The thin core should be cut into small disks, at least eight to the inch, and boiled for at least 20 minutes, changing the water. They are ready for eating then, but can be much improved by frying in coconut oil or butter. In times of scarcity, bamboo grain has saved the lives of thousands of Asian Indians, and the grains have sold at higher prices than rice. when other grains are plentiful, those of bamboo are rarely eaten. It is said to be a somewhat unsafe food, being apt to produce diarrhea and dysentery. Crops of grain in some species are produced only at intervals of about 30 years. Seeds of Bambusa arundinaceae usually appear when drought occurs, at least in India. Fluids in bamboos are often accumulated in the joints, especially in the hollow kinds. Water in these culms is potable. Young, vigorously growing stalks may have a considerable amount of liquid in each hollow internode, which can be located by shaking the stalk and listening for splashing. Some of the Darien species have water with much the flavor of a pipa (!). Old, dry, and cracked stems also tend to accumulate potable rainwater. In India, pieces of hollow bamboo 3 to 6 feet long, with the partition perforated so as to form long pails, are carried by hill watermen, suspended over the back by a bamboo string that passes over the forehead. The water stays cool for a number of days. One entire section about a foot long is cut out, and a small hhole is bored in one of the joint partitions with the machete point to make an effective canteen. then sand and water are put in the hole and shaken around to clean out the interior. A plug is fashioned from some softwood tree. the flange on the bamboo stem forms a handle to which a line is tied to fashion a strap (!). Rice and water are placed inside and covered. The primitive waterproof pot is placed on the fire until the rice is done. A simple ladle is made by cutrting one end of a joint down to a handle leaving a few inches of the bottom as a ladle. With the ladle the rice is served, and the meat course may be cut up with bamboo knoves. Milk pails and churns are also made of bamboo in India. without too much imagination, one can fashion anything from a barbecue grill to a smoking pipe from bamboo. Bamboos are not only used for fishing poles; the fishermen of Bengal have one of tghe most curious fish-hooks in the world. It consists of a short sliver of well-seasoned bamboo cane, 3x1/8 inch. the string (which can be made from bamboo fibers) is attacdhed near the middle of the sliver, which is then bent into a U-shape. A green grasshopper's head is plucked off and the two ends of the U are insesrted in the open end of the body. The upper end of the string is attached to a piece of bamboo about a foot long, which is left floating in the water. When the fish cuts the bait, the bamboo sliver is extended in its mouth, the ends being caught in its gills. Large fish are often caught this way, the pain more or less inactivating the fish. boats are sometimes caulked with shavings of bamboo mixed with lime and tung oil. The common and characteristic harpoon of Bengal consists of a piece of Dendrocalamus strictus about 6 feet long, split apically into eight or ten long pieces, about as thick as the little finger. These are smooth and rounded up to within a foot of the top, where the bamboo is firmlybound to keep it from further splitting and metal points are inserted. The fisherman rattles this against the side of the boat to alarm the fish from their hiding places in the weeds. The harpoon is then hurled, the prongs opening out on hitting the water and greatly enhancing the fisherman's chance by expanding the area of coverage with the metal points. Pointed bamboo stakes have been used to spear lobsters. Fish traps are also made of bamboo slivers. Split bamboo, heated in a fire to harden the wood, will take an edge. Some people shave with bamboo knives. Bamboo knives are superior to pocket knives for removing leeches, since they scrape rather than cut them off. Nagas and other hill tribes in India use the hardened outer portions of spiny bamboos as knives and spears. Jungles and forests about villages are often covered for miles with these formidable weapons. Short, sharp bamboo knives called pangis are vburied along the footpath so as to go right through the foot of the unwary traveler approaching the village. The foot is by accident placed between these, and being cut by the one in front, is rapidly withdrawn, only to have the other two violently driven in from behind. Sometimes thousands of these surround a village. Pits are also dug and lined with spears so that the unwary animal or traveler falls to a certain death. Cuna Indians are reported to line animal snares with bamboo slivers (!). Emergency footwear has been devised from beaten and flattened bamboo stalks. The "Malayan Gate" consists of a cut sapling about 3 inches in diameter sprung horizontally between two trees with one end projecting a few feet. The end is armed with bamboo spears and triggered so that someone tripping on a string will release the sapling and be impaled with bamboo. On festive occasions, Malays put green bamboo in specially prepared fired. The air enclosed in the joint gets heated and the joints burst with a heavy report, like a small pistol. To remove worms from ulcers, some people place a poultice, made by pounding the leaves of Bambusa arundinacea on the ulcer, after first pouring the juice on the vermin. In the interior of the hollow stems of some bamboos, e.g., Bambusa arundinacea, is found a siliceous and crystalline substance known in India as tabashir. Tabashir is considered aphrodisiac, demulcent, emmenagogic, expectorant, febrifugal, and pectoral. It is used to combat flatulence and jaundice. leafe sheaths have been used as splints, and bamboo joints have served as peg legs, the stumps of the leg being merely inserted at the open end of the culm. Toothbrushes are fashioned by chewing at the ends of a sliver until they are soft and the fibers separated. Bamboo has been fashioned into needles by some people who used threads stripped from fibrous bark or coconut leaves.

Banak: Virola (N)

Banana: Musa (E)

Banco: Dendropanax (C); Gyrocarpus (C)

Bandera espanola: Canna (P)

Bandera de uribe: Canna (C)

Banderita: Masdavallia (C)

Banyan: Ficus (E)

Bao: Campomanesia (C); Platymiscium (C)

Baobob: Adansonia (E)

Baquero: Croton (P)

Bara: Spondias (CR)

Baraboja: Tithonia (S)

Barajo, Baraja, Barajillo: Cassia (P)

Baranca: Dugandia (C)

Barano: Caesalpinia (C); Senegalia (C)

Barbabisco: Erythrina (C)

Barba chele: Vochysia (N)

Barbadina: Passiflora (C)

Barbados aloe: Aloe (E)

Barbados gooseberry: Pereskia (E)

Barbados pride: Caesalpinia (E)

Barba gallo: Warszewiczia (C)

Barba de jolote: Pithecellobium (P)

Barbancito: Phyllanthus (C)

Barba de palo: Grimmia (C)

Barba de rey: Gynandropsis (S)

Barbarito: Trophis (C)

Barbascillo: Daphne (C)

Barbasco: Bidens (CR); Clibadium sylvestre (C); Ichthyothere scandens (C); Jacquinia (C); Paullinia (C,P); Phyllanthus (C); iPolygonum (C); Rumex (C); Serjania (CR); Salmea (C)

Barbasco de agua: Lonchocarpus (C)

Barbasco de fruto: Muelleria (C)

Barbasco montero: Croton (C)

Barbasco de pua: Jacquinia (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

Barbas de viejo: Tillandsia (C)

Barbas de mono: Triplaris (C)

Barbas de guasco: Acalypha (C)

Barba de viejo: Clematis (S); Tillandsia (CR)

Barbatuco: Erythrina (C)

Barbon: Caesalpinia (S)

Barbudo: Piptocarpha (CR)

Barcino: Calophyllum (C)

Barenillo: Croton (S)

Barillo: Symphonia (P)

Baripozo: Sesbania (S)

BARK CLOTH: Primitive clothing made from the inner bark of plants. Brosimum, Castilla, Cecropia, Ficus, Hibiscus, Muntingia, Poulsenia, Pseudolmedia.

Barley: Hordeum (E)

Barniz de Pasto: Elaegia (C)

Barnyard grass: Echinochioa (E)

Barrabas: Euphorbia (CR)

Barredera: Tessaria (C)

Barrigon: Pseudobombax (P)

Barsalito: Baccharis (C)

BASELLA RUBRA L. Ceylon spinach (E); Bretana (S). This excellent potherb is rarely cultivated in Panama.

Bashful plant: Mimosa (E)

Basil: Ocimum (E)

Basquin: Senecio guicanensis (C)

Bastard cacique: Prunus (B)

Bastard cedar: Guazuma (E)

Bastard mahogany: Carapa (E)

Bataba: Jessenia (C)

Batatilla: Cucurma (C); Ipomoea (P); Rivea (S)

Batatilla amarilla: Ipomoea (P)

Batatilla macho: Jacquemontia (P)

Bateita: Pithecoctenium (CR)

Bateo: Carapa (P)

BATIS MARITIMA L. Saltwort (E); Barilla (S). The leaves serve as a presalted salad, potherb, or pickle.

Baura: Piscidia (C)

Bayeto antioquena: Albizia (C)

Bayra: Ichthyothera terminales (C)

Beach carpet: Philoxerus (E)

Beak-sedge: Rhynchospora (E)

Bean: Phaseolus (E)

Beardgrass: Andropogon (E)

Becerra: Antirrhinum (C)

Beefsteak: Heliconia (E)

Beefwood: Casuarina (E)

Beet: Beta (E)

Beggarlice: Desmosium (E)

Beggartick: Bidens (E)

Bego: Persea (Ch)

BEILSCHMIEDIA ANAY (Blake) Kosterm. The fruit is edible and oily.

Bejucillo: Vanilla (C)

Bejuca agraz: Tetracera (C)

Bejuco de agra: Cissus (C); Davilla (P); Pisonia (C); Vitis (P)

Bejuco de aja: Petraea (P)

Bejuco alcalde: Desmoncus (C)

Bejuco amarillo: Liabrum megacephalum (C)

Bejuco amarrar: Securidaca (S)

Bejuco azul: Cissampelos (CR)

Bejuco de bruja: Cuscuta (C)

Bejuco caballuno: Rhynchosia (C)

Bejuco de cadena: Bauhinia (P)

Bejuco de canjura: Tontelea (P)

Bejuco carare: Aristolochia (C)

Bejuco Carleno: Bauhinia (C)

Bejuco castana: Smilax (CR)

Bejuco castro: Cissus (C)

Bejuco catebrero: Cydista (C)

Bejuco de cerca: Cissampelos (C)

Bejuco chaparro: Tetracera (C)

Bejuco chinche: Philodendron (C)

Bejuco chirrador: Cissus (C)

Bejuco clavellino: Mutisia clematis (C)

Bejuco colorado: Muehlenbeckia (CR)

Bejuco comemano: Cissus (CA)

Bejuco de corral: Serjania (S)

Bejuco curamuelas: Manettia (C)

Bejuco de culebra: Bauhinia (CR,P)

Bejuco deshinchador: Philodendron (P)

Bejuco escalera: Bauhinia (C)

Bejuco de garza: Entada (C)

Bejuco espinosa: Serjania (CR)

Bejuco esquinero: Cydista (C)

Bejuco de estrella: Anthodon (P); Marcgravia (C)

Bejuco de garrote: Rourea (C)

Bejuco de gloria: Ipomoea (P)

Bejuco guaco: Mikania guaco (C)

Bejuco de hierro: Entada (N)

Bejuco iasu: Cissus (CR)

Bejuco juriso: Serjania (S)

Bejuco de leche: Funastrum (C)

Bejuco lengua de vaca: Philodendron (P)

Beujco loco: Aristolochia (P); Cissus (P)

Bejuco de mono: Bauhinia (S)

Bejuco mulatto: Securidaca (S)

Bejuco de murcielago: Monstera (P)

Bejuco negro: Smilax (C)

Bejuco de panume: Entada (S)

Bejuco pedorro: Chamissoa (S)

Bejuco picador: Gurania (P)

Bejuco de pipa: Marcgravia (P)

Bejuco de puerco: Calonyction (S)

Bejuco quemador: Davilla (C)

Bejuco real: Anthurium (CR)

Bejuco de reuma: Gouania (C)

Bejuco de sangre: Machaerium (C)

Bejuco de saina: Dioscorea (P)

Bejuco de salud: Cissampelos (C)

Bejuco de San Juan: Allamanda (CR)

Bejuco de sapa: Bomarea (C); Marsdenia (CR)

Bejuco de sengra: Cnestidium (C)

Bejuco tome: Davilla (C); Doliocarpus (C); Tetracera (C)

Bejuco trompeta: Calonyction (CR)

Bejuco de vaca: Calonyction (S)

Bejuco de volantin: Muehlenbeckia (C)

Bejuquillo: Vanilla (C)

Bek: Byrsonima (CR)

Bekira: Manihot (Ch)

Belacho: Helosia (C)

Belladama: Incidium (C)

Bellisima: Antigonon (S)

Bellorita: Bellis (C)

BELLUCIA spp.: Coronillo (CR); Papaturro agrio (CR) (Fig. 33). The fruits are edible.

Bencenuco: Asclepias (C)

Benju: Styrax (C)

Beo: Persea (Ch)

Berba: Helicostylis (P)

Berbequi santo: Helicteres (P)

Berbiqui: Helieteres (C)

Berenjena: Croton (C); Cucurbita (C); Solanum (CR,S)

Berenjena cimarrona: Solanum (S)

Berenjena espinuda: Solanum (S)

Berenjena silvestre: Solanum (S)

BERIBERI: A disease due to thiamin deficiency. Treated with Hymenaea.

Bermudagrass: Cynodon (E)

Bernabe: Cordia (CR)

Berraco: Brunellia (C); Celtis (C); Roupala (C); Trema (C)

Berraquillo: Ryania (C)

Berros: Nasturtium (S)

BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA H.&B. Brazil nut (E); Nuez de para (C). The seeds are edible and yield a cooking oil. the bark is used for caulking boats.

BETA VULGARIS L. Beet (E); Remolacha (S). The beet is rarely cultivated in Panama.

Betsura: Ficus (CR)

Bi: Helicostylis (CR)

Bichichinejo: Annona (Ch)

Bicho: Adipera (CR); Cassia (C)

Bicutema: Cassia (C)


BIDENS PILOSA L. Beggartick (E); Arponcito (P); Cadillo (P); Chipaca (C); Cadillo de huerta (C); Masiquia (C); Duarte (C); Papunga (C); Pacunja (C); Cadillo de perro (C); Sirvulaca (P). The young shoots serve as a potherb not really requiring salt. They are sometimes mixed with half-boiled rice grains and fermented to make a kind of saki. Warm juice of the plant is styptic. Leaves are vulnerary, and used to wash wounds in the choco. A heated infusion of the plant is used as a bath to relieve pains of rheumatism. Flowers cooked with sugar are taken internally for colds. The root is used in Antioquia for hepatic infections.

BIDENS PILOSA var. RADIATA Sch.-Bip. Masiquiara (C); Papunga (C); Papunga de arbolito (C)

Bienmesabe: Blighia (C)

Bien-te-veo: Gurania (P)

Bien vestido: Gliricida (C)

Bigari: Poponax (C)

Bigure: Campomanesia (C)

Bija: Arrabidaea (C); Bixa (C,Ch); Bursera (C)

Bijagua: Calathea (CR); Canna (CR)

Bijao: Calathea (P)

Bitter wood: Quassia (E)

Bolador: Erechtites valerianifolia (C)

Bogamani: Virola (P)

Bogamani verde: Dialyanthera (P)

Bogum: Symphonia (CR,P)

Cojon: Cordia (CA)

Bola: Chamaedorea (P); Synechanthus (P)

Bolador: Erechtites valerianifolia (C); Persea (CR)

Bolao: Ruprechtia (C)

Boldo: Peumus (C)

Bolita de perro: Bunchosia (C)

Bollo blanco: Pterocarpus (C)

BOMAREA sp. Bejuco sapo (C); Papa-guasca (C). The vine, used in house construction, produces a tuber, edible when roasted. Some species are eaten to overcome sterility.

BOMBACOPSIS QUINATA (Jacq.) Dugand. Spiny cedar (E); Cedro espinoso (P); Ceiba colorado (C); Ceiba tolua (C); Tolu (C) (Fig. 37). This lulmber tree is favored for making dugouts in Darien.

Bombillo: Chamaefistula (C); Passiflora (C)

Bombito: Cassia (C)

Bombon: Cochlospermum (N)

Bombona: Iriartea (C)

Bombonaza: Carludovica (C)

Bonche: Hibiscus (C)

Bonewood: Faramea (E)

Bongo: Cavanillesia (P); Ceiba (D)

Boniato: Ipomoea (C)

Boquiabierto: Antirrhinum (C)

Borajo: Posoqueria (P)

Borboro: Scaveola (CR)

Bore: Colocasia (C)

Borla de San Juan: Lobelila (C)

Borla de San Pedro: Begonia (C)

Borlas: Acalypha (C)

Borlitas: Emilia (C)

Borojo: Borojoa (Ch)

Borojo de monte: Duroia (C)

BOROJOA PATINOI Cuatr. Borojo (Ch) (Fig. 38). This favorit fruit tree, one fruit making a bowl of chicha, has followed the Choco into Panama. (I am called "Borojo" among the Darien Choco, because, for a while, I was distributing borojo seedlings like "Johnny Appleseed".) Nursing Salaqui Choco mothers avoid the fruit in the belief it will cause colic in the infant.

Borrachero: Datura (C)

Borracho: Piscidia (C)

Borraja: Malachra (P)

Borrajon: Wigandia (P)

BORRERIA LATIFOLIA (Aubl.) Schum. Hierba dulce (C). Used as a diuretic in the Choco.

Botoncillo: Borreria (C); Spilanthes (C)

Boton morado: Hyptis (C)

Boton de oro: Helichrysum (C); Spilanthes (C)

Boton de plata: Helichrysum (C)

Botonsillo: Spilanthes (C)

Bototo: Cochlospermum (C)

Box-briar: Randia (E)

Bracino: Styrax (CR)

Brasil: Chlorophora (CR); Mora (CR); Tara (C)

Brasilete: Sickingia (C); Guilandina (C)

Brasil nut: Bertholletia (E)

BRASSICA spp. To this genus belong several leafy vegetables, which are not in demand in Darien, e.g., Brussels sprouts, cabbage (repollo), cauliflower (coliflor), collards, kohlrabi, mustard (mostaza), rutabaga, and turnips (nabo). These are rarely, if ever, seen on Darien tables (!). In Colombia, rebanca is an equivalent of turnip greens (Fig. 39).

BRAVAISIA sp. Naranjilo bobo (P). This ant-infested small tree is considered to be an expectorant.

Brazilian rose: Cochlospermum (E)

Brazilian tea: Stachytarpheta (E)

Brazo de tigre: Cordia (C)

Brea: Parkinsonia (C)

Bread and cheese: Paullinia (E)

Breadfruit: Artocarpus (E)

Breadnut: Brosimum (E); Trophis (E)

Bretana: Basella (S)

Breva: Ficus (C)

Brevo de monte: Ficus (C)

Bribri: Inga (P)

Bribri guavo: Inga (P)

Brinca-brinca: Blechum (S)

Brir: Genipa (CR)

Broad bean: Vicia (E)

Broma, Broma real: Pitcairnia (CR)

BROMELIA NIDUS-PUELLAE (Andre) Andre ex Mez. Piraju (Ch); Piro (C); Pinuela (C). Used for living fences, this produces a good antiscorbutic fruit.

BROMELIA PINGUIN L. Chibe-chibe (C); Oa (Cu); Pinuela (S); Piro (CR) (Fig. 40). The acid antiscorbutic fruits are edible and good for making beverages (!). The fried inflorescence is eaten in El Salvador. Shoots at the base of the plant are eaten raw or cooked. they are supposed to curb stomach pains suffered by women in menstruation, by causing the blood to flow more freely.

BRONCHITIS: Inflammation of the bronchial tubs. Treated with Allium, Cicer, cocos, Hymenaea, Mangifera.

Broom: Sida (E)

Broom Sweep: Scoparia (E)

Broom weed: Cassia (E)

BROSIMUM ALICASTRUM Sw. Breadnut (E); Ojoche (S). The fruits are boiled and eaten; the leafy branches are cut and fed to livestock. Seeds are boiled and eaten as a vegetable or dried and ground into flour.

BROSIMUM TERRABANUM Pittier. Breadnut (E); Ojoche (S). The latex is sweet; the fruits are edible, made into toritllas in Nicaragua. The wood is said to burn green.

BROSIMUM UTILE (H.B.K.) Pittier. Cowtree (E); Arbol de leche (P); Guaimaro (C); Lechero (CR); Mastate (CR); Palo de leche (C); Palo de vaca (CR); Sande (C); Vaco (CR). The copious latex is mixed with balsa charcoal to make embil, which, wrapped in Manicaria leaves, serves as a torch. The latex is potable, sometimes made into a cheese. The fruits are edible raw or cooked and can be used as a breadstuff. Their resin is used for candles and for adulterating chicle. The latex is used to cure asthma and inflammation. The bark is used to make cloth and the wood is supposed to burn green. The bark of other species is regarded as a galactagogue. (Illustrating the Doctrine of Signatures: the bark of the tree produces milk; superstitiously perhaps, it is used by the people to induce lactation.) The tree is used to make dugouts called potros in Colombia.

BROWALLIA AMERICANA L. Chavelita de monte (P). This common weed is used to treat various skin diseases.

BROWNEA spp. Ariza (C); Palo de cruz (P); Palo rosak (C); Rosa de monte (P). The trees are considered antidysenteric.

Brucha: Cassia (C)

Bruja: Rubia (C)

Brujito: Lagenaria (P); Posadaea (P); Abrus (C)

Brukra: Erythrina (CR)

Brusca: Cassia (C)

Brussels sprouts: Brassica (E)

BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM (Lam.) Kurz. Air plant (E); Colombiano (C); Hoja de aire (P); Hoja santa (S). The leaf decoction is regarded as emollient, hemostatic, vulnerary, good for ulcers and boils.

Buaibinu: Anacardium (Cu)

Bucare: Erythrina (C)

Bucaro: Erythrina (C)

Buche: Pithecellobium (C)

Buchon: Eichhornia (C)

Buchona: Pistia (C)

Bucida: Bucida (C)

Buckwheat: Fagopyrum (E)

BUDDLEIA AMERICANA L.: Salvia santa (C); Salvia virgen (CR/ROC); Wild sage (CR/ROC)

Buena mico: Pisonia (C)

Buenas tardes: Bradburya (P); Mirabilis (P)

Bufa: Guilielma (P)

Buira: Petrea (P)

Buk-oro-mo: Inga (P)

Buk-udra: Inga (P)

Bullet-tree: Bucida (E)

Bullet-wood: Mimusops (E)

Bullhorn acacia: Acacia (E)

Bully tree: Hieronyma (E)

BUNCHOSIA spp. Ciruela (S). The fruits are edible (Fig. 41).

Buquet de novia: Ixora (P)

Burikri: Gliricidia (CR)

Burilico: Xylopia (C)

Burillo: Apeiba (N); Guatteria (CR); Hampea (P)

Burio: Apeiba (CR); Guatteria (CR); Hampea (B,CR); Heliocarpus (CR)

Burio extrangero: Hibiscus (P); Wercklea (CR)

Burio falso: Heliocarpus (N)

Buriogre: Cordia (CR); Hampea (CR); Heliocarpus (CR)

Buriogre amarillo: Cordia (CR)

Buriogre de montana: Cordia (CR)

Burriada: Cecropia (C)

Burriquita: Jacaquinia (CR)

BURSERA SIMARUBA (L.) Sarg. Naked Indian (E); Almacigo (P); Carana (CR); Carate (P); Caratero (C); Gumbolimbo (C); Indio desnudo (P); Jinocuavo (CR); Jinote (CR); Resbalamono (C) (Fig. 42). Tea is made from the leaves. This may be used to treat venereal diseases and obesity. The gum is used to mend dishes and to caulk dugouts, preventing worm damage. The Choco say that a decoction of the bark applied to the body three times and not washed for a week is depilatory (!). Experiments to prove this failed (!). Some say that this only works when applied before puberty (!). The resin is used to treat wounds, to apply to the navel of the newly born, and to bring boils to a head. Water put in a piece of the wood is used the following day to cure renal afflications (!). Among the Maje Choco, cuts are washed with an infusion of the bark and then ashes of the bark are applied to the wound. The tree is often used as a living fence post (!). Wood of this and related species is supposed to burn green.

Burukra: Erythrina (CR)

Busu: Manicaria (C)

Butago: Musa (C)

Buttercup: Allamanda (E)

Butterfly orchid: Oncidium (E)

Button mangrove: Conocarpus (E)

Buttonwood: Conocarpus (E)

BYRSONIMA CRASSIFOLIA (L.) H.B.K. Goldon spoon (E); Wild cherry (E); Manteco (C); Nance (P); Noro (C); Peraleja (C) (Fig. 43). Rich in vitamin C, the fruits are used for a fermented drink, which ismuch better cold than tepid. Often the Chicha is frozen on a stick (!). Edible butter is extracted from the fruits with hot water. The fruits are eaten by domestic and wild animals. The bark is used as a fish poison. The flowers are much visited by bees. The epidermis and green frujits are used to stain cotton. The bark is also used for tanning; the wood is used for charcoal, fuel, and the extraction of a red dye; further it is used as a remedy for skin afflictions.

BYTTNERIA ACULEATA Jacq. Espina hueca (P); Rabo de iguana (P); Rangay (P); Zarza (P). The plant is regarded as antivenereal and depurative.

- C -

Caapi: Banisteriopsis (C)

Caballera de Venus: Adiantum (C)

Caballeros: Souroubea (C)

Caballito: Gyrocarpus (N); Jacaranda (C); Tecoma (C)

Caballocup: Caryocarp (CR)

Cabalonga: Fevillea (CR); Thevetia (C)

Cabazuelo: Stachytarpheta (P)

Cabbage: Brassica (E)

Cabbagebark: Andira (E)

Cabecita: Ammandra (C)

Cabellos de angel: Clematis (CR); Cuscuta (CR)

Cabeza de leon: Coccoloba (C)

Cabeza de loro: Eugenia (C)

Cabeza de negrito: Guazuma (P)

Cabeza de negro: Ammandra (C); Bulbostylis (C); Dioscorea (C,P); Guazuma (D); Manicaria (P); Phytelephas (P)

Cabeza de toro: Stanhopea (C)

Cabeza de vaca: Calytocarpus (CR)

Cabezona: Calea (C); Paspalum (D)

Cabi: Coffea (Cu)

Cabismo: Copaifera (D)

Cablote: Guazuma (S)

Cabo de Indio: Iryanthera (C)

Cabuya: Furcraea (CR)

Caca: Bursera (S); Cariodendron (C)

Cacahuanance: Gliricidia (S)

Cacahuate: Arachis (C)

Cacaloguiste de flor quemada: Godmania (N)

Cacalojiche: Plumeria (CR)

Cacama: Bidens (C)

Cacao: Theobroma (S)

Cacao de ardilla: Herrania (CR)

Cacao blanco: Theobroma (P)

Cacao calabacillo: Theobroma (CR)

Cacao cimarron: Herrania (P); Morisonia (C); Theobroma (P)

Cacao de Costa Rica: Herrania (C); Theobroma (C)

Cacao criollo: Theobroma (CR)

Cacao mani: Herrania (CR)

Cacao de mico: Theobroma (CR)

Cacao de monte: Herrania (CR); Pachira (C,N)

Cacao de playa: Pachira (N)

Cacao silvestre: Enallagma (CR); Theobroma (CR)

Cacao volandor: Virola (S)

Cacha: Dolichos (C); Phaseolus (C)

Cachaco: Musa (C); Posoqueria (C)

Cachanhula: Swietenia (Cu)

Cachas: Phaseolua (C)

Cachimbo: Erythrina (C); Platymiscium (CR); Posoqueria (C)

Cachimolivo: Thevetia (C)

Cachipay: Guilielma (C)

Cachito: Acacia (P); Myrmecodendron (P); Tabernaemontana (N)

Cachito de aromo: Acacia (N)

Cachitor: Tabernaemontana (CR)

Cacho de venado: Dendropanax (CR); Lycopodium (C); Xylosma (C)

Cachu: Iriartea (C); Socratea (C)

Cachuda: Iriartea (C); Socratea (C)

Cacin: Mimosa (Ch)

Cacique: Brosimum (P); Diphysa (P); Eugenia (CR,P); Pseudolmedia (P)

Cacique blanco: Eugenia (P)

Cacique carey: Piratinera (P)

Caco: Jacaranda (C)

Cadanari: Mauritiella (C)

Cadena de amor: Antigonon (P)

Cadenilla: Schnella (C)

Cadenillo: Banara (C)

Cadeno: Albizia (S)

Cadi: Phytelephas (C)

Cadillo: Bidens (P); Cenchrus (P); Cyathula (P); Priva (P); Triumfetta (P)

Cadillo blanco: Acaena (C)

Cadmia: Cananga (C)

CAESALPINIA CRISTA L. Nickernut (E); Seabean (E); Calentura (P); Mato (P) (Fig. 44). The seeds, sometimes used in necklaces are considered febrifugal, periodic, tonic, and vesicant. they are used to treat colic, convulsions, hydrocele, leprosy, and palsy. The oil from the seeds is said to soften the skin and remove pimples. The bark is antiperiodic and rubefacient. the plant is used to counteract toothache. A leaf decoction is used a a collyrium. In Colombia the seeds are used to make maracas (!).

CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA (L.) Sw. Barbados pride (E); Bird of Paradise flower (E); Angelite (C); Flor de Pavo (C); Flower fence (E): Clavellina (C,CR); Gallito (P). Widely cultivated, the plant is purgative and is used for epilepsy. (Fig. 45)

Cafe: Coffea (S)

Cafecillo: Psychotria (CR); Trophis (N)

Cafe cimarron: Canna (P)

Cafecito: Inga (N); Zygia (N)

Cafe del diablo: Casearia (C)

Cafe de Liberia: Coffea (S)

Cafe de pobre: Cassia (C)

Cagajon: Zuelania (P)

Cagalero: Celtis (C); Clethra (C); Randia (C); Ximenia (C)

Cagalero comestible: Celtis (N)

Caguaso: Paspalum (C)

Cagu: Caryocar (C); Mayna (C)

Caguimo: Erythroxylum (C)

Cai: Saccharum (Cu)

Caiba: Cyclanthera (CR)

Caidata: Ocotea (C); Ouratea (C)

Caifa: Cyclanthera (CR); Elateriopsis (CR)

Caimancillo: Agonandra (C)

Caimaron: Pourouma (C)

Caimillo: Miconia (CR)

Caimitillo: Bumelia (P)

Caimito: Crysophyllum (CR,P,C); Vismia (C)

Caimito cimarron: Chrysophyllum (S)

Caimito de monte: Ximenia (C)

Caimito-pumarejo: Lacmellia (C)

Caimo: Chrysophyllum (C); Lucuma (C); Pouteria (C)

Caimo blanco: Lucuma (C)

Cainca: Chiococca (C)

Cainillo: Miconia (P)

Cainillo de cerro: Miconia (P)

Caja: Capsicum (Cu)

CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) Millsp. Pigeonpea (E); Chicharos (S); Frijol de palo (P); Guandu (C,P); Gungo Peas (J); Quimbo lillo (CR); Timbolillo (CR) (Fig. 46). The young seeds are eaten like green peas, a Panama favorite called arroz con guandu. Around La Nueva, Colombia, the leaves are used as a remedy for bat bites. The leaves and shoots contain about 9% protein.

Cajetajo: Inga (Ch)

Cajeto: Trichanthera (C)

Cajon: Platypodium (C)

Cajuaya: Mauritiella (C)

Cala: Zantedeschia (CR)

Calaba: Calophyllum (P)

Calabacero: Capparis (C); Crescentia (CR)

Calabacillo: Capparis (C); Morisonia (C); Sterculia (CR)

Calabacillo de la playa: Enallagma (CR)

Calabasa (o): Crescentia (S); Cucurbita (P); Lagenaria (CR); Luffa (P)

Calabash: Crescentia (E)

Calabash, black: Enallagma (E)

Calabash gourd: Lagenaria (E)

Calabash tree: Crescentia (E)

Calabash vine: Drymonia (B)

Calabasuero: Morisonia (C); Steudelia (C)

Calabazuelo: Pachira (C)

Calabomba: Iresine (C)

Calaguala: Polypodium (C)

Calalu: Amaranthus (P); Phytolacca (P)

Calambuca: Calophyllum (C)

CALATHEA ALLOUIA (Aubl.) Lindl. Sweet cornroot (E); Bijao (P); Faldita morada (P); Irwa (Cu); Kakiska (Cu); Sal (P) (Fig. 47). The tubers and young flower heads are eaten cooked. The leaves are used for wrapping food by Cuna, Choco, and Negro, and judging from the name "sal", impart some flavor. They are sold in the markets in Turbo (!). This was once described as the most necessary plant in Panama (1) to cover newly born babies, (2) to make blankets, mattresses, and pillows, (3) for umbrellas, (4) to cover cargo and keep water from bouncing out of water jugs, (5) to make baskets, and (6) to wrap "bollos". One can rarely pass a Choco hut without finding a few plantains, wrapped in bijao, roasting over the ashes in the fireplace (!). In colombia, the bijao often envelops a mixture of corn and rice (!). The bijao also plays a role in Choco witchcraft. the blood of a freshly decapitated nequi is hidden in the leaf of bijao with another "secret" leaf. The witch doctor returns in 7 days and finds a special breed of wasps which he carefully collects. He can then command them to sting a victim near the heart, inflicting an incurable malecia (hex) (!).

CALATOLA sp. The fruits are edible.

Calavera: Acineta (C); Peristeria (C)

CALEA PRUNIFOLIA H.B.K. Escobilla (P). The leaves are used for treating itch, dandruff, and hives. Other species are considered sudorific.

CALEA GLOMERATA Klatt: Carrasposa, Chicharron

CALEA PENNELLII Blake: Cabezona, Carrosposa



CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. Calendula, Maravillosa

Calentura: Asclepias (C); Caesalpinia (P); Chloroleucon (C)

Caliguate: Heliconia (CR)

Calingueiro: Mellinis (P)

CALOCARPUM MAMMOSUM (L.) Pierre. Sapote (E); Mamey (C,P). The fruits are edible raw (!) or made into preserves. Ground seeds are used to flavor chocolate. The diuretic seed oil is used in epilepsy, cold remedies, and for hairdressing, said to restore fallen hair. The large seeds were once used in iron linens. Empty seed testae were formerly used as snuff boxes.

CALONYCTION ACULEATUM (L.) House. Moonflower (E); Bejuco de vaca (S); Galan de noche (C). The leaves and calyces are used as a potherb, and young seeds are eaten. Contact with the plant may cause itching. The latex is used for coagulating rubber.

CALOPHYLLUM BRAZILIENSE Camb. Maria (S) (Fig. 48). This is an important timber tree exported from Darien (!). The fruits are eaten by hogs and an oil is extracted from the seeds. The latex is used for caulking and medicine (!).

CALYCOPHYLLUM CANDIDISSIMUM (Vahl) DC. Lemonwood (E); Alazano (P); Conejo (CR); Harino (P); Madrono (D); Salamo (CR,P); Surra (CR) (Fig. 49). This is a fine lumber, used for everything from combs to charcoal. the bark is used to treat stomach ulcers.

Calzoncillo: Passiflora (P)

Camacalarta: Passiflora (S)

Camajon: Sterculia (C)

Camajondura: Sterculia (C)

Camajuru: Sterculia (C)

Camanguchi: Mauritia (C)

Camargo: Chaenocephalus (C); Montanoa (C)

Camargo chico: Verbesina crassiramea (C)

Camarin: Clerodendrum (C)

Camaron: Annona (P); Iresine (CR); Maytenus (C)

Camaroncillo: Hirtella (P)

Camaroncito: Myrica (D)

Camasey: Miconia (C)

Camasey amarillo: Miconia (C)

Camasey esquinado: Miconia (C)

Camasey morado: Miconia(C)

Camasey negro: Henriettelia (C)

Camasey peludo: Henriettelia (C)

Cambulo: Erythrina (C)

Camelia: Clerodendrum (P)

Camella: Clerodendrum (P)

Camfine: Trichilia (B)

Camiba: Copaifera (P)

Camibar: Copaifera (P); Prioria (CR,N)

Caminadera: Lycopodium (C)

Camote: Ipomoea (S)

Camotillo: Curcuma (CR)

Campana: Laplacea (CR); Loasa (CR)

Campanilla (o): Bradburya (P); Centrosema (P); Enterolobium (C); Thevetia (P)

Campano: Enterolobium (C); Guarea (CR); Pithecellobium (C); Samanea (C)

Campanola: Ipomoea (S)

Campanula: Cobaea (CR)

Campeche: Haematoxylon (C)

CAMPELIA ZANONIA (L.) H.B.K. Coyontura (S). This plant is used for venereal diseases.

CAMPNOSPERMA PANAMENSIS Stand. Sajo (C) (Fig. 50). An economically important plant is said to occupy 97,000 hectares on the Choco.

CAMPOMANESIA LINEATIFOLIA Ruiz & Pav. Michinche (C). the fruit is edible raw, but the seeds should be avoided. The pulp makes jelliles and marmalades on par with guava jelly.

Cana de azucar: Saccharum (S)

Cana blanca: Gynerium (P)

Canaboba: Gynerium (C)

Cana brava: Anrira (C); Arundo (C); Bactris (P); Chusquea (CR); Gynerium (C,P)

Canac: Cannabis (S)

Cana caijino: Bactris (W)

Cana de castilla: Gynerium (CR)

Cana de danta: Geonoma (S)

Cana de danto: Vernonia (CR)

Canadonga: Cassia (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Cana dulce: Licania (C)

Cana fistula: Brasilettia (C); Cassia (P); Tachigalia (CR)

Cana fistula macho: Cassia (C)

Cana fistula de monte: Leucaena (C)

Cana flecha: Gynerium (C)

Canagria: Costus (CR,P)

Canaguate: Tabebuia (C); Tecoma (C)

Cana de la India: Taetsia (CR); Tripsacum (CR)

Canajira: Geonoma (C)

Canajo: Spondias (Cu)

Canaleao: Paullinia (C)

Canalete: Cordia (C)

Canalua: Platypodium (D)

Cana de mico: Costus (P)

Canamo: Cannabis (C)

Cana de molinillo: Chamaedorea (C); Geonoma (C)

Cana muda: Dieffenbachia (C)

Cana de muela: Piper (CR)

Canana: Geonoma (C)

Canadonga: Cassia (C)

Cananga: Cananga (C)

Canangucha: Mauritia (C)

Canasacanja: Pseudelephantopus (Cu)

Cana de San Pablo: Bactris (C); Morenia (C)

Canastilla: Aristolochia (CR); Hibiscus (C)

CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS (L.) DC. Jack bean (E); Coca (D); Quemasusu (Ch); Sia (Cu) (Fig. 51). The pods may be eaten boiled. Unripe seeds are reputely poisonous; ripe seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute.

Cana verde: Chamaedorea (P)

Cana de vibora: Chamaedorea (C); Morenia (C)

Canaza: Bambusa (P); Guadua (P)

CANCER: A malignant tumor of any type. Treated with Adenanthera, Argemone, Carica, Haematoxylon, Hamelia, Piper, Renealmia, Tussacia.

Cancer de loma: Acanthospermum australe (C)

Cancha: Phaseolus (C)

Canchalagua: Erythrina (C); Euphorbia (C)

Canchi: Bixa (Ch); Metteniusa (S)

Canchu: Corioria (C)

Candeabsurguit: Pseudelephantopus (Cu)

Candela: Antirrhea (P)

Candelabro: Lemaireocereus (S)

Candelero: Oreopanax (C)

Candelillo: Cassia (CR); Cupania (P); Magnolia (CR); Tecoma (CR)

Candelito: Chamaesenna (CR)

Candelo: Hieronyma (C); Pittoniotis (P); Rondeletia (P,C)

Candia: Abelmoschus (C)

Candil: Amyris (C)

Candelnut: Aleurites (E)

CANDLENUTS: Seeds or fruits which are strung and burned like candles. Aleurites, Ceiba, Chrysobalanus, Cocos, Corozo, Dialyanthera, Dipteryx, Jatropha, Licania, Virola.

Candle tree: Parmentiera (E)

Candlewood: Gynerium (E)

Cane: Gynerium (E)

Caneja: Costus (C)

Canela: Cinnamomum (P); Platypodium (P)

Canelillo: Ocotea (CR)

Canelito: Isertia (P)

Canellito: Miconia (CR)

Canelo: Drimys (C); Nectandra (C,CR); Ocotea (CR)

Canelo de Parmo: Drimys (C)

Canelon: Cephalocereus (C); Lemaireocereus (C); Peperomia (C)

Caney: Maytenus (C)

Cangrejo: Anemopaegma (C); Clytostoma (C)

Canguil: Zea (C)

Canilla de mula: Hyptis (CR); Miconia (CR); Triplaris (CA)

Canilla de pollo: Justicia (P)

Canilla de venado: Hamelia (N); Miconia (C)

Canillito: Conostegia (P); Miconia (CR)

Canillo: Miconia (P)

Canillo de cerro: Miconia (CR)

Canime: Copaifera (C); Prioria (C)

Canirico: Xylosma (Cu)

Caniva: Copaifera (P)

Canizo: Hymenachne (C)

Canjaro: Cordia (C)

Canjura: Strychnos (P)

CANNA spp. Canna (E); Achira (C); Achiva (S); Bandera de uriba (C); Cafe cimarron (P); Capacho (C); Chisgua (C); Chumbima (C); Maraca (Ch) (Fig. 52). The roots of some species serve as a source of starch allowed to diabetics (!). The seeds are used in necklaces, rattles, and popguns. the leaves are used for wrapping food. Leaves and tubers serve as fodder. In certain parts of Colombia, cakes are made from the flour extracted from the roots. the plant is considered diuiretic and emollient. Necklaces of the seeds, sometimes accompanied with the teeth of the fish payara, are supposed to drive off the "mal de ojo" and to make the teeth grow strong. The leaves and rhizomes are considered refrigerant and rubefacient, and are recommended for epilepsy. The leaves are used as cataplasm fo0r hernias.

CANNABIS SATIVA L. Hemp (E); Canac (J); Canamo (C); Ganja (J); Marijuana (S) (Fig. 53). The parched, oily seeds are highly nutritious. The oil is used for illumination and rheumatism. Only recently, the leaves, which are used as a tobacco substitute, have been linked with cancer, emphysema, or heart disease.

Canoeto: Platypodium (C)

Canotillo: Piper (CR)

Cansa cerro: Margyricarpus (C)

Cansa mozo: Borreria (P)

Cansamuela: Inga (C)

Cansa Perro: Salvia (P); Margyricarpus (C)

Cantagallo: Erythrina (C)

Cantarillo: Conostegia (CR); Cupania (CR)

Canteloupe: Cucumis (E)

Canuela trepadora: Lasiacis (S)

Canutillo: Campelia (CR); Ewuisetum (C); Melampodium (CR); Pariana (C); Zebrina (CR)

Canyack: Cannabis (P)

Caoba: Guarea (CR); Spathodea (C); Swietenia (S)

Caoba africana: Trichilia (C)

Caoba americana: Swietenia (C)

Caobillo: Carapa (CR); Guarea (CR)

Caobono: Cariniana (C)

Capa: Cordia (S)

Capacho: Canna (C)

Capacunga: Potentilla (C)

Caparrapi: Aniba (C); Nectandra (C); Ocotea (C)

Caparrosa: Vismia (C)

Cape: Clusia (C)

Capecito: Ternstroemia (C)

Caper: Capparis (E)

Capera: Sterculia (Cu)

Capesillo: Clusia (C)

Capilote: Miconia (CR)

Capirote: Bellucia (N); Miconia (CR)

Capirote Blanco: Miconia (CR)

Capitana: Desmodium (C); Neurolaena (CR)

Capitana de corazon: Aristolochia (C)

Capitancillo: Pentaclethra (C)

Capote: Machaerium (C)

Capotillo: Anthurium (C)

CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. Caper (E); Alcaparras (S) (Fig. 54). Pickled flower buds are the capers of commerce, much used in Colombia, but rare in Panama. In Colombia, buds of species of Cassia, pickled in sour vinegar with cloves, have been falsely sold as capers. Some Capparis spp. are reported to have poisonous fruits, but those of C. pittieri taste like Solanum quitensis (!).

CAPRARIA BIFLORA L. Cola de gallo (P); Hierba te (P) (Fig. 55). the leaves, used in treating uterine disorders and diabetes, are said to prevent falling hair.

CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L. Red pepper (E); Aji (P); Aji picante (S); Caja (Cu); Chile (P); Kapur (Cu); Rocoto (C) (Fig. 56). Red pepper, commonly cultivated and escaped, is not so much used in Panama as it is in Mexico. In Africa, the fruits or leaves are taken as antidotes after eating poisonous fish. In San Bas, Indians string hot peppers behind their boats as shark repellents (!). Powdered and dried, the pimento is converted into paprika. The leaves are used to flavor stews or as a potherb, with 4-6% protein. Red pepper has many medicinal attributes. Some South American Indians use a pepper collyrium to improve the sharpness of their vision. The fruit is regarded as stimulant, stomachic, and rubefacient. It is taken internally in cholera, for sore throat, phthisis, given with cinchona for malaria, prescribed in ague, cholera, dropsy, dyspepsia, gout, malaria, snakebite, and typhus; used externally for giddiness, earache, and hemorroids. In Panama, a poultice of pepper leaves is used for softening boils. The following story would suffer in translation: "Friede ha sacado a luz el episodio de la mujer e un encomendero del alto Magdalena, que por celos de una India, en un gesto larguiano le metio un platano untado de aji por la natura." In Ailigandi, pepper and cacao are burned for 7 or 9 days to ward off evil spirits (!). Elsewhere the fruits are burned to drive off rats. The "ajillo", Capsicum baccatum, is also common. The green fruit is pickled and the ripe fruit is used in salads and sauces. The green pepper is cultivated among the Cuna, who call it caja.

Capuchino: Tropaeolum (CR)

Capulamate: Ficus (CR)

Capuli: Ardisia (C)

Capulin: Mutingia (S); Trema (S)

Capulin blanco: Mutingia (S); Trema (S)

Capulincillo: Trema (S)

Capulin macho: Dicraspidia (CR); Trema (P)

Capulin sabanero: Belotia (N)

Caqui: Caryocar (C)

Caraco: Coussapoa (C)

Caracol: Gynandropsis (C)

CAracola: Achimenes (C); Kohleria (C)

Caracoli: Anacardium (C)

Caracolito: Lithospermum (C)

Caracucha: Bradburya (P); Centrosema (P); Plumeria (P)

Caracuru: Arrabidea

Carago: Cassia (C)

Caragra: Lippia (CR)

Caragre: Lippia (CR)

Caraguala: Epiphyllum (C)

Caraguata: Tillandsia (C)

Carajito: Eugenia (C)

Caramano: Cassia (N)

Carambano: Cassia (N)

Carambola: Averrhoa (E)

Carana (o): Bursera (CR); Carpotroche (CR); Casearia (P); Dacryodes (C); Protium (C,CR,P); Trattinnickia (P); Zuelania (P)

Carana: Mauritia (C); Mauritiella (C)

Caranganito: Cassia (C)

Caranon: Zuelania (P)

Carao: Cassia (CR,P); Lonchocarpus (CR)

CARAPA GUIANENSIS Aubl.: Bastard Manogany (E); Crabwood (E); Cedro bateo (P); Huino (C); Masabolo (C); Tangare (D). the poisonous seeds of this timber species, are considered anthelmintic, antihepatic, antirheumatic, antisplenitic, antitetanic, insecticidal, and purgative. Oil from the seeds is used for soap, illumination, and insect repellent. Arount La Nueva, the fruits are used to combat acute arthritis. the wood is used for dugouts in Colombia.

Caraapato: Hirtella (P)

Carare: Aristolochia (C)

Carasola: Boerhaavia (P)

Carate: Bomarea (C); Bursera (P); Diphysa (C); Vismia (C)

Caratero: Bursera (C)

Caratosa: Bursera (C)

Carbasuela: Terminalia (P)

Carbon: Calliandra (P); Prosopis (CR)

Carboncillo: Acacia (CR); Calliandra (CR); Swartzia (CR); Sweetia (CR); Tecoma (CR); Terminalia (P)

Carboncillo blanco: Calliandra (CR)

Carboncillo rojo: Bejaria (C); Calliandra (C,CR)

Carbonero: Abarema (C); Acacia (C); Befaria (C); Byrsonima (D); Calliandra (C); Guarea (CR); Licania (C); Lindackeria (P); Marila (C); Mayna (C); Mosquitoxylum (P); Oncoba (P)

Carbonero de amunicion: Colubrina (P)

Carbonero de sombrio: Albizia (C)

Carcanapire: Croton (C)

Carcuera: Platypodium (P)

Carda: Dipsacus (C)

Cardenal: Euphorbia (C)

Cardenillo: Ilex (C)

CARDIAC: A substance supposed beneficial to the heart. Achras, Citrus, Coffes, Gomphrena, Persea, Phoebe, Polypodium, Tamarindus

Cardinal flower: Lobelia (E)

CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L. Balloonvine (E); Farolito (C) (Fig. 57). The young foliage is used as a potherb. The seeds are tonic, febrifugal, and diaphoretic.

Cardo: Cirsium (CR)

Cardo espinoso: Silybum marainum (C)

Cardo Santo: Silybum marianum (C)

Cardon: Cereus (CR); Cirsium (CR); Lemairocereus (C)

Cardon morado: Silybum marianum (C)

Cardosanto: Argemone (C,CR); Coccoloba (C)

Caregre: Picramnia (CR)

Carey vegetal: Zanthoxylum (C)

Cargadero: Guatteria (C); Rollinia (C); Trema (C); Unonopsis (C)

Cargadita: Zornia (C)

Cargamanta: Phytolacca (C)

Cargarrocio: Alchemilla (C)

Carianabo: Pilea (C)

Cariaquita: Lantana (C)

CARICA PAPAYA L. Papaya (E,S); Kwarkwatta (Cu); Papanajo (Ch) (Fig. 58). Food comes from the papaya in many forms. When ripe, the fruit may be as large as a watermelon, and the pulp is sweet and orange. It consists of about 90% water, but is righ in vitamin A. The flavor is quite peculiar, and it may not be acceptable to some Yankees, who relegate it to the survival rather than the luxury category it enjoys among tropical people. Fruits are usually eaten with salt and pepper. The seeds, pleasantly mustard flavored, may be eaten, although they may have medicinal properties. Some speculate that they may be the mustard seeds referred to in the Bible. Papaya fruits are preserved as a candy or confection, a paste, a puree or syrup, and a canned juice. Green fruits serve as vegetables. Boiled in slices, they may be mashed and mixed with lime juice and sugar to make a substitute for applesauce. They are also cooked in curries and pickled. The green fruit, peeled, boiled, cut into small pieces, and served with sweet oil, vinegar, salt and pepper, serves as a potable vegetable. Some ethnic groups like a beverage made of cooked, mashed, green fruits. Younger parts, such as leaves and flower buds, are eaten raw in salads, or more frequently, cooked as a vegetable. They contain 5-8% protein (Terra, 1964). The presence of digestive enzymes might render this practice dangerous. Water should be changed a couple of times before these vegetables are eaten. Raw latex is said to induce itching and blistering. Nonetheless, the Ailigandi Cuna apply the latex to infected sores, one application of which clears up the infection (!). The pith of young stems has also served as a famine food in the East Indies. Papaya leaves are used to tenderize meat. Natives frequently wrap meat overnight in papaya leaves, cook in the leaves, or drop a little latex in the cooking vessel. Meat so tenderized may have a peculiar flavor. Some people claim that animals, fed the seeds before slaughter, have more tender meat. Leaves are employted iin washing clothes. PUlp of the ripe fruit has served in shampoos and face creams. Leaves may serve as a tobacco substitute. The latex is widely used to remove warts, freckles, and other blemishes. Other uses are as an anthelmentic, discutient, fungicide (including ringworm), stomachic, suppurative, and as a treatment for hemoptysis, internal ulcers, psoriasis, and scorpian stings, as well as diptheria. In Cuba, it is prescribed for the removal of cancerous growths. The leaves are considered amebicidal and antiasthmatic, and a decoction is used as an application to elephantoid growths and ulcers, as emmenagogue, febrifugal, and pectoral. Hot leaves are applied as an anodyne for nervous headaches. They are bound over ulcers (New Guinea). Green fruits are recommended for enteritis in Cuba. Ripe fruits are chologogue; eaten daily at breakfast, they are the tropical "apple a day" to promote regularity. Dried fruits are said to improve enlarged spleens. The seeds are considered anthelmintic, ecbolic, and emmenagogic. Among the Salaqui Choco, lactating mothers avoid papaya, believing it will cause colic in the infant. Some believe it will induce abortion. The wild papaya is known to the natives as tapaculo. They claim that the seeds germinate in acid media, as found in the stomach. Another "superstition" may have some factual basis. Some papays are strictly male and naturally bear no fruit. Native believe they can make the tree fertile by inscribing the cross in the trunk. Such trees, in some documentated cases, become bisexual. The tree appears to be like the avocado, one that needs to be beaten occasionally to continue bearing. The scientific explanation for this "superstition" is termed "traumatic reversion". One wild papaya, whose trunk had been severed about 2 weeks earlier, was observed in full flower.

Caricia: Spigelia (C)

Carillo: Phyllanthus (N)

CARINIANA sp. Abarco (C); Chibuga (C) (Fig. 59). Choco Indians use the hardwood for dugouts, and claim the seeds are edible (!). The inner bark is used for cordage (!). The fruits are usesd for making pipes.

CARIODENDRON ORINOCENSE Karst. Inche (C); Tacay(C). The seeds are edible roasted.

Caripacunga: Alchemilla (C); Potentilla (C)

Carita: Albizia (C)

Carito: Enterolobium (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Carleya: Cattleya (C)

CARLUDOVICA OERSTEDII Ruiz & Pav. Hat palm (E); Atadero (P); Iraca (C); Jipijapa (P); Kuskin (Cu); Naguala (D); Guachivan (P); Lucatero (C); Lucua (C); Oropo (Ch); Porto Rico (P); Sabalet (Cu); Soso (Cu); Toquillo (P); Sombonaza (C) (Fig. 60). Young leaves are eaten as a salad (!). The leaves are used to make hats (!), baskets (!), brooms, fly swatters, etc. the inner portions of the lower leafstalks and the berries are quite edible (!). Rhizomes are used as a salad and potherb in various parts of Latin America. In 1538, Juan de Vadillo and his conquistadores lived for days on nothing but Iraca for food. To this day, the growing points or nacumas are eaten, with a flavor suggesting asparagus.

Carmana: Chamaedorea (C); Geonoma (C)

Carmen: Trixis (E)

Carmesi: Sickingia (C)

Carmin: Rivina (P)

CARMINATIVE: A substance which relieves flatulence (swelling of the stomach or intestines due to gases), and alleviates the pain. Achras, Achyranthes, Allium, Caesalpinia, Capraria, Cardiospermum, Carica, Centella, Centrosema, Chenopodium, Corchorus, Coriandrum, Croton, Cymbopogon, Drepanocarpus, Entada, Eryngium, Hyptis, Ipomoea, Mikania, Momordica, Ocimum, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Ricinus, Sida, Spondias, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Xylopia, Zebrina, Zingiber.

Carne asado (a): Andira (CR); Cassia (C); Cochlospermum (C); Cupania (CR)

Carne de vaca: Vochysia (C)

Carne fiambre: Curatella (C); Panopsis (C); Roupala (C)

Carnestolenda: Cochlospermum (C)

Carnezuelo: Acacia (N)

Carnica en el Peru: Lantana (C)

Caro: Enterolobium (C)

Carob: Ceratonia (E)

Carola: Thunbergia (C)

Carpenter bush: Justicia (E)

Carpetweed: Mollugo (E)

Carra: Hampea (C); Huberodendron (C)

Carraspique: Iberis (C)

Carrasposa: Eupatorium bullata (C); Calea sp. (C)

Carrasavillo: Callea (C)

Carrecito: Aristolochia (CR)

Carretillo: Aspidiosperma (C); Randia (C)

Carreto: Aspidiosperma (P,C); Vismia (C)

Carreton: Trifolium (C)

Carreton de agua: Marsilea (C)

Carretoncito: Medicago (C)

Carricillo: Chusquea (P); Lasiacis (P); Olvra (P)

Carricillo trepador: Lasiacis (CR)

Carrielitos: Calceolaria (C)

Carrizo: Arthrostylidium (CR); Arundo (C); Lasiacis (P); Merostachys (CR); Tabernaemontana (C)

Carro caliente: Coccoloba (CR); Eugenia (CR)

Carrot: Daucus (E)

Carrumio: Ternstroemia (C)

Cartageno: Pseudobombax (C)

Cartagueno: Rudgea (C)

Cartucho: Zantedeschia (CR)

Caruto: Genipa (C)

Caruya: Eichhornia (C)

CARYOCAR AMYGDALIFERUM Mutis: Achiotillo (C); Ajo (P); Almendron (C); Almendron cagui (C); Mani (C) (Fig. 61). The edible seeds are high in oil content. In Colombia, the oil is called aceite de piquia and is used for cooking and medicine.

CARYOCAR sp.: Genene. Used for boatmaking. Nuts said to be edible.

Carvu: Sterculia (CR)

Cas: Psidium (CR)

Casabana: Sicana (E)

Cas acida: Psidium (CR)

Casaco: Hieronyma (C); Sloanea (P)

Casa de hormigas: Acacia (C)

Casamarucha: Xanthium catharticum (C)

Casasco: Sloanea (P)

Cascabel: Alonsoa (C); Silene (C)

Cascajero: Miconia (C)

Cascalote: Libidivia (C)

Cascara amarga: Picramnea (P)

Cascara de yuca: Alchornea (C)

Cascara sagrada: Rhamnus (C)

Cascarilla boba: Ladenbergia (C)

Cascarillo negra: Heisteria (C)

Cascarilla roja: Cinchona (C); Ladenbergia (C)

Cascarillo: Clematis (C); Croton (C); Crudia (C)

Casco de marte: Aconitum (C)

Casco de vaca: Bauhinia (C)

Casco de venado: Ampelocera (C); Bauhinia (CR)

Cascha: Mimosa (CR)

Cascua: Cupania (CR)

Cas dulce: Psidium (CR)

CASEARIA sp. Wild cherry (E); Huesito (C): Raspa-lengua (P). The berries are edible but nearly tasteless (!). They are frequently consumed by bushmen along the trail (!).

CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS Sw. Cortalengua (P); Dondequiera (C); Mahajo (C); Palo de la cruz (D). The fruits are probably edible, and the flowers are attractive to bees. Macerated roots are used in decoction to treat wounds and leprosy in Brazil. The seeds yield an oil used to treat leprosy.

Cas extrangero: Psidium (CR)

Cashaw: Prosopis (P)

Cashew: Anacardium (E)

CASIMIROA EDULIS Llave. White sapote (E); Matasano (C,P). The fruit is edible, and the seeds are said to possess hypnotic properties. Ground into powder the seeds are supposed to cure external ulcers.

Caspi: Toxicodendron (C); Rhus (C)

Caspicaracha: Rhus (C)

Cassava: Manihot (E)

CASSIA ALATA L. Cure-all (E); Bajagua (C); Dorance (C); Hierba de playa (C); Laureno (P); Lenguevaca (C); Lucutema (C); Lucutena (C); Majaguilla (C); Majaguillo (C); Mocuteno (C); Wild Senna (J) (Fig. 62). The leaves are anthelmintic, fungicidal, insecticidal, possibly piscicidal. the roots are used to treat rheumatism and stomach ache in Almirante (!). The plant is also used to treat stomach aches, venereal diseases, and snakebite.

CASSIA BICAPSULARIS L. Bicho (C); Bombito (C); Cafe de pobre (C). Toasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute. The plant is regarded as antiasthmatic, antihemorrhoidic, febrifugal, laxative, and insecticidal. In Costa Rica, stems and leaves are used with roots of ratania to treat piles.

CASSIA FISTULA L. Golden-shower (E); Cana fistula (P); Marianunut (Cu) (Fig. 63). The flowers are edible. The pulp of the pods is used to flavor tobacco and as a laxative. Parched leaves are eaten as a mild laxative with other foods. The bark has been used in tanning.

CASSIA GRANDIS L.f. Stinking toe (E); Cana fistula (P); Carao (CR); Sandalo (CR); Saragundin (CR) (Fig. 64). The malodorous pulp around the seed is edible but purgative. The leaves, crushed in lard, are used to treat mange in Guatemala.

CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS L. Senna (E); Bicho (C); Frijolillo (P); Potra (C) (Fig. 65). Young leaves and pods are edible cooked; roasted seeds are substituted for coffee and the flowers are eaten in famines. Root bark serves as a quinine substitute and is used to treat gonorrhea. The seeds, considered poisonous undried, are febrifugal and purgative; they are used to treat ringworm. A decoction is used for cataracts.

CASSIA RETICULATA Willd. Bicutema (C); Corance (C); Inanabiske (Cu); Laureno (D); Piria (Cu); Saragundi (CR, CR/ROC); Sorocontil (CR/ROC); Wild Senna (CR/ROC, J); Martingalvis (C). Choco Indians say they have no use for this tree, but it occurs at many of their home sites. Perhaps they have a mustical use for the plant. The Bayano Cuna use the plant as a stomach ache remedy (!). Aleaf ilnfusionis used to treat ringworm elsewhere and they use the plant for liver afflictions in Colombia. Darien Negros use seven leaves boiled in water for a purgative. They also used the same tea to wash dogs with mange. Rio Congo Negro women who have not borne children drink a tea of 15 leaves of laureno with a nickel's worth of anis. If still sterile after 6 months of the treatment, divorce is in order (!).

CASSIA SIAMEA Lam. Siamese senna (E); Casia de Siam (S) (Fig. 66). The leaves have served as a famine food; flowers sometimes are eaten in curries. The seeds are toxic to hogs.

CASSIA TOMENTOSA L.f. Alcaparro (C). Buds are substituted for capers and leaf infusions are used for typhus and dysentery.

CASSIA TORA L. Senna (E); Dormidera (S) (Fig. 67). The leaves are piscicidal, and may be applied to ulcers and other skin ailments. Seeds, eaten during famines, are roasted as a coffee substitute. They are used to treat cheloid, leprosy, plague, psoriasis, and ringworm. The leaves and young fruits are boiled as a potherb with rice. Leaves and shoots contain about 6% protein.

Castana (o): Compsoneura (C); Licania (C); Matisia (C); Montrichardia (P); Sterculia (S)

Castana de maranon: Bertholletia (C)

Castaneto: Hura (C); Thevetia (C)

CASTILLA ELASTICA Cerv. Rubber (E); Caucho negro (C); Ibude (Ch); Mastate blanco (P); Ule (P) (Fig. 68). The latex is used to make balls and bottles, for waterproofing clothing, and caulking boats. The bark is used to make clothing among the Choco (!).

CASTILLA FALLAX O.F.Cook. Rubber (E); Caucho (P); Ule (P). The bark is used for making cloth and the latex is used for caulking.

Castor bean: Ricinus (E)

CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA L. Australian pine (E); Beefwood (E); Pino (S); Pino de Australia (C) (Fig. 69). Potable water may be obtained from the shoots. Its logs will sink, but it is very good firewood which burns green and makes good charcoal. The fruit is mixed with powdered nutmeg to treat toothaches. Ashes are used to make soap. the bark is rich in tannin, and is said to be antidysenteric, emmenagogic, and ecbolic. It is used in gargles for sore throat.

Catalina: Clibadium (D); Dahlia (CR)

Catamericuchye: Cochlospermum (N)

Catapanza: Passiflora (N)

CATAPLASM: A poultice or soft external application. Aloe, Annona, Chenopodium, Cochlospermum, Commelina, Drepanocarpus, Eclipta, Gliricidia, Gossypium, Jatropha, Kallstroemia, Mirabilis, Ocimum, Paullinia, Philodendron, Pilea, Pistia, Protulaca, Pothomorphe, Scoparia, Sesamum, Solanum, Waltheria.

Catarina: Blakea (CR); Dahlia (CR)

CATARRH: A cold or similar malady. Treated with Achras, Achranthes, ageratum, allium, Anacardium, Ananas, Aniba, Annona, Aristolochia, Bidens, Bramia, Bursera, Cajanus, Calocarpum, Cardiospermum, Carica, CAssia, Cecropia, Cedrela, Ceratonia, Chaetoptelea, Chiococca, Chlorophora, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coleus, Conocarpus, Cordia, Crescentia, Cupania, Cynocon, Dendropogon, Desmodium, Dichromena, Dolichos, Eclipta, Elep;ahntopus, Enterolobium, Eupatorium, Euphorbia, Hymenaea, Lantana, Lippia, Mangifera, Manicaria, Mimosa, Myroxylon, Paspalum, Paullinia, Pedilanthus, Peperomia, Petiveria, Piper, Pistia, Pseudelepyhantopus, Psidium, Rivina, Salmea, Samanea, Scleria, Sesbania, Siparuna, Solanum, Spondias, Sterculia, Seietenia, Triumfetta, Turnera, Waltheria.

Catbrier: Smilax (E)

CATHARTIC: See Purgative.

Cativo: Cynometra (CR); Prioria (S)

Cattail: Typha (E)

Caucano: Cycnoches (C)

Cauchillo: Chlorophora (C); Sapium (C)

Caucho: Castilla (CR,P); Ficus (C); Perebea (P); Thevetia (C)

Caucho de la India: Ficus (C)

Caucho negro: Castilla (C,P)

Cauliflower: Brassica (E)

CAULK (Or CEMENT or GLUE): Gum of a plant used for caulking, mending, or pasting. Acacia, Bursera, Calophyllum, Castilla, Clusia,Hymenaea, Protium, Symphonia, Tamarindus.

Caulote: Guazuma (C)

Caunce: Godoya (C)

Cautivo: Prioria (P)

Cavaja: Mauritiella (C)

CAVANILLESIA PLATANIFOLIA (H.&B.) H.B.K. Cuipo (P). One of the most conspicuous elements of the seasonal forests of the Pacific slope of Panama and the Choco, the cuipo is easily recognized from the ground and the air aby its ringed trunk and deciduous umbrella-like crown. The light wood is little used, but formerly served as a balsa substitute. it is sometimes used for making dugouts and trays for washing and retaining foodstuffs. The large seeds are edible (!). The galactose-like gum that exudes from the cut trunk can be eaten without bad effect (!). Negroes in Darien use the gum as a suppurative. The large, porous roots of the tree, if cut into sections, yield a copious supply of potable water (!). Perhaps reflecting the Doctrine of Signatures, the Canasas Cuna believe that this pot-bellied tree is a cure for underweight. For sixteen days, the patiend bathes in an infusion of the bark, and then is supposed to start fattening up (!). Trees outplanted in Puerto Rico in 1947 were 100 feet tall and 5 feet DBH by 1970!

CAVENDISHIA CORDIFOLIA (H.B.K.) Hook. Uva de anis (C). The fruits are sweet but asperous.

Caygua: Cyclanthera (CR)

Cebada: Hordeum (C)

Cebadilla: Digitaria (C); Setaria (C); Schoenocaulon (C); Veratrum (CR)

Cebo burro: Hernandia (P)

Cebolilla: Nothoscordium (S)

Cebolleta: Catasetum (C); Eichhornia (C); Hymenocallis (C)

Cebolleta de pantano: Elocharis (C)

Cebollo: Allium (S)

Cebollilna: Allium (C,D)

Cebollo de hoja: Allium (C)

Cebo macho: Hernandia (P)

Cebolleta de palo: Eulophia (C)

CECROPIA OBTUSIFOLIA Bert. Guaruma (S). the leaves, eaten by stock, are believed to be a cure for diabetes. Wool from the stems and leaves is smoked like tobacco (!). The bark is used for making rope. The trunks are used for water troughs.

CECROPIA PELTATA L. Trumpet tree (E); Eporro (Ch); Guarumo (P); Nilauala (Cu); Yarumo (C) (Fig. 70). The buds serve as a potherb. Indians eat the pith. The caustic sap is used to remove warts. The wood makes good tinder and the ashes contain lime. The trunk is used for water troughs. The bark is used for cordage, mats, and the make cloth. The leaves are used to treat hemorrhage, liver ailments, dropsy, and dysentery, and are smoked like tobacco in the Pearl Islands (!). Chips of the wood have been mixed with concrete in Panama to make a paneling which is said to be economical, attractive and useful (!). On young trees there is often a caterpillar which teh Choco decapitate. This yields a red "magic-marker", the resultant stain, said to be a little caustic, lasting longer than Genipa stain (!). Sap of Cecropia virgusa is considered a good lubricant for wooden instruments, such as cane presses, etc.

Ceda: Cyperus (Cu)

Cedar, bastard: Guazuma (E)

Cedar, Spanish: Cedrala (E)

Cedar, spring: Bombacopsis (E)

Cedadr, white: Hura (E)

CEDRELLA ODORATA L. Spanish cedar (E); Cedro (S); Cobana (CR) (Fig. 71). The seeds of this honey tree are vermifugal. The aromatic wood is used for cigar boxes, moth-proof chests, etc., and is exported to the United States from Panama. The root bark is febrifugal. Bayano Cuna make dugouts of cedar, and the bottoms of old piraguas serve as benches (!).

Cedrillo: Brunellia (C); Huertea (C); Guarea (C); Muntingia (C); Tapirira (C); Turpinia (P); Phyllanthus (C)

Cedrito: Phyllanthus (C)

Cedro: Bombacopsis (C); Cedrela (S); Juglans (C); Phyllanthus (C)

Cedro amargo: Cedrela (S)

Cedro amarillo: Pseudosamanea (C)

Cedro bateo: Carapa (CR)

Cedro blanco: Cedrela (CR)

Cedro caoba: Cedrela (C)

Cedro cebolla: Cedrela (P); Swietenia (C)

Cedro cobano: Cedrela (CR); Trichilia (CR)

Cedro colorado: Cedrela (CR)

Cedro dulce: Cedrela (CR,P); Trichilia (CR)

Cedro espinoso: Bombacopsis (P)

Cedro granadino: Cedrela (P)

Cedro grande: Juglans (C)

Cedro grenadino: Cedrela (P)

Cedro hembra: Panopsis (C)

Cedro macho: Carapa (CR); Guarea (P); Trichilia (CR)

Cedro maria: Cedrela (S)

Cedron: Cedrela (C); Aloysia (C); Garcia (C); Simaba (C)

Cedro negro: Juglans (C); Garcia (C)

Cedro nogal: Juglans (C)

Cedro olorosa: Cedrela (C)

Cedro real: Cedrela (C,N,P)

Cedro vino: Carapa (S)

Ceiba: Ceiba (S); Bombacopsis (C); Bombax (C)

Ceiba de agua: Pachira (C); Pseudobombax (C)

Ceiba amarillo: Hura (C)

Ceiba barrigona: Pseudobombax (C)

Ceiba blanca: Hura (C)

Ceiuba bruja: Cavanillesia (C)

Ceiba de lana: Ochroma (C)

Ceiba de leche: Hura (C)

CEIBA PENTANDRA (L.) Gaertn. Silkcotton tree (E); Bonga (C); Ceiba (C)p; Ceiba de lana (C); Igarwala (Cu); Kapok (C); Saquisaqui (C) (Fig. 72). Seeds of this honey tree, edible after roasting, are ground to make mush. They yield a culinary oil used for illumination and soapmaking. The young fruits are a vegetable like okra. The young leaves serve as a potherb. The floss, irritating to the eyes, is used to stuff life-preservers, etc., and is also used as tinder. Wrapped around the trunk of a fruit tree, it is supposed to discourage leaf cutting ants. Wood ashes are used as a salt substitute and made into soap. The trunk is sometimes used for dugouts. The flowers are eaten by cattle. The Bayano Cuna use the bark in medicine for female troubles (!). A bath of a bark infusion is supposed to improve the growth of hair in Colombia. The same infusion is given to cattle after delivery to help shed the placenta.

Ceibo: Bombacopsis (P); Erythrina (C); Pseudobombax (CR)

Ceibo amarillo: Hura (C)

Ceibo barrigon: Pseudobombax (CR)

Ceibo muno: Bombacopsis (P)

Ceibo pochote: Pseudobombax (CR)

Ceibo tolu: Bombacopsis (C)

Celodonia: Alsine (C); Microtea (C)

Celery: Apium (E)

CELOSIA ARGENTEA L. Cockscomb (E); Abanico (P); Dedos de plata (C) (Fig. 73). Young shoots serve as a pother b. the seeds are considered antidiarrhetic, antidysenteric, and aphrodisiac.

CELTIS IGUANAEUS (Jacq.) Serg. Hackberry (E); Berraco (C); Cagalera (S); Raspador (C); Surrumbo (C). The fruits are eaten by children, iguanas, and birds. The wood is used for firewood and the leaves for sandpaper. The bark is laxative.

CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L. Sandbur (E); Cadillo (P); Ibakai (Cu); Pega-pega (P) (Fig. 74). The seeds serve as a famine food.

Cenicero: Pithecellobium (CR)

Cenicero macho: Albizia (CR)

Cenizaro: Pithecellobium (CR)

Cenizo: Chaetoptelea (P); Chenopodium (C); Pollalesta colombiana (C); Tessaria integrifolia (C)

Ceniza: Oliganthes discolor (C)


CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) Urban (Fig. 75). Perhaps cultivated by the Chinese about the Canal Zone as a tonic. It is supposed to be aphrodisiac and to impart long life. A special variety was the basis of a tea drunk by Prof. Li Chung Yon, who reputedly lived 265 years and married 24 times. The leaves are eaten raw or steamed with rice.

Centello: Plumbago (C); Ranunculus (c)

Centeno: Secale (C)

CENTROSEMA PLUMIERI (Turp.) Benth. Cugu (Cu) (Fig. 76). The leaves are used by the Cuna for stomach pains. The bark is used as a fish poison.

Century plant: Agave (E)

Cepa de caballo: Desmodium (P); Triumfetta (P); Urena (P)

CEPHAELIS IPECACUANHA (Stokes) Baill. Ipecac (E); Raicilla (S); Poaja (C). the roots are collected avidly in Darien. As the ipecac of commerce, it is a valuable emetic for children who have ingested poison, and is still used widely, even in the United States. There is a Darien belief that where the plant occurs, there is a snake around (!). In Colombia, it is chewed as an ambeicide and as an insect repellent.

CEPHAELIS TOMENTOSA (Aubl.) Vahl. Sombrerito del diablo (C). Used as an emmenagogue in the Choco and for the relief in asthma.

Cera: Elaegia (C)

Ceragallo: Lobelia (CR)

Cera de laurel: Myrica (C)

CERATONIA SILIQUA L. Carob (E); St. John's bread (E); Algarroba (P). Although the fruits are edible, rich in sugar and protein, and a source of alcohol, the carob is probably not cultivated in Panama. the seeds are substituted for coffee. Molasses is made from the seeds in Cyprus. A fruit decoction is used for catarrh. For early symptoms of mononucleosis and hepatitis, Panamanian doctors may prescribe AROGON, 85% carob flour, 15% antidyspeptic starch (!). The seeds are said to have been the original jeweller's carat.

CERATOPTERIS THALICTROIDES Brongn. Water fern (E); Helecho de agua (S). The fruits are edible raw or cooked.

Carbatana: Canna (P); Verbesina (P,C)

Cerebril: Justicia (CR/ROC)

Cereza (o): Bunchosia (P); Freziera (C); Malpighia (C); Prunus (C)

Cerezito: Bunchosia (C)

Cerezo de castilla: Malpighia (P)

Cerezo de monte: Bunchosia (P); Eurya (C)

Cerillo: Casearia (CR); Clusia (P); Lacmellea (CR); Perebea (P); Rheedia (CR); Symphonia (P)

Ceriman: Monstera (E)

Cerito: Casearia (CR)

Cero: Rheedia (C,P); Symphonia (P)

Cerote: Ficus (C)

Cerraja: Sonchus (S)

Cerraja grande: Sonchus oleraceus (C)

Cerrajita cimarrona: Aster marginatus (C)

Cestillo: Carludovica (C)

Ceylon spinach: Basella (E)

Chacafruto, Chachafruto: Erythrina (C); Polymnia (C)

Chachajillo: Nectandra (C)

Chachajo: Aniba (C); Endlicheria (C); Nectandra (C)

Chagualito: Clusia (C); Rapanea (C)

Chagualo: Calophyllum (C); Clusia (C); Rapanea (C); Tovomita (C)

Chajada amarillo: Pterocarpus (CR)

Chalde: Guarea (C); Philodendron (P)

CHAMAEDOREA WENDLANDIANA (Oerst.) Hemsl. Boda (P); Bola (P); Cana verde (P); Nuru (P). The spadices are dipped in eggs and fried. Leaves and young shoots may contain about 4% protein on a fresh weight basis.

Chambimbo: Sapindus (C)

Chambiro: Astrocaryum (C)

Chamburo: Carica (C)

Chamano: Dodonaea (C)

CHAMISSOA ALTISSIMA (Jacq.) H.B.K. Beju co pedorro (P). the vine is considered antivenereal.

Chamoltaco: Aphelandra (N)

Champomararay: Campomanesia (C)

Chan: Hyptis (CR)

Chanamo: Dodonaea (C)

Chancan: Pithecellobium (C)

Chanchagarra: Bactris (Ch)

Chanchan: Pithecellobium (C)

Chancharo: Phaseolus (C)

Chanchito: Cyclanthera (CR); Elaterium (CR)

Chancho blanco: Goethalsia (CR)

Chancho colorado: Vochysia (CR)

Chandur: Cyperus (C); Scleria (C)

Changro panga: Banisteropsis (C)

Changue: Colocasia (C)

Chano: Licania (C)

Chantre: Freziera (C)

Chanu: Humiriastrum (C); Licania (C); Sacoglottis (C)

Chaparral: Adenaria (C)

Chaparrito: Petrea (C)

Chaparro: Byrsonima (C); Curatella (C); Petrea (C)

Chaparro bobo: Palicourea (C)

Chaparro montecon: Byrsonima (C)

Chaperno: Lonchocarpus (CR,P)

Chapilte: Pithecellobium (CR)


Chaquera, Chaquiro: Alnus (C); Podocaarpus (C)

Chascara: Aiphanes (C)

Chascacay: Aiphanes (C)

Chavelita: Lochnera (P)

Chavelita de monte: Browallia (P)

Chayato: Sechium (C)

Chayota: Sechium (C)

Chayote: Sechium (P)

Chayotillo: Echinocystis (CR); Elateriopsis (CR) (Fig. 77)

CHELONANTHUS ACUTANGULUS (R.&P.) Gilg. Hierba de Adan (C). Used to alleviate neuralgia in the Choco.

Chenga: Guilielma (C)

CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. Wormseed (E); Paico (P) (Fig. 78). Elsewhere, leaves are used in soups and to flavor jutes (freshwater snails) and black beans. The seeds are anthelmintic and amebicidal. In Panama, the plant is regarded as antiasthmatic and vermifugal (!).

CHENOPODIUM QUINOA Willd. Quinua (C). The seeds are used as a grain, but may be vermifugal. Leaves are used as a potherb.

Chepo: Centropogon (C)

Chewstick: Gouania (E)

Chia: Gynerium (Ch)

Chiaga: Cuphea (C)

Chian: Hyptis (CR)

Chiaso: Saccharum (Ch)

Chiba: Ageratum conyzoides (C)

Chibato: Cassia (C)

Chibigui: Pogonopus (Ch)

Chibu: Bursera (C)

Chibuelo: Cassia (C)

Chibuga: Cariniana (C,P)

Chibugi: Pogonopus (Ch)

Chica: Arrabidaea (C)

Chicasquil: Jatropha (CR)

Chicala: Tabebuia (C)

Chicapa: Bidens (C)

CHICHA: A beverage which may be fermented. Made from Aechmea, Annona, borojoa, Bromelia, Byrsonima, Carica, Coccoloba, Coffea, Dillenia, Diospyros, Gouania, Guazuma, Guilielma, Gustavia, Hibiscus, Hymenaea, Hyptis, Manihot, Musa, Ocimum, Oenocarpus, Oryza, Pandanus, Parmentiera, Passiflora, Pithecellobium, Pourouma, Psidium, Punica, Saccharum, Secale, Solanum, Spondias, Sterculia, Tamarindus, Tecoma, Theobroma, Ximenia, Zea, Zingiber.

Chicha: Byrsonima (P)

Chichagui: Guilielma (C)

Chicharillo: Mouriria (S)

Chicharo: Dolichos (P)

Chicharron: Calea (C); Calliandra (C); Hirtella (P); Lonchocarpus (C); Petrea (C)

Chiche: Solanum (N)

Chichica: Ischnosiphon (P)

Chichicaste: Loasa (CR)

Chichigua: Solanum (N)

Chichimali: Baccharis (C)

Chichimeca: Amaranthus (CA)

Chichimora: Fevillea (CR); Solanum (CA

Chichique: Aspidosperma

Chichire: Maximiliana (C)

Chichita: Solanum (N)

Chichoma: Solanum (N)

Chicken corn: Sorghum (E)

Chick-pea: Cicer (E)

CHICLE: A base for chewing gum. Achras, Brosimum, Couma, Ficus, Manilkara, Mimusops, Pseudolmedia.

Chicle: Achras (S)

Chicoria: Eryngium (CR); Pseudelephantopus (P)

Chicoria cimarrona: Hypochoeris sonchoides (C)

Chidra: Carludovica (CR,N)

Chigua: Zamia (P)Chiguacan: Carica (C)

Chigua macho: Acrostichum (C)

Chiguechigue: Bromelia (C)

Chiju: Ananas (Ch)

Chila: Sicana (P)

Chihuila: Puya (C)

Chilaca: Myroxylon (CR)

Chilacaste: Urtica (CR)

Chilacayote: Cucurbita (CR)

Chilacuan: Carica (C)

Chilamate: Ficus (CR)

Chilca: Baccharis (C); Steiractinia (C); Tecoma (N); Thevetia (N)

Chilca amarilla: Cilbadium asperum (C)

Chilca blanco-ceniza: Eupatorium angustifolium (C)

Chilca lunareja: Eupatorium laevigatum (C)

Chilca de tenir: Baccharis (C)

Chilco: Baccharis (C); Euterpe (C)

Chilco colorado: Escallonia (C)

Chile: Capsicum (S); Drimys (CR); Phyllanthus (CR); Sciadodendron (CR)

Chile de perro: Polygonum (S)

Chilillo: Epiphyllum (CR); Phyllanthus (CR); Polygonum (P)

Chilinchil: Adipera (C)

Chilinchile: Cassia (C)

Chilindron: Thevetia (CR)

Chilipuca: Crotalaria (S)

Chillaso: Smilax (S)

Chilmecate: Paullinia (N)

Chilpepe, Chiltepe: Capsicum (S)

Chilquilla: Conyza (C); Eupatorium pycnocephalum (C)

Chilquita: Eupatorium odoratum (C)

Chilquita carrasposa: Eupatorium scabrum (C)

Chimbalo: Physalis (C); Solanum (C)

Chimbolillo: Cardiospermum (S)

Chimbolo verde: Dolichos (CR)

Chimichaca: Chusquea (CA)

Chiminango: Pithecellobium (C)

China: Impatiens (CR); Smilax (C)

Chinaberry: Melia (E)

Chinarose: Impatiens (CR)

Chinese root: Smilax (CR/ROC)

Chinchimali: Tagetes patula (C)

Chinese spinach: Ipomoea (E)

Chingale: Astrocaryum (C); Jacaranda (C); Sabal (C)

Chininango: Pithecellobium (C)

CHIOCOCCA ALBA (L.) Hitchc. Lagrimas de Maria (P). A snakebite remedy.

Chipaca: Bidens pilosa (C)

Chipara: Genipa (Ch)

Chiparo: Zygia (C)

Chipero: Calliandra (C)

Chipilin: Crotalaria (CR)

Chipio: Ficus (C)

Chipirera: Cavendishia (C)

Chipuelo: Zanthoxylum (C)

Chipuste: Saccharum (CR)

Chiquechique: Attalea (C); Leopoldina (C)

Chiquiragua: Chuquiraga jussieui (C)

Chiquirin: Myroxylon (N)

Chiquisa: Calyptocarpus (CR); Leonurus (CR)

Chiquizacillo: Borreria (CR)

Chiraco: Toxicodendron (C)

Chiratirati: Canna (Ch)

Chirca venenosa: Thevetia (CR)

Chirco: Thevetia (P)

Chireta: Helianthus (C)

Chiriguaco: Clethra (C)

Chirigui: Trixis

Chirimoya: Annona (P)

Chirimoya de monte: Annona (P)

Chiripique: Dalea (C)

Chiriqui: Trixis (P)

Chiriquirin: Myrospermum (N)

Chirivia: Pastinaca (S)

Chirlobirlos: Abatia (C); Castilleja (C); Tecoma (C)

Chirra: Tillandsia (CR)

Chirraca: Myroxylon (CR)

Chirriador: Cissus (C); Muntingia (C)

Chirrinchao: Phyllanthus (CR)

Chirrincharo: Phyllanthus (CR)

Chirriosaca: Carludovica (CR)

Cirrite: Besleria (CR); Eupatorium (CR); Salvia (CR)

Cirrite blanco: Eupatorium (C)

Cirriuaca: Monstera (CA)

Chisaca: Spilanthes (C)

Chisaca de cafetal: Spilanthes americana (C)

Chisgo: Laplacea (C)

Chisgua: Canna (C)

Chisi-chisi: Clibadium asperum (C)

Chispa: Coreopsis (CR); Tritonia (CR)

Chispeado: Bucquetia (C); Chaetolepis (C)

Chitaca: Senecio lanatus (C)

Chitato: Muntingia (C)

Chite: Hypericum (C)

Chitoto: Muntingia (C)

Chiu-chiu: Clibadium asperum (C)

Chivaco: Vaccinium (C)

Chivato: Aspidosperma (C)

Chivazo: Aristolochia (C)

Chive: Allium (E)

Chiverre: Cucurbita (CR)

Chiverrillo: Cucurbita (CR); Melothria (CR); Pittiera (CR)

Chiverro: Cucurbita (N); Tillandsia (CA)

Chivola: Hyptis (CA)

CHLOROPHORA TINCTORIA (L.) Guad. Avinje (C); Fustic (E); Yellow wood (E); Brasil (CR); Dinde (C); Fusete (C); Macano (P); Mora (P); Palo amarillo (C); Palo moro (C) (Fig. 79). The fruit is edible. The wood is used for furniture. The latex is said to cause teeth to fall out (!). the bark is purgative (!).

Choapo: Iriartea (C)

Chochitos de indio: Abrus (C)

Chocho: Abrus (C); Lupinus (C); Mauria (C); Mucuna (P); Ormosia (C); Rourea (C); Sapindus (C); Trichilia (C)

Chocho colorado: Erythrina (C)

Choco: Scoparia (C); Weigeltia (C)

Chocolate: Theobroma (E)

Chocolatillo: Chomelia (C); Herrania (P); Piptadenia (C); Randia (C)

Chocomico: Ximenia (N)

Chogro: Bambusa (CR); Guadua (Ch)

Choho: Erythrina (C)

Choiba: Dipteryx (C)

CHOLERA: An infectious disease characterized by vomiting, cramps, fever, etc. Treated with Allium, Capsicum, Eupatorium, Mangifera, Melia, Mikania, Mucuna, Musa, Physalis, Psidium, Rheedia.

CHOLOGOGUE: A substance producing or increasing the flow of bile. Ananas, Calotropis, Carica, Eleusine, Jatropha, Phyllanthus, Pothomorphe.

CHOMELIA SPINOSA Jacq. Tom bush (E) (Fig. 80). The fruits are edible and febrifugal.

Chompipe: Aristolochia (N)

Chonque: Colocasia (C)

Chonta: Astrocaryum (P); Guilielma (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C); Socratea (CR); Syagrus (C)

Chontadura: Coleus (P); Guilielma (C)

Chontadurillo: Guilielma (C)

Chonta negra: Iriartea (CR)

Chontilla: Bactris (C)

Chonto: Ceroxylon (C)

Chonuya: Mauritia (C)

Choreque: Petrea (CR)

Chorequillo: Godmania (CR)

Chorote: Anacardium (C); Pernettia (C)

Chorotico: Alonsoa (C)

Choyba: Dipteryx (C); Helicostylis (P)

Christmas bush: Eupatorium (J)



CHRYSANTHEMUM PARTHENIUM (L.) Bernh. Manzanilla matricaria (C); Manzanilla romana

CHRYSANTHEMUM ICACO L. Coco plum (E); Icaco (S); Uichup (Cu) (Fig. 81). The fruits are eaten fresh (!) or preserved. The seeds are edible and sometimes strung as candlenuts.

CHRYSOPHYLLUM spp. Star apple (E); Caimito (S); Eslo (Cu); Nensarrajo (Ch); Pipa (Cu); Tuko (Ch, Noanama) (Fig. 82). Most of the species have fruits that are edible raw (!), but some are unpleasantly gummy. They are cultivated by the Cuna and Choco. Sweet milky fruits like caimito and papaya are avoided by pregnant Choco in the belief that the fetus will grow too large.

Chucha: Trixis (C); Porophyllum ruderale (C)

Chuchuana: Astrocaryum (C)

Chuchapanga: Siparuna (C)

Chucho: Peperomia (C); Cestrum (C); Solanum (C)

Chuchunchullo: Hybanthus (C); Ionidium (C)

Chuchupate: Guarea (P)

Chuella: Pterocarpus (P)

Chufa: Cyperus (E)

Chugua: Ullucus (C)

Chuguaca: Viburnum (C)

Chuguilla: Anredera (C)

Chula: Lochnera (C)

Chulco: Begonia (C); Monolena (C); Oxalis (C)

Chulguin: Gynerium (C)

Chumbimbo: Sapindus (C)

Chumbino: Sapindua (C)

Chumbipito: Aristolochia (C)

Chumico: Curatella (CR,P); Davilla (P); Monoplegma (CR); Tetracera (P)

Chumico de palo: Curatella (CR,P)

Chumico peoro: Davilla (P)

Chundul: Cyperus (C)

Chunga: Astrocaryum (P)

Chunto: Ceroxylon (C)

Chununa de caballo: Blepharodon (P)

Chupa: Gustavia (C); Licania (C); Matisia (C)

Chupachupa: Combretum (C); Matisia (C); Psychotria (C)

Chupadera: Dracontium (C); Castilleja (C)

Chupahuevo: Castilleja (C)

Chupa membrillo: Gustavia (C)

Chupamiel: Hamelia (N)

Chupana: Hydrocotyle (C)

Chupatroncos: Phthirusa (C)

Chupito: Aristolochia (C)

Chupaya: Bromeliaceae in general (C); Montricardia (C)

Chupo: Gustavia (C)


Chureca: Lathyrus (CR)

Churristate: Anoda (CR); Ipomoea (CR)

Churrite: Hyptis (CR); Priva (CR)

Churruba: Syagrus (C)

Churumbelo: Posoqueria (C)

Chuscal: Paspalum (C)

Chusque: Chusquea (C)

Chutras: Protium (P)

CICER ARIETINUM L. Chick-pea (E); Garbanzo (S) (Fig. 83). The seeds are used in soups and as a vegetable, made into flour, roasted as a coffee substitute, and used to treat bronchial catarrh. Roasted roots are also a coffee substitute. The seeds are antibilious. The edible leaves and shoots contain 7-8% protein.

Cidra: Citrus (P)

Cidrapapa: Sechium (C)

Cidrayote: Sechium (C)

Cidron: Lippia (C)

Cierito: Mouriri (P)

Cierra tus puertas: Mimosa (P)

Cierrate, Cierrate de escobilla: Mimosa (P)

Cigarillo: Cuphea (CA)

Cigua: Various Lauraceae (S)

Cilantrillo: Adiantum (C)

Cilantro: Coriandrum (C); Eryngium (C)

Cimarron: Coccoloba (C)

Cinchadora: Philodendron (P)

Cinchona: Cinchona (S)

Cinco coloraditos: Lantana (S)

Cinco dedos: Aralia (C); Oreopanax (C); Quararibea (P)

Cinco negritos: Lantana (CR,N)

CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Cinnamon (E); Alcanfor (C,P); Canela (S) (Fig. 84). This Asian tree is occasionally planted in Panama, the dried bark abeing the cinnamon of commerce, which is sold in Panama markets (!).

Cinnamon: Cinnamomum (E)

Cinta: Muehlenbeckia (C)

Cinta blanca: Phalaris (C)

Ciprecillo: Podocarpus (CR)

Cipres: Cupressus (CR,C)

Cipreso: Escallonia (CR)

Ciro: Baccharis spp.

Cirpo: Pourouma (C)

Cirri: Mosquitoxylum (CR)

Cirri amarillo: Mauria (CR)

Cirro blanco: Mosquitoxylum (CR)

Ciruela (o): Bunchosia (S); Phyllanthus (S); Spondias (S); Ternstroemia (C); Ximenia (C)

Ciruela de perro: Bunchosia (C)

Ciruelillo: Ximenia (C)

Cisne: Cycnoches (C)

CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA L. Bejunco de cerca (C); Patacon (C) (Fig. 85). In Colombia, the vine is used for cordage. The plant is antiasthmatic, diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogic, febrifugal, lithontriptic, sudorific, and is used as a barbasco and a snakebite cure. The roots are used to prevent abortion and to arrest menorrhagia.

CISSUS RHOMBIFOLIA Vahl. Baitilla (P) (Fig. 86). The fruits are edible, with the taste of grapes (!).

CISSUS SICYOIDES L. Rock rope (E); Bejujco Castro (C); Bejucocomemano (CA); Bejuco loco (P); Chirriador (C); Uva cimarrona (P). the fruits are much sought by birds and are edible (!). The stems are used as a soap substitute. The leaves are used for rheumatism and ulcers.

CITHAREXYLUM sp. Fiddlewood (E); Old women's bitter (E); Manglillo (P) (Fig. 87). The berries are said to be edible, and the flowers are attractive to bees. The bark is reported to serve as a fish poison.

Citron: Citrus (E)

Citronella: Cymbopogon (E)

CITRULLUS LANATUS (Thunb.) Mansf. Watermelon (E); Paitilla (C); Patilla (C); Sandia (P) (Fig. 88). Watermelon production is almost exclusively limited to the dry season in Panama, where a mediocre melon brings 50 cents to one dollar. The rinds are sometimes preserved in sugar or vinegar.

CITRUS spp. Citrus (E) (Fig. 89). Several species of the Asian genus Citrus are cultivated throughout the tropics for their edible fruits, and some tend to become established. The plants are important honey producers. Those most common in Panama are: (1) The lime or limon, Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (narachole, Cu) is planted, much to the exclusion of the true lemon, or limon real. A tonic tea is sometimes prepared from the evergreen leaves and the fruits are regarded as antiscorbutic, antiseptic, styptic, and sudorific. San Blas Indians nearly always have a bottle of lemon juice on the table as one of their two spices, the other being salt. Often the lemon juice is converted into a hot sauce (Ka) by the addition of Capsicum (KA). Colombian natives believe the fruits retard delivery. They use a root infusion to combat colic. (2) The sweet lime or limon dulce, Citrus limetta Risso, is also widely planted in Central America. (3) The sweet orange or naranja, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (naras, narastuma, Cu) is planted in gardens but is not produced commercially. Peelings are used to flavor foods and relieve toothache. Steamed, they are applied to sore ears. The leaves are used to make a tea consumed by the Negroes of Darien and Puerto Obaldia. This tea, followed by aspirin, is used by Chiricanos to treat fever. (4) The sour orange or naranja acida or naranja agria, Citrus aurantium L., is occasionally found wild. Its fruits are extremely bitter, but the juices are used to remove the wild taste from game. The leaves and bark are home remedies for bad heart, and are used as antiseptic, hemostatic, and sudorific. (5) The citron or cidra or toronja, Citrus medica L., is often cultivated. The peel being used to make confections (Fig. 90). (6) The grapefruit or toronja, Citrus paradisi Macf. (narastumma, Cu), is too sour for Latin tastes and is little planted in Panama (Fig. 91). (7) The tangerine or mandarin, Citrus reticulata Blanco, seems most abundant among the lowland Cuna, where it is called narachol madriquet.

Clarol: Pereskia (C)

Clava: Dichronema (P)

Clavel: Dianthus (S); Hibiscus (S)

Clavel de aire: Tillandsia (C)

Clavelillo: Jussiaea (D)

Clavelino: Couroupita (C); Caesalpinia (C)

Clavellin: Brownea (C)

Clavellin de playa: Wedelia (P)

Clavellina: Brownea (C); Mutisia (C); Caesalpinia (CR); Calliandra (C); Delonix (C); Tagetes (P)

Clavellina de monte: Melanthera (P)

Clavellina de pichinde: Calliandra (P)

Clavellina de San Jacinto: Curtia (P)

Clavellinito: Steiractinia aspera (C)

Clavellino: Mustisia clematis (C)

Clavelon: Zinnia elegans (C)

CLAVIJA spp. Hochoronejo (Ch); Kuandu (Cu); Membrillo (D); San Cristobal (P) (Fig. 92). Choco and Cuna state that the fruits are edible (!). Roots and wood are used in snakebite cures (!). The plant is considered alexeritic and antispasmodic in Panama.

Clavito: Acacia (N); Jussiaea (D)

Clavo: Dichronema (C); Eugenia (S); Faramea (C)

Clematide: Mutisia clematis (C)

CLEMATIS DIOICA L. Barba de viejo (P) (Fig. 93). The seeds are regarded as purgative, rubefacient, and vesicant. The infusion of the lfowers and leaves is used as a cosmetic.

Clemon: Thespesia (C)

CLEOME SPINOSA Jacq. Spiderflower (E); Desbaratabaile (C); Desdicha (C); Garcita (C); Mismia (C); Pito-pito (C); Una del diablo (C). The leaf infusion is used for earache. The plant is a fish poison, and is also used to supress ticks, bedbugs, and roaches.

CLIBADIUM spp. Catalina (D); Kwinkwimas (Cu); Mastrazo de monte (P); Zlaguena (P). This is used as a barbasco and to treat erysipelas.

CLIBADIUM ASPERUM DC. Chiu-chiu (C); Sicuri (C); Catalina (C); Chisi-chisi (C); Chilca amarilla (C)


CLIBADIUM SYLVESTRE (Aubl.) Baill. Barbasco (C)

CLIDEMIA spp. The fruits are edible (!).

CLITORIA TERNATEA L. Campanilla (P) (Fig. 94). The roots are cathartic. The seeds are antidotic, aperient, diuretic, purgative, and refrigerant, and are used in cystitis.

Clove: Eugenia (E)

Clover: Trifolium (E)

CLUSIA MINOR L. Cope (P); Mata palo (C,D) (Fig. 95). This is a source of an elastic vulnerary latex, used for bandaging children's hernias. The fruits of most Clusia spp. are regarded as poisonous but they are eaten by bats.

CLYTOSOMA ISTHMICUM Pittier. Agu (Cu). Cuna use the leaves for upper respiratory infections.

Coa: Geoffroea (C)

Coba: Cryosophila (Ch); Machaerium (C)

Cobano: Cariniana (C); Cedrela (CR)

Cobola: Podocarpus (CR)

Cobreque: Sesbania (N)

Coca: Erythroxylum (C)

COCCOLOBA UNIFERA (L.) L. Seabrape (E); Micongo (C); Nula (Cu); Uva de playa (S); Uverna (S) (Fig. 96). The acid pulp is edible fresh or in jams. It makes a beverage that may be fermented. The tannin in the bark is prescribed for diarrhea. Several other species of Coccoloba have edible fruits.

Coceador: Piper (C)

COCHLOSPERMUM VITIFOLIUM (Willd.) Spreng. Brazilian rose (E); Bototo (C); Carneasado (C); Carnestolendo (C); Flechero (C); Nunonunor bala (Cu); Poroporo (P) (Fig. 97). The soft wood of other species is a famine food; this species might be judiciously sampled. The wood burns green. The cotton is used to stuff pillows, and is used at the base of Indian darts. The bark is used for making rope. It is frequently cultivated on San Blas Islands as decorative living llight poles (!). Medicinally, the plant is regarded as a sedative and suppurative. To treat jaundice, infusions of the leaves are prescribed in Colombia.

Cocla: Bauhinia (P)

Cockscomb: Celosia (E)

Cockstail palm: Geonoma (B)

Coco: Cocos (S); Lecythis (P); Mucuna (C); Xanthosoma (P)

Cocoa: Theobroma (E)

Coco albarco: Cariniana (C)

Coco blanco: Eschweilera (C)

Cocoloba (o): Dalbergia (P); Lecythis (CR); Pithecellobium (CR); Psychortia (B)

Cocobolito: Psychotria (P)

Coco cabuyo: Couratari (C)

Coco cristal: Lecythis (C)

Coco, ground: Eulophia (E)

Coco guasco: Eschweilera (C)

Coco manteco: Gustavia (C)

Coco de mono: Couroupita (P); Lecythis (C)

Coco de monte: Couroupita (P)

Coco muerto: Gustavia (C)

Coconut: Cocos (E)

Coco plum: Chrysobalanus (E)

Cocora: Billia (CR); Guarea (CR)

Cocorote: Bactris (C)

COCOS NUCIFERA L. Coconut (E); Ogop (Cu); Palma de coco (Ch,S); Coco (S); Cocotero (S) (Fig. 98). No palm is more useful and better known than the coconut, the money crop in San Blas, where it serves as well as a nickel in fiscal transactions. An acre of coconut plantation may yield 5,000 to 10,000 nuts a year. The liquid in the center of the coconut when immature is nearly 95% water, the rest sugar. At this stage, it is called a pipa, and these are consumed wherever there are coconuts. Panama analyses of pipas reveals 92% water, 5a% carbohydrates, 1% protein, 1% oil, and 1% mineral. The pipa juice is often used as a "chaser" with seco in Darien (!). As the nut approaches maturity, the milk should not be drunk in quantity as it tends to be diuretic. Cuna Indians, when piercing the ears and noses of newly born girls, draw a string soaked in coconut mild through the hole to hasten healing. Before it matures, coconut meat is like a custard in flavor and consistency (!). The white meat underneath the ripe husk is very nutritious, containing about 40% oil, 10% carbohydrate, 3% protein, 1% inorganic matter, the rest mostly water. Panama analyses of the white meat (copra fresca) reveal 51% water and 32% oil, while sun-dried copra exported from Sun Blas to Panama for oil extraction has 12% water and 60% oil. A rich liquid is squeezed out of grated coconut meat. Panamanians call this cream leche de coco. Analysis reveals 86% water, 4-5% oil, 3-4% protein, 4-5% carabohydrate, and 1% mineral, very close to cow's milk. It is boiled with rice tomake Panama's famouse arroz con coco with taro leaves to make a South Seas dish, and with game to make creamed meat dishes. It has been used as a substitute for cream in coffee. Natives mash up the meat in water and squeeze it through a sieve. The exudate is then boiled, the ooil ladled off the top. Fresh oil may be used to fry food. The oil keeps poorly and should be used shortly for cooking. It may be used for smokeless illumination after it has become ransid; rancid oil is put in a seashell and a wick is floated therein. Candles may be made of coconut butter or oil. The flowers are enveloped in a large leafy spathe, which ruptures when the flower opens. Elsewhere, natives tie it together and make a small cut near the tip so that gravity will direct the juices into a bucket tied to it. They let it "bleed" a few days and then make a new cut. The fresh juice or "toddy" tastes like apple cider. Fermenting produces wine or vinegar, which may be strengthened by distillation. Some Asian Indians believe that if the toddy is used regularly by pregnant women, the child will have a lighter complection than the parent. The sap, boiled until it becomes brown and thick, is called "coconut molasses." the thick residue on the bottom may then be sun dried to form a brown lump sugar. the molasses and grated coconut meat are mixed and allowed to harden into candy. The terminal foliage bud of the plant is edible cooked like cabbage, or raw as a "millionaire's salad", so named because cutting off the terminal bud kills a very valuable plant. Fallen nuts may germinate where they lie. In germinating nuts, the cavity is filled with a spongy mass called bread, which is eaten raw or toasted in a shell over the fire. Sprouting seeds may be eaten like celery. There is some starch in the pith of the stems, which can be extracted by mashing up the pith, extracting the fibrous parts, and letting the starch settle. This starch can be used to make bread. The pith from the top of the tree can be pickled in coconut vinegar. Scorched roots of the coconut tree have served as a coffee substitute. Dried leaves furnish short-lived torches, one being lit from the other. The San Blas often use coconut to bait their fish baskets. Halved coconut shells make very suitable utensils. Food is wrapped in leaves between two halves of a split coconut, which are placed over a fire. When the shells have nearly burned through, the food is removed. Drinking from a halved coconut vessel is supposed to impart good health. in New Guinea, natives sometimes travel on rafte made of coconut logs. Coconuts stuffed in the clothing serve as boyant life preservers. Tropical houses can be made of coconut stems and leaves, although other species often play the rold. Commercial fiber (coir), resistant to salt-water damage, is produced from the husk. A commercial plant established in about 1957 in Pico Feo, San Blas, turned out about a ton a day, which commanded $140 per ton in Europe. Soaps made from coconut oil float and lather in salt water. Elsewhere, natives make soap of coconut oil and wood ashes. Ash of coconut leaf stalks may be used since it contains much potash. Placing palm fronds coated with mud over embers preserves fire overnight. Husks are used as fuel and mosquito smudges. Shells make good heat reflectors. Buttons have been fashioned from strands stripped from coconut leaves, needles being fashioned out of thorns of other palms or from bamboo slivers. Fish traps have been made from the ribs of the leaves, and crab traps from the leaf stalks. Boiling of the toddy yeilds a sugar water known as "jaggery", which, mixed with lime, makes an excellent cement. A resin, extracted by heating the inner husk of the coconut, is used to treat toothache among the Maje Choco. Coconut oil is used to treat alopecia, as an alexeritic, to treat burns, and as an insect repellent. The Maje Choco take the oil, mixed with honey, and monkey and chicken fat, for asthma. The milk is believed febrifugal. Coconut water is used as an antiemetic; fermented, it is used for constipation and consumption. The down at the base of the leaves is used to stop bleeding. The bark is regarded as antiotitic and antiseptic. the flowers are said to be astringent. The roots are believed to be antiblennorrhagic, antibronchitic, antidysenteric, fegbrifugal, and antigingivitis.

Cocorote: Pyrenoglyphis (C)

Cocotero: Cocos (S)

Coco, wild: Caladium (E)

Coco zapote: Couroupita (P)

Cocu: Andira (CR,P)

Cocua: Poulsenia (C,P)

CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM (L.) Blume: Croton (E); Sugaquinit (Cu); Tirabuzon (C). Used by the San Blas Indians as a bath for body aches and eye diseases. Leaves believed to be refrigerant. Root and cortex are stimulating and slightly caustic.

Codillo: Commelina (P)

COFFEA ARABICA L. Arabian coffee (E); Cabi (Cu); Cafe (S) (Fig. 99). Coffee is grown rarely in lowland Panama but inland Cuna sometimes grown their own, as do all ethnic groups. Coffee is frequently raised in the shade of some other trees. Hungry or thirsty survivalists will find some satisfaction from the ripe beans. Coffee beans, after processing and drying, furnish a stimulating beverage to which many Americans are addicted. Coffee leaves, if cured like tea leaves, afforde a beverage with enough caffeine to serve as a coffee or tea substitute. In India, the leaves are roasted over a fire of bamboo or other wood that gives little smoke. The leaves assume a buff color when done, and are then ground to form an "instant coffee". In bolivia, sultana, a coffee substitute, is made from the bark. In Arabia, the pulp of the fruit, after drying is employed in making a beverage which could be fermented. Coffee flowers are attractive to bees and impart a characteristic flavor to the honey. Dried beans are used medicinally as a diuretic, nervine, and stimulant, which acts on the central nervous system, kidneys, heart, and muscles. It is used as an antidote in opium poisoning, being regarded as antisoporific and anaphrodisiacal. Unroasted beans have been used as a substitute for quinine in intemittent fever. Black coffee has been used in treating typhoid fever and chronic diarrhea. Cold coffee is used by fishermen to wash the smell of fish off their hands.

Coffee: Coffea (E)

COFFEE SUBSTITUTE: A plant furnishing a beverage similar to coffee. Abelmoschus, Canavalia, Cassia, Ceratonia, Cicer, Cocos, Coffee, Daucus, Hedyosmum, Hibiscus, Leucaena, Musa, Theobroma.

Cogollos: Tillandsia (CA)

Cochataco: Raulvolfia (CR)

Cohombros: Cucumis (C)

Cohune: Attalea (E)

Cointura: Banisteria (P)

COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L. Job's tears (E); Lagrimas de San Pedro (C,P), Oi (Cu); Ovina (Cu); Ruema (D); Ta (Ch) (Fig. 100). The seeds, a source of meal, are parched to make a tea and used to make mushes that can be fermented. they are used for necklaces in San Blas (!). Bayano Cuna use the seeds medicinally (!). In Darien, they are said to be diuretic (!). Colombians use the roots to treat chronic headache (!). Chinese also use the plant medicinally.

Cojon: Stemmadenia (CR); Tabernaemontana (CR)

Cojon de burro: Stemmadenia (CR)

Cojon de caballo: Stemmandenia (CR)

Cojon de cabrito: Tabernaemontana (C)

Cojon de fraile: Stemmadenia (CR); Tabernaemontana (C)

Cojon de gato: Thevetia (C)

Cojon de mico: Stemmandenia (C)

Cojon de puerco: Stemmandenia (C)

Cojon de toro: Tabernaemontana (C)

Col: Brassica (S)

Col de monte: Phytolacca (C)

Cola de alacran: Heliotropium (P)

Cola de chancho: Helicteres (N)

Cola de chango: Helicteres (N)

Colacion: Antigonon (S) (P); Carludovica (CR); Chamaedorea (C); Chinochloa (CR); Geonoma (C)

Cola de marrano: Pithecellobium (CA)

Cola de millo: Stachytarpheta (P)

Cola demorado: Geonoma (C)

Cola de nava (o): Cupania (N)

Cola de pescado: Caryota (CR)

Coladera: Luffa (C)

Cola de venado: Andropogon (CR); Arundinella (CR)

Colchon de pobre: Achillea (C); Hedyosmum (C); Lycopodium (C)

Colegial: Gesneria (C)

COLEUS BLUMEI Benth. Jacob's coat (J); Chontadura (P); Oregano de Espana (S); Pompolluda (P). This or a closely related species is said to make a pleasant addition to beverages. The leaves are eaten with bread and butter, and bruised and put into country beer. In Indochina, it is employed in asthma, chronic coughs, epilepsy, colic, and dyspepsia. Expressed juice is used as an anodyne and applied over and around the eyelids in conjunctivitis.

Colibri: Masdevallia (C)

Coliflor: Brassica (S)

Coligallo: Bactris (CR); Calyptrogyne (CR); Carludovica (CR); Dasystachys (CR)

Colima: Zanthoxylum (C)

Colindre: Eupatorium (P)

Colla: Polymnia (C)

Collards: Brassica (E)

COLLYRIUM: A local eye medication, i.e., eyewash. Abrus, Achyranthes, Albizia, Argemone, Bocoonia, Boerhaavia, Caesalpinia, Capsicum, Codiaeum, Coleus, Elilia, Eugenia, Gouania, Ipomoea, Isotoma, Lantana, Luffa, Malachra, Manihot, Mimosa, Ocimum, Phaseolus, Ricinus, Spondias, Talinum, Tamarindus, Waltheria, Ziziphus.

Colmillo: Dermatocalyx (CR); Psammisia (CR); Satyria (CR); Spigelia (CR)

Colmillo de perro: Cavendishia (CR)

Colmillo de puerco: Hylenaea (P); Spigelia (CR)

Col de Nicaragua: Jatropha (P)

COLOCASIA ANTIQUORUM Schott and COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.) Dasheen (E); Mafafa (C); Malangay (C); Otoe (S); Moena Mesusu (Ch); Tarkwa (Cu); Usami (Ch) (Fig. 101). Taros and dasheens are next to yams in importance in oriental economies. These vegetable crops look much like the oto, but are readily identifiable by their peltate leaves. The taro has been so long cultivated by vegetative propagation that it has not been known to set seed. It fares best in wet, rich soils of the humid tropics, where the top of the corm is used in propagation. The corm is an important element of the diet. the starch yield is nutritious and easily digested. The wildings may serve as food sources also. The whole plant can be eaten. Panamanians apparently use only the corm, which must be cooked to remove the crystals in it. the corm is eaten fried, boiled, baked, or converted into breadstuffs. The leaves, after cooking, are a satisfactory potherb. The dasheen has more carbohydrate and protein than the potato, and has a pleasant nutty flavor. The juice extracted from the petioles is rubefacient, stimulant, and styptic, and is elsewhere used in treatment of earache. Juice from the corms is used externally for baldness and internally as a laxative and an antidote to wasp stings.

Colombiano: Bryophyllum (C)

Colombino: Aquilegia (C)

Colombo: Panopsis (C)

Color: Bixa (C)

Coloradito: Brownea (D); Heisteria (CR); Tovomitopsis (P)

Colorado: Calycophyllum (C); Centrolobium (C); Geissanthus (C); Nectandra (CR); Polylepis (C)

Colorin: Capparis (C)

Colpachi: Croton (W)

Comalillo: Hydrocotyle (CR)

COMBRETUM FRUTICOSUM (Loefl.) Stuntz. Chupachupa (S). A cut stem yields a water substitute. The stem is used for cordage.

Comedero: Laguncularia (C)

Comejenero: Oliganthes discolor (C)

Comenegro: Dialium (N); Garrya (N); Hieronyma (CR); Lonchocarpus (P); Swartzia (CR)

Comida de culebra: Casearia (N); Dieffenbachia (CR); Philodendron (CR); Rauvolfia (N); Xanthosoma (CR)

Comida de Langosta: Sida (C)

Comida de loro: Casearia (P)

Cominillo: Pectis (CR)

Comino: Aniba (C)

Comino crespo: Aniba (C)

Comino silvestre: Pectis elongata (C)

COMMELINA sp. Dayflower (E); Codillo (S) (Fig. 102). The leaves serve as a potherb. the seeds of some species serve as a famine food.

Compano: Samanea (C)

Conchita: Chrysanthemum (CR)

Concha de loma: Calea glomerata (C)

Conchudo: Pithecellobium (CR); Viburnum (CR)

Conejito: Delphinium (C)

Conejo: Calycophyllum (CR); Hirtella (P); Laetia (P)

Conejo colorado: Trichilia (P)

Conejo huasca: Anchietea (C)

Conene: Aeschynomene (CR)

Confederate vine: Antigonon (E)

Confite: Lantana (C)

Confitura: Lantana (C)

Conga: Hedychium (C)

Congo: Andira (C)

Congolo: Crescentia (C)

Congo pea: Cajanus (E)

Conidijo: Osteophloem (C)

CONJUNCTIVITIS: Inflammation of the trans parent membrane which covers the eyeball. Treated with Acacia.

CONOBEA SCOPARIOIDES (C.&S.) Benth. Hierba de sapo (C). Used in the Choco to combat toothache.

CONOCARPUS ERECTUS L. Buttonwood (E); Mangle boton (P); Mangle marquito (CR); Mangle torcido (P); Zaragosa (P) (Fig. 103). The latex is styptic, leaves febrifugal and root used to treat catarrh and gonorrhea. The wood is used for fuel and charcoal.

CONOSTEGIA XALAPENSIS (Bonpl.) Don. Canallito (P). The fruits are edible raw.

Conservadora: Petunia (C)

Contra: Apeiba (C); Capparis (C)

Contracapitano: Aristolochia (P)

CONTRACEPTIVE: A substance to prevent conception. Abrus, Ceiba.

Contraculebra: Aegiphila (P)

Contragallinazo: Cyphomandra (D)

Contragavilana: Neurolaena lobata (C,P)

Contrahierba: Dorstenia (S)

Contraveneno: Fevillea (CR); Securidaca (N)

CONYA BONARIENSIS (L.) Cronq. Venadillo (C); Yerba de caballo (C)

CONYA BONARIENSIA var. LEIOTHECA (Bl) Cuatr. Chilquilla, Hoja-sauce

Copa: Protium (P)

Copachi: Aspidosperma (C)

Copaiba balsam: Copaifera (E)

COPAIFERA OFFICINALIS Jacq. Balsam capivi (E); Copaiba balsam (E); Cabimo (D); Canime (C). One of the finest timbers in Darien, this tree is highly regarded medicinally. The gum accumulating in the heartwood is used for massages and hair oil. It is supposed to be good for the skin, and it is used, like carano, for extracting maggots. Yaviza Negroes mix it with honey and put in the mouths of newly born to impart knowledge and ward of hexes. The gum is also used for treating veneral diseases.

Copaju: Prioria (C)

Copal: Protium (CR)

Copalchi: Croton (CR,P)

Copal, South American: Hymenaea (E)

Copa de oro: Allamanda (C)

Cope: Clusia (P); Ficus (C)

Copeicillo: Clusia (CR)

Copel: Clusia (CR)

Copete: Tecoma (P)

Copey: Clusia (CR)

Copidijo: Virola (P)

Copo Morado: Petrea (C)

Copte: Schizolobium (S)

Coquillito de cerro: Croton (P)

Coquillo: Astrocaryum (P); Jatropha (P); Lecythis (C)

Coquito: Corozo (CR); Elaeis (CR); Eugenia (CR); Hyptis (CR); Jatropha (CR)

Coral: Banisteria (CR); Eurya (CR); Razisea (CR)

Coralibe: Tabebuia (C)

Coralillo: Eugenia (P); Hamelia (CR); Inga (P); Picramnia (CR); Pithecellobium (P); Russelia (CR); Satyria (CR)

Coralito: Antigonon (C); Nertera (C); Russelia (C); Sickingia (C)

Corallero: Coccoloba (C); Randia (C,P)

Coral vine: Antigonon (E)

Coratu: Enterolobium (P)

Corazon: Annona (C); Anthurium (C)

Corazon cimarron: Annona (C)

Corazon herido: Clerodendrum (C)

Corazon de Jesus: Anthurium (C); Aristolochia (C); Caladium (P,C,CR)

Corazon sangriento: Caladium (C)

Coraon tranquilo: Lupinus (CR)

Corcho: Melaleuca (CR); Ochroma (P)

CORCHORUS SILIQUOSUS L. Broomweed (E); Escobilla (P); Te (P) (Fig. 104). the leaves serve as a tea substitute and sometimes are used as a potherb. Leaves and shoots of C. olitorium contain about 5% protein.

CORDAGE: A substance used for rope. Aechmea, Apeiba, Cecropia, Cochlospermum, Combretum, Coroso, Couroupita, Cydista, Davilla, Helicostylis, Desmoncus, Guazuma, Helicocarpus, Hibiscus, Muntingia, Musa, Paullinia, Rollinia, Rourea, Pseudobombax, Securidaca, Sida, Trema, Triumfetta, Urena, Xylopia.

CORDIA ALLIODORA (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken. Canalete (C); Capa (P); Laurel (P); Solera (C) (Fig. 105). The fruits are used by Amerinds as food. The seeds are used to treat skin diseases. A leaf decoctiton is stomachic, tonic, and used for cattarh.

CORDIA HETEROPHYLLA R.&S. Niguito (P); Paico (P). The yellowish-white fruit is edible. Several species have flowers attractive to bees.

Cordoncillo: Piper (C,CR)

Cordoncillo blanco: Piper (N)

Cordoncillo morado: Tradescantia (C)

Coriander: Coriandrum (E)

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. Coriander (E) (Fig. 106). This plant is eaten as a vegetable. The seeds are chewed to improve the breath, and they are considered carminative, pectoral, and sedative.

Coriente: Citharexylum (C)

Corimiente: Citharexylum (C)

Coremelina: Taetsia (CR)

Cormi: Pourouma (C)

Corn: Zea (E)

Corn, chicken: Sorghum (E)

Corneto: Iriartea (C)

Cornezuela: Acacia (CR,N)

Corn, Indian: Sorghum (E)

Corn, Jerusalem: Sorghum (E)

Corn, Kafir: Sorghum (E)

Cornoco: Acacia (C)

Cornudo: Swartzia (P)

CORNUTIA GRANDIFOLIA (Schlecht. & Cham.) Schauer. Cuatro caras (P); Palo Cuadrado (P) (Fig. 107). The shrub finds its way into cures of asthma, erysipelas, and is used as a depurative.

Coroba: Jessenia (C); Xylopia (C,P)

Corocillo: Aiphanes (C); Bactris (P)

Corocito: Corozo (P); Syagrus (C); Vochysia (C)

Corocito colorado: Corozo (P)

Corocito de titi: Clusia (C)

Corombolo: Astrocaryum (C)

Corona: Xylosma (C)

Corona de cristo: Euphorbia (CR)

Corona de espina: Euphorbia (C)

Corona de la reina: Ixora (N)

Coronado: Thiabaudia (C)

Coronillo: Bellucia (CR); Muehlenbeckia (C); Pectis (CR)

Corono: Rhamnus (C)

Corotu: Enterolobium (P)

Corozo: Acrocomia (C); Aiphanes (C); Corozo (P); Scheelia (P)

Corozo amolado: Acrocomia (C)

Corozo anta: Corozo (C)

Corozo caucana: Acrocomia (C)

Corozo de chascara: Aiphanes (C)

Corozo chiquito: Aiphanes (C)

Corozo colorado: Aiphanes (C)

Corozo de gallinazo: Bactris (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C)

Corozo grande: Acrocomia (C)

Corozo de lata: Bactris (C)

Corozo de manteca: Corozo (C)

Corozo de marrano: Scheelia (C)

COROZO OLEIFERA (H.B.K.) Bailey. American oil palm (E); Corocito (P); Corozo colorado (P); Noli (C); Palma de manteca (C); Palma de Sebo (C); Samaque (Cu). The oily seeds and fruits are used to fatten chickens. In Darien and the Pearl Islands, the oil is extracted for cooking and hair dressing (!). Colombian curanderos use the oil as a medication for stomach inflammation. Fibers in the leaves are used to make a string. The inflorescences are used to fan away Mosquitos in Colombia.

Corozo de puerco: Attalea (C); Scheelia (C)

Corzo redondo: Acrocomia (C)

Corpus: Aechmea (CR)

Corral: Heteropteris (CR)

Corraleros: Coccoloba (C); Escallonia (C)

Correo: Cosmos bipinnatus (C)

Corrimiento: Citharexylum (P); Salvia (P)

Cortadera: Cyperus (P); Geonoma (D,P); Scleria (P)

Corta lengua: Casearia (P)

Cortapico: Bomarea (C)

Cortejo: Vinca (C)

Cortes (z): Apeiba (P); Tabebuia (CR)

Cortes amarillo: Tabebuia (CR)

Cortes negro: Guarea (CR)

Corteza: Tabebuia (CR)

Corteza amarillo: Tabebuia (CR)

Corteza de angostura: Galipea (C)

Corteza de chivo: Godmania (CR)

Corteza de venado: Longhocarpus (CR); Ruellia (CR)

Cortezo: Apeiba (P)

Cortillo: Aspidosperma (C)

Coruna: Scheelea (C)

Corunca: Catoblastus (C)

Corunta: Catoblastus (C); Oenocarpus (C)

COSMETIC: A substance used to decorate the body. Bixa, Calocarpum, Clematis, Genipa, Hibiscus, Persea

COSMOS BIPINNATUS Cav. Guatemala (C); Correo (C)

COSMOS SULPHUREUS Cav. Sunflower (J); Ninomuerto (P). The leaves are edible raw or cooked.

Costillo: Machaerium (C)

Costillo de caballo: Acalypha

Costillo de danto: Didymopanax (N)

COSTUS SPICATUS (Jacq.) Sw. The acid sap is used as a diuretic.

COSTUS VILLOSISSIMUS Jacq. Canagria (C,P); Cana de mico (P) (Fig. 108). The plant is used in the Choco to clean china and to wash white clothes (!). In Darien, it is used to clean fingernails (!). The yellowish, transparant sap is used for fevers, e.g., typhoid and venereal diseases. Sap from the center of young stems is laxative and good for quenching the thirst(!). It is mixed with rubber to treat waterproff bags by the Darien Choco (!). Primitive goldsmiths in the Choco use the plant for furbishing gold ornaments in the last stages of the crucible.

Coto: Lonchocarpus (CR)

Cotopais: Talisia (C)

Cotoperic: Myrtus (C); Talisia (C)

Cotopris: Talisia (C)

Cotorrito: Capparis (C)

Cotton tree: Ceiba (E); Ochroma (E)

Cotupli: Talisia (C)

COUMA MACROCARPA Barb. Arbol de leche (C); Cow tree (E); Avichuri (C); Chicle (E); Perillo (C); Pero (C); Popa (C). The fruits are edible. The latex is potable, and is a source of chicle often adulterated with that of Brosimum (!). It is used to treat diarrhea.

COUPEIA OVATIFOLIA Benth. Querebere (C). The fruit is edible.

COUROUPITA sp. Coco (D) (Fig. 109). The hard wood is good for dugouts and the Choco say that the seeds are edible (!). Some species are considered vermifuge.

COUTAREA HEXANDRA (Jacq.) Schum. Mediagola (C); Nino muerto (P); Quina (S). The bitter bark is used in Salvador and Colombia as a fever remedy.

Cow itch: Myriocarpa (B)

Cowpea: Vigna (E)

Cow tree: Brosimum (E); Couma (E)

Coygaraga: Chaptalia (S)

Coyol: Acrocomia (S)

Coylillo: Astrocaryum (CR)

Coyote: Aphelandra (CR); Platymiscium (CR,N)

Crabgrass: Ditigaria (E)

Crabwood: Ardisia (B); Carapa (E)

Crape myrtle: Lagerstroemia (E)

CRATEVA TAPIA L. Estrella (P); Muneco (CR); Naranjillo (C); Naranjuelo (C); Palo de Guaco (P); Pepa de sabalo (C); Sorrocloco (C); Socorroclosa (C). The fruit, thoudh malodorous, is quite edible. The sap is caustic. Cataplasms of the leaves are used to remove spines and a boiled infusion is diuretic and febrifugal.

Crepuscularia: Oenothera (C)

CRESCENTIA CUJETE L. Calabash tree (E); Calabaza (C,P); Merique (D); Naba (Cu); Totumo (C,P); Yatuseque (Ch). This species was noted by Columbus in Panama. The seeds are eaten roasted, but the pulp of the mature fruit is dangerous, astringent, emollient, expectorant, and laxative. Cattle that eat the fallen frui9t may suffer abortion. Nonetheless, a tea, made of the cooked pulp of green fruits, is mixed with honey to alleviate childbirth among Chiricanos in Darien. After birth, ashes of chicken feathers are placed on the umbilical scars. Young fruits are pickled like walnuts in Jamaica. In Africa, young leaves are cooked in soups with those of Adansonia. The shell of the fruit is used for utensils by all ethnic groups in Darien (!). In Colombia, halved totumos are called socobe, pilche, and suchamate. Cuna women probably carry more than a thousand calabashes of water a day down the Rio Ailigandi to the dry island of Ailigandi (!). Almost no Darien dugout is without a halved calabash for bailing (!). Stained totumos have been exported to an appreciative Europe for centuries. Around the Caribbean, natives float half-empty totumos at the mercy of the wind. After aquatic birds have become accustomed to the totumos, a hunter comes in with his head in a totumo and his body submerged, and can thus catch the birds. Columbus was once "bombed" with totumos full of washed hot peppers and ashes, which made an effective tear and sneeze gas when they broke. Other Indians used totumos with rocks attached to strings strung across conquistador trails, so that the conquistadores accidentally announced their arrival. Halved totumos serve as suin helmets (cascos). They are also used for masks for chamber pots (Mats meador), glasses, jock straps, brassieres, and perforated, for sieves. Chickens have been observed eating the pulp of dry fruits. In San Blas, small totumos are kept over the barbacoas with salt.

Crespa: Catostigma (C)

Crespillo: Clematis (N)

Crespon: Urera (CR)

Cress: Lepidium (E)

Cresta: Aristolochia (C); Celosia (C)

Cresta de gallo: Paphinia (C); Spigelia (CR)

Cricamola: Pterocarpus (S)

Crillo: Minquartia (P)

Criollo: Minquartia (P)

Crisantemo: Chrysanthemum (CR)

Cristobal: Platymiscium (S)

CROTALARIA GUATEMALENSIS Benth. The leaves are used as a potherb in Central America.

CROTALARIA JUNCEA L. Sun hemp (E) (Fig. 110). The leaves and young pods have served as famine foods in India. Some species are good cattle feed, others are poisonous; some serve for bird food, others do not.

CROTALARIA VITELLINA Ker. Zapatito del obispo (P). The young shoots are cooked like spinach.

Crowfoot grass: Dactyloctenium (E)

Crucete (a): Quassia (P)

Cruceto: Rusanta (C)

Crucilla, Crucillo, Crucito: Randia (CR)

CRYOSOPHILA WARCEWICZII (Wendl.) Bartl. Noli (P); Nupa (D); Palma de escoba (P). The wool at the leaf base is used for stuffing cusions. The leaves are used for thatch and brooms. Guaymi, Choco, Cuna Indians, and Darien lumbermen prefer to do their tree felling during the waning moon, be it to cut leaves for thatch or trees for timber. Perhaps they have accidentally found that there is less insect swarming during the waning of the moon, hence on the newly felled products. Terminal buds are used as a fish poison. From the fruits of the Choco's palma noli is extracted an oil used in making soap.

Cuachepil: Diphysa (CA)

Cuacho: Perebea (P)

Cuajada: Vitex (CR)

Cuajada negra: Minquartia (CR,P)

Cuajaro: Cordia (C)

Cuajatinta: Cordia (CR)

Cuajilote: Aristolochia (CR); Parmentiera (CR)

Cuajiniquil, Cuajinicuil: Inga (S)

Cuala: Sida (Cu)

Cualacuala: Esenbeckia (C)

Cuangare: Dialyanthera (C); Iryanthera (C)

Cuapaste: Lonchocarpus (N)

Cuapinol: Hymenaea (S)

Cuaresma: Echinochloa (C)

Cuartillo: Peperomia (C)

Cuasa: Escallonia (C)

Cuasco: Barnadesia (C)

Cuasia: Quassia (C)

Cuasquito oloroso: Lantana (N)

Cuatcuat: Carica (Cu)

Cuatro casa: Cornutia (P)

Cuayote: Gonolobus (S)

Cuba: Phaseolus (CR)

Cubarro: Bactris (C)

Cubio: Tropaeolum (C)

Cucana: Duranta (C)

Cucarachero: Capparis (C)

Cucaracha: Zebrina (CR/ROC)

Cucatacho: Billia (CR)

Cucarron: Stanhopea (C)

Cucas: Duranta (C)

Cucharilla: Amphilophium (CR); Pithecellobium (CR)

Cucharo: Pera (C); Rapanea (C)

Cucharo colorado: Swartzia (P,C)

Cuchillito: Brownea (P); Browneopsis (D); Scleria (S)

Cuchillo: Canavalia (CR); Gossypiospermum (C)

Cuchinito: Elaterium (S)

Cucua: Brosimum (P); Poulsenia (C); Pseudolmedia (P)

Cucuaca: Viburnum (C)

Cucubaro: Rapanea (C)

Cucubo: Solanum (C)

Cucumber: Cucumis (E)

Cucumber, wild: Melothria (E)

CUCUMIS ANGURIA L. West Indian gherkin (E). The young fruits are eaten boiled or pickled.

CUCUMIS MELO L. Canteloupe (E); Muskmelon (E); Melon (C,P) (Fig. 111). The fruits are eaten raw. The seeds are edible, diuretic, and nutritive. Production of the fruits is mostly in the dry season in Panama.

CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. Cucumber (E); Cohombros (C); Pepino (P) (Fig. 112). The fruits are eaten raw or pickled. The seeds are edible raw or roasted, and are not uncommonly cultivated in mixed fincas in Darien (!).

CUCURBITA MOSCHATA Duch. Ahuyama (C); Zapallo (P) (Fig. 113). The mature fruits are eaten cooked or dried as a flour. The seeds are eaten raw or roasted. the flowers, leaves, young shoots, and green froots serve as a potherb. The plant was a staple to the Guaymi, who called it "uyamas."

CUCURBITA spp. Squash (E); Calabaza (P); Moe (Cu); Zapallo (P) (Fig. 114). Squashes are a common vegetable in the interior. Among the Mayas to the north, squash is eaten in many forms, e.g. (1) the squash is boiled with salt and eaten as a vegetable, (2) the seeds are roasted and ground to form a meal, (3) the seeds are roasted and eaten like nuts, (4) the seeds are mixed with beans and jobo fruits and seasoned with achiote and chile for a dish called kol. Ground squash seeds are mixed with the boiled leaves of Jatropha aconitifolia, chiel, salt, and rum to make a Maya dish. The sap is prescribed by the Maya for burns. Rubbing pumpkin leaves on cattle is said to discourage flies. Leaves are sometimes eaten, those of C. maxima with about 5% protein.

Cuerda de violin: Cuscuta (C)

Cuerdilla: Cuscuta (C)

Cuerillo: Valerioa (CR)

Cuernito: Acacia (P); Myrmecodendron (P)

Cuero negro: Campomanesia (C)

Cuero de vaca: Cydista (S)

Cuesco: Attalea (C); Scheelea (C)

Cuetillo: Hamelia (S)

Cuezo: Malpighia (C)

Cugia: Parathesis (N)

Cuica: Caesalpinia (C); Parkinsonia (C)

Cuichunchulo: Ionidium (C)

Cuijin: Inga (S)

Cuingara: Echites (P)

Cuipo: Cavanillesia (P)

Cujete: Crescentia (S)

Cuji: Acacia (C); Neltuma (C); Poponax (C)

Cujia: Andira (N); Ardisia (N)

Cuji cimarron: Acacia (C)

Cuji hediondo: Piptadenia (C)

Culantrillo: Apium (CR)

Culantrillo de piedra: Adiantum (P)

Culantro: Coriandrum (C); Eryngium (S)

Culantro de castilla: Coriandrum (CR)

Cula de poeta: Thunbergia (CR)

Culate: Arrabidea (C)

Culen: Psoralea (C)

Culo de Indio: Cupania (C); Matayba (C)

Cultantro cimarron: Eryngium (CR); Hypericum (CR)

Culantro coyote: Eryngium (CR)

Culuju: Theobroma (Ch)

Culumete: Avicennia (CR)

Culupa: Passiflora (C)

Cumajo: Theobroma (C)

Cumare: Astrocaryum (C)

Cumarica: Machaerium (C)

Cumaru: Coumarouna (S)

Cumbi: Catostigma (C)

Cumula: Aspidosperma (C)

Cuna: Machaerium (C)

Cuna de Venus: Anguloa (C)

Cundeamor: Ipomoea (S); Momordica (CR/ROC)

Cunsagarocri: Apeiba (P)

CUPANIA AMERICANA L. Gorgojero (P); Gorogojo (P); Guacharaco (C) (Fig. 115). Leaves of this honey plant are regarded as lithontroptic.

Cuperi: Jessenia (C)

CUPHEA sp. Nakikwa (Cu); Tinaki (Cu). Cultivated by the Cuna, the plant is used both as a fish lure and a febrifuge (!).

Cupis: Drimys (C)

Cuprea: Remijia (C)

Cura: Persea (C); Viburnum (CR)

Curaarador: Bocconia (C)

Curabubo: Jacaranda (C)

Curador: Bocconia (C)

Curaleta: Curatella (P)

Curapa: Passiflora (C)

Curare: Strychnos (E)

Curari: Tabebuia (C)

Curaride: Tabebuia (C)

Curasao: Bouganvillea (C)

Curatela: Curatella (P)

CURATELLA AMERICANA L. Sandpaper tree (E); Azufre (P); Carne de fiambre (C); Chaparro (C); Chumico (P); Curatela (P); Hoja Chigue (CR); Raspa-huacal (CR); Peralejo macho (C) (Fig. 116). The seeds are used to flavor cacao. The bark is regar5ded as vulnerary. The buds are used to make a tea for treating asthma and smoker's hack (!). The leaves are used to polish wooden articles and to scrub pots and pans.

Curatero: Bursera (C)

Curaverrugas: Lantana (C)

Curazao: Bougainvilla (C)

CURCUMA LONGA L. Tumeric (E); Achirilla (C); Azafran (C); Batatilla (C); Camotillo (C); Raiz americana (C); Yuquilla (CR) (Fig. 117). Occasionally planted in Panama, the rootstock is used as a dye and a condiment, staining yellow along, pink with lemon juice.

Cure-all: Cassia (J)

Curia: Justicia (P)

Curibano: Scleria (C)

Curito: Elutheria (C)

Curly dock: Rumex (E)

Curnique: Jacaranda (C)

Curracay: Protium (C)

Curua: Parascheelea (C); Scheelea (C)

Currare: Musa (C)

Curuba: Passiflora (C)

Curujujul: Bromelia (C)

Curumuta: Scheelea (C)

Curuntilla: Cereus (Mex)

Curutu: Enterolobium (P)

Cusomacho: Cupania (C)

Cusparia: Galipea (C)

Cuspiritu: Pourouma (C)

Custard apple: Annona (E)

Cusu: Cordia (C)

Cutarro: Swartzia (P)

Cusuce: Bromelia (C)

Cuyabra: Lagenaria (C)

Cuyanguilla: Peperomia (C)

Cuyanigum: Dieffenbachia (?)

Cuyanquillo: Vanilla (C)

Cuyus: Sapindus (N)

CYATHEA sp. Tree fern (E); Bobas (C); Palma helecho (S); Rabo de chango (CR); Sarro (C); Zarro (C) (Fig. 118). The terminal cabbages are edible raw or cooked. The stems of certain West Indian species are used to carry and preserve fire, which can be maintained for hours without smoke or flames. The hairs and scales at the base of the leaves are good for stopping bleeding.

CAYTHULA ACHYRANTHOIDES (H.B.K.) Moq. Cuilimaleguit (Cu). The leaves are used by the Cuna as an antihemorrhagic.

CYCAS spp. Cycads (E). the genus Cycas, cultivated in Panama, especially about the Canal Zone, is a useful but dangerous genus. The leaves, although toxic to cattle, may be eaten after prolonged cooking, during which the water is changed. Fruits, also poisonous, may be soaked for days, sun cured, and converted into a flour for making bread sutffs. The pith may be diced, sun cured, and ground up in water to yield a dough used for making breadstuffs.

CYCLANTHERA EXPLODENS Naud. Pepino diablito (C). The fruits are eaten in salads.

CYCLANTHERA PEDATA Schrad. Archucha (C); Caygua (CR); Pepino de Rellenar (C). The fruits are edible cooked with oil anhd vinegar or in stews. Raw, they taste somewhat like cucumbers.

CYCNOCHES TONDUZII Schltr. The inflorecence is mixed with Genipa and applied to a Choco fisherman's hands to improve his luck!

CYDISTA DIVERSIFOLIA (H.B.K.) Miers. Bejuco catabrero (C); Bejuco esquinero (C). This vine is good for tying bohios together. Also it is a good honey plant.

CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (DC.) Stapf.: Lemon grass (E); Yerba de limón (CR/ROC); Zacate de limón (CR/ROC).

CYMBOPOGON NARDUS (L.) Rendle. Citronella (E); Lemon grass (E); Hierba de limon (S); Limoncilla (C) (Fig. 119). Brushing the teeth with the rhizome is supposed to whiten and preserve. The leaves, used as a condiment in soups and meats, are also a tea substitute, and the source of an insecticide. In Darien, they are primarily used in a refreshing medicinal tea (!). Travelers destined to be away from water awhile take a few rootstocks along to chew, believing that this alleviates the thirst (!). In the Choco, the tea is used for treationg fevers and malaria, and for perfuming the houses.

CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) Pers. Bermudagrass (E); Grama (C); Pasto argentina (C) (Fig. 120). The leaves and culms have served as famine foods, although mildly toxic when young. The rhizomes are considered antiecbolic, aperiebnt, diuretic, and laxative. The rhizome is sold in packets in medellin as vende-aguja.

CYPERUS cf. LIGULARIS L. Ceda (Cu); Purua (C). The aromatic roots are used by the Cuna for debility and stomachache.

CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. Chufa (Fig. 121). Elsewhere, the plant is cultivated for its edible tubers.

CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. Nutgrass (E); Purple nutsedge (E); Junco (P) (Fig. 122). Considered one of the worst weeds on the Azuero Peninsula, tubers are edible fresh or dried, used in perfumes (!).

CYPHOMANDRA BETACEA (Cav.) Sendt. Tree tomato (E); Naranjito (P); Palo de tomate (S); Tomate de arbol (C,CR). The fruits, edible raw or preserved, are raised extensively in Chiriqui, but the plant does not do well at low elevations (!).

CYPHOMANDRA COSTARICENSIS Donn. Smith. Conta gallinazo (D). The crushed leaves are used by the Choco for thrush.

Cypress vine: Ipomoea (E)

CYRILLA RACEMIFLORA L. (Fig. 123). The tree is a good honey plant, but apparently rare in Panama.

- D -

DACTYLOCTENIUM AEGYPTIUM (L.) P.Beauv. Crowfoot grass (E); Tres dedos (C); Yerba egipcia (C). The seeds serve as a grain source.

Daguilla: Philodendron (CR)

Daguillo: Yucca (CR)

DAHLIA LEHMANNII Hieron. Dalia de huertas (C)

DAHLIA VARIABILIS L. Dalia amarilla (C)

Dalia: Dahlia (CR)

Dalia amarilla: Dahlia variabilis (C)

Dalia de huertas: Dahlia lehmannii (C)

Dalienze: Terminalia (CA)

Dama: Citharexylum (CR)

Damagua: Ochroma (C); Pachira (C)

Damajagua: Poulsenia (Ch)

Dandelion: Taraxacum (E)

Dantiace: Talisia (CR)

Dantisco de montana: Mauria (S)

Danto: Roupala (CR)

Dasheen: Colocasia (E)

DATURA spp.: Borachero (Ch); Floripondio (P); Reina de la noche (P); Tonga (D) (Fig. 124). The pith is used by Choco witch doctors to induce comas (!). The plants are used in folk "cures" for asthma, rheumatism, worms, inflammation, colds, fever, erysipelas, cramps, and infections.

DAUCUS CAROTA L. Carrot (E); Zanahoria (S) (Fig. 125). Carrots fare badly in the lowland tropics, but do better in the cooler parts of Central America. Parched carrots have served as a coffee substitute. The seeds have considered aphrodisiac and nervine.

DAVILLA sp. Bejuco tome (C) (Fig. 126). This species is a source of water and cordage used to tie bohios together.

Dayflower: Commelina (E)

Dedos de plata: Celosia (C)

DEMULCENT: A soothing substance to reduce irritation. Abrus, Adansonia, Argemone, Bambusa, Cardiospermum, Ceiba, Clitoria, Corchorus, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Musa, Ocimum, Pistia, Portulaca, Raphanus, Saccharum, Sesamum, Sida.

DENDROPANAX ARBOREUS (L.) Decne. & Planch. Vaqauero (P). Leaves and roots of this honey tree are used in domestic medicine.

DEOBSTRUENT: A substance to clear stoppage to passages or pores in the body. Cardiospermum, Eclipta, Indigofera, Melia, Morinda, Phyllanthus.

DEPILATORY: A substance for the removal of hair, Bertholletia, Bursera, Calotropis, Couroupita, Euphorbia, Hernandia, Lecythis, Leucaena.

DEPRESSANT: A substance which retards any function. Phoebe.

DEPURATIVE: A substance tending to purify or cleanse. Achillea, Asclepia, Bambusa, Byttneria, Cassia, Centella, Chamissoa, Chiococca, Cissampelos, Cleome, Commelina, Cornutia, Crescentia, Davilla, Desmodium, Drymaria, Gouania, Guazuma, Jatropha, Lepidium, Paspalum, Paullinia, Pedilanthus, Pentagonia, Petiveria, Piper, Pothomorphe, Pseudelephantopus, Renealmia, Solanum, Stachytarpheta, Tamarindus, Trichilia, Zizyphus.

Desbaratador: Tussacia (D)

Desbasatabaile: Cleome (C)

Descanse: Alternanthera (C)

Desjarretadera: Passiflora (C)

Desdicha: Cleome (C)

DESMODIUM ADSCENDENS (Sw.) DC. Beggarlice (E); Pega-pega (P). A leaf decoction is drunk for consumption. Pounded leaves are applied with lime juice to wounds. A leaf infusion is used for convulsions and venereal sores.

DESMODIUM PARVIFOLIUM DC. Beggarlice (E); Pega-pega (P). This plant is eaten as a green vegetable by Indians.

DESMODIUM spp. Ilina caiba (Cu); Pega-pega (P). The fruits are macerated in Ailigandi and given to the object of one's affection to induce a reciprocal affection (!).

DESMONCHUS spp. Albarico (C); Bejuco alcalde (C); Matamba (P); Yasitara (C) (Fig. 127). The stems, reputed to be a water source, are good for basketry and cordage, but are hard enough to nick a machete if not soaked in water for some time.

Detsi: Ficus (CR)

DIABETES: A disease in which the body is unable to metabolize sugar properly. Treated with Acrocomia, Anacardium, Capraria, Cecropia, Equisetum, Eugenia, Euphorbia, Musa, Pachira, Parmentiera, Pistia, Sweetia, Tecoma, Trophis.

DIALIUM DIVARICATUM Vahl. Tamarindo (P). The pulp of the fruit is edible.

DIALYANTHERA OTOBA (H.&B.) Warb. Bogamani verde (P); Kino (Cu); Mano (C); Kulbur (Cu); Ocobo (C); Otoba (C); Malagueta de montana (P); Roble (CR); Saba (CR); Sebo (CR). The seed oil, considered anthelminthic and insecticidal, is used to allay itching and rheumatism. It is also used with butter for frying foods, especially those of tuberculosis patients. The species is strung by inland Cuna as a candlenut.

Diankra: Guazuma (CR)

DIAPHORETIC: A substance that promotes perspiration. (See also Sudorific.) Allium, Ananas, Argemone, Arundo, Asclepias, Boerhaavia, Borago, Bursera, Calophyllum, Calotropis, Capraria, Cardiospermum, Cassia, Cecropia, Cedrela, Clitoria, Cordia, Crescentia, Cyperus, Dalea, Dendropanax, Dipteryx, Dorstenia, Elephantopus, Eryngium, Erythrina, Guaiacum, Guazuma, Hibiscus, Hippomane, Isotoma, Lantana, Mangifera, Mikania, Ocimum, Parkinsonia, Petiveria, Phyllanthus, Piscidia, Polygonum, Sesamum, Solanum, Tetracera, Vernonia, Waltheria, Wigandia, Zanthoxylum.

Dictamo: Pedilanthus (N)

Dictamo real: Ranunculus (C); Pedilanthus (C)

DIDYMOPANAX MOROTOTONI (Aubl.) Decsne. &Pl. Gargoran (P); Mangabe (P); Pava (CR); Probado (CR). The wood is used for matchsticks in Colombia and in carpentry and interior construction.

DIEFFENBACHIA SEQUINE (Jacq.) Schott. Dumbcane (E); Apior (Cu); Apotocanum (Ch); Cucaracho (C); Cana muda (C); Oto de lagarto (P); Rabano (S); Retamo cimarron (C). The latex is caustic. One cultivated species is known in Panama as the lottery plant because lottery addicts believe they can read the upcoming number in the unfolding leaves (!). One species enters Bayano Cuna cold remedy (!). Cervantes was perhaps the first to divulge its use as a stinging ramrod to teach cattle to stay away from unwelcoming pastures.

Diente de leon: Taraxacum (CR, CR/ROC); Trixis (N); Sonchus oleraceus (C)

DIGESTIVE: A substance which aids digestion. Myristica, Tamarindus.

Digital: Digitalis (CR)

DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (L.) Scop. Crabgrass (E); Cebadilla (C) (Fig. 128). The seeds are used as a rice substitute.

Dildoe: Acanthocereus (E)

DILLENIA INDICA L. Indian dillenia (E); Dilenia (S) (Fig. 129). This species is cultivated in Panama. The fleshy calyces are eaten raw, cooked, or jellied, and mixed with sugar to make a fresco.

Dinde: Chlorophora (C); Clarisia (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Diomate: Astronium (C)

DIOSCOREA ALATA L. Winged yam (E); Name de agua (S) (Fig. 130). Roots of this and other species are edible, but should be carefully processed, as some are poisonous raw.

DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L. Air potato (E); Name (S). Cultivated in Panama, this is one of the easier species to recognize because of its aerial bulbs. These, and the underground tubers, are usually poisonous raw, but may be peeled, sun dried, and then cooked (!). Underground tubers are best dug when the plant is dying back for the dry season. Some species of Dioscorea have a juice that induces itching (!). (Fig. 131).

DIOSCOREA spp. Yam (E); Name or Yampi (S); Pogo (Ch). Three or more species of yams are extensively cultivated in Panama. D. alata L., with winged stems and unlobed leaves; D. trifida L.f., with unwinged stems and lobed leaves; and D. cayenensis Link, with unwinged stems and unlobed leaves. Their large, edible roots look like elongated sweet potatoes. None of the native species are supposed to have edible roots, but they might be judiciously sampled after cooking. The roots are baked, boiled, or ground into flour to make breadstuffs. Three types are marketed in Darien and San Blas: (1) name (D), uagup (Cu), uasup (Cu); (2) nampi morando (D), uari (Cu); and (3) nampi blanco (D), pukua (Cu). Peeled name is soaked in water in Darien and Panama, and the water is then drunk for rheumatism and arthritis.

DIOSCOREA TRIFIDA L.f. Yam (E); Name (P); Yampi (P). This another of the cultivated yams.

Diosme: Coleonema (C)

DIOSPYROS EBENASTER Retz. Black sapote (E); Zapote negro (S). The fruits are edible. They are also made into preserves and brandy-like ferments. The bark is probably piscicidal. Green fruits are used as a barbasco.






DIPTERYX PANAMENSIS (Pitt.) Record & Mell. Tonka Bean (E); Almendro (C,P); Choiba (C); Igua (Cu); Sarrapia (C); Tonga (C); Yapo (C) (Fig. 132). The roasted seeds are eaten. Raw seeds are used as candlenuts (!). Raw, germinated cotyledons taste like green string beans (!). The aroma of the seed is probably due to coumarin, which is often used to flavor tobacco. The coumarin in the seeds is considered antispasmodic, cardiac, and diaphoretic. Uala Cuna prohibit the fellilng of this tree, perhaps because of mystical properties ascribed to it (!). They eat the nuts at breakfast with chucula.

Disciplina: Chamaedorea (CR); Rhipsalis (C)

DISCUTIENT: A substance for removing skin or growths on the skin. Abrus, Allium, Anacardium, Bocconia, Caesalpinia, Carica, Cecropia, Jatropha, Mirabilis, Moringa, Pedilanthus, Plumbago, Tamarindus, Thespesia, Zebrina.

Diura: Machaerium (C)

DIURETIC: A substance which increases the flow of urine. Abrus, Acalypha, Achras, Aegiphila, Allium, Alternanthera, Ananas, Arundo, Axonopus, Bambusa, Borago, Bramia, Buddleja, Bursera, Calocarpum, Canna, Capparis, Capsicum, Cardiospermum, Casearia, Cassia, Ceiba, Cereus, Chaetolepis, Chiococca, Chrysophyllum, Cissampelos, Clematis, Clitoria, Cocos, Coffea, Coix, Commelina, Costis, Crataeva, Cucumis, Cynodon, Cyperus, Davilla, Dolichos, Doliocarpus, Eichhornia, Equisetum, Erythrina, Guaiacum, Gynerium, Heliconia, Hibiscus, Hippomane, Indigofera, Jatropha, Kallstromia, Lantana, Lepidium, Lycoseris, Mangifera, Mikania, Moringa, Mucuna, nasturium, Ocimum, Panicum, Parietaria, Parmentiera, Paspalum, Passiflora, Petiveria, Philoxerus, Physalis, Piper, Portulaca, Pothomorphe, Raphanus, Renealmia, Ricinus, Saccharum, Sechium, Sesamum, Sesbania, Sida, Solanum, Spondias, Tabebuia, Tagetes, Tecoma, Tetracera, Tournefortia, Urera, Vitis, Zanthoxylum, Zea, Zornia.

Dividivi: Andira (C); Caesalpinia (C)

DODONAEA VISCOSA (L.) Jacq. Chanamo (C); Hopbush (E); Hayuelo (C) (Fig. 133). The plant and seeds are said to be piscicidal. The leaves are chewed as a stimulant or for toothache. The wood is easily ignited. Crushed leafy twigs are used for torches. Leaf infusions are used for fevers and hemostatics.

Dogwood: Lonchocarpus (E)

Dola-marimba: Macrolobium (C)

DOLICHOS LABLAB L. Hyacinth bean (E); Cacha (C); Chicharos (S); Frijol calentano (C) (Fig. 134). The pods are eaten like green beans.

DOLIOCARPUS spp. Water vine (E); Bejuco de agua (P); Bejuco tome (C) (Fig. 135). This is a source of water.

Donalonsa: Gnaphalium (C)

Dona juana: Adenostemma (C); Ageratum (C); Turnera (C)

Doncel: Zanthoxylum (C)

Doncella: Bumelia (C); Tara (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

Doncenon: Lathyrus (C)

Dondequiera: Casearia (C)

Doquidua: Geonoma (Ch)

Doradilla: Acrostichum (C); Pilea (C); Selaginella (C)

Dorance: Cassia (C)

Dorita: Guarea (P)

Dormidera: Cassia (S); Mimosa (P)

Dormidera de escobilla: Mimosa (P)

Dormilon: Albizia (C); Cassia (CR); Enterolobium (C); Parkia (C); Pentaclethra (C); Vochysia (C)

Dormilona: Cassia (CR); Mimosa (CR)

DORSTENIA CONTRAYERBA L. Contrayerba (C,P); Upsenasapi (Cu); Raiz de resfriado (C). This favorite Latin medicinal is used as a stimulant, diaphoretic, febrifuge, and for skin diseases and fevers. The Bayano Cuna use it as a cold remedy (!). The rootstocks are used to flavor cigarettes. Cataplasms are prescribed for broken bones.

Dos caras: Conostegia (P); Miconia (P)

Dos de Oros: Wedelia fruticosa (C)

Dove orchid: Peristeria (E)

DOXANTHA UNGUIS-CATI (L.) Rehder. The plent, used to treat snakebite and Hippomane reactions, is used also for fever and intestinal inflammation.

DRACHONTIUM sp. Chupadera (C). Used as a snakebite remedy in the Choco.

Drago: Croton (C)

Dragon: Antirrhinum (C)

Dragon's blood: Pterocarpus (E)

DREPANOCARPUS LUNATUS (L.f.) G.F.W. May. Escambron (S). The ripe fruits are said to taste like cocoplum, but they may be dangerous. The leafy stems, poisonous to mice, are used as ana aphrodisiac, Cataplasm, purgative, and for venereal diseases, leprosy, and heart trouble. The root infusion is antidiarrhetic.

Dropseed: Sporobolus (E)

DROPSY: A general accumulation of fluid in the body. Treated with Annona, Cecropea, Cissus, Luffa, Moringa, Pistia, Solanum, Spondias.

DRYMARIA CORDATA (L.) Willd. Inacuandromas-quit (Cu); Tiurugakwit (Cu). The leaves are used by the Cuna to purify the blood.

Duarte: Senecio americanus (C); Bidens (C)

Duerme-boca: Salmea (C,P)

DUGOUTS: Boats made of hollow logs. Anacardium, Bombacopsis, Cariniana, Cavanillesia, Cedrela, Ceiba, Couroupita, Enterolobium, Helicostylis, Hura, Hymenaea, Lafoensia, Spondias.

Duio: Tephrosia (Noanama)

Duria: Machaerium (C)

Dulumoco: Saurauia (C)

Dulunsoga: Solanum (C)

Dumbcane: Dieffenbachia (E)

Duraznillo: Abatia (C); Calotola (CR); Rhamnus (CR)

Durazno: Prunus (S)

Durra: Sorghum (S)

DYE and INK: Substance used to stain or tint. Anacardium, Arrabidaea, Bixa, Bocconia, Byrsonima, Chlorophora, Curcuma, Diphysa, Hibiscus, Indigofera, Lafoensia, Dichronema, Morinda, Persea, Randia, Rhizophora, Symphonia, Tamarindus, Terminalia.

DYSENTERY: Diarrhea produced by irritation of the bowels. Treated with Acacia, Adenanthera, Anacardium, Annona, Aristolochia, Bidens, Bixa, Brownea, Bursera, Cajanus, Casuarina, Cecropia, Celosia, Chrysobalanus, Chrysophyllum, Clitoria, Coccoloba, Cocos, Crateva, Crescentia, Cupania, Desmodium, Elephantopus, Elytraria, Equisetum, Erechtites, Euphorbia, Haematoxylum, Genipa, Guazuma, Jatropha, Jussiaea, Mangifera, Mimosa, Morinda, Musa, Pachyrhizus, Phaseolus, Piper, Pistia, Pithecellobium, Portulaca, Pseudelephantopus, Psidium, Punica, Randia, Sesbania, Simarouba, Spathodea, Spondias, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Zornia.

DYSPEPSIA: Indigestion. Treated with Acacia, Chenopodium, Coleus, Hibiscus, Moringa, Nymphoides, Musa, Pothomorphe, Rumex, Simarouba.

DYSURIA: Painful urination. Treated with Hibiscus, Portulaca.

- E -

EARACHE: A pain in the ear. Treated with Allium, Citrus, Clematis, Cleome, Cocos, Colocasia, Emilia, Hibiscus, Mirabilis, Moringa, Murraya, Ocimum, Parmentiera, Physalis, Plumbago.

Ear tree: Enterolobium (P)

Ebano: Libidibia (C)

Ebo: Coumarouna (CR,P)

ECBOLIC: A substance used to induce abortion. Achyranthes, Anans, Annona, Aristolochia, Asclepias, Bambusa, Caesalpinia, Calotropis, Carica, Cassia, Casuarina, Ceiba, Crescentia, Delonix, Eclipta, Equisetum, Eryngium, Gossypium, Guarea, Hura, Indigofera, Iresine, Jaquinia, Jatropha, Leucaena, Mimosa, Moringa, Parkinsonia, Pedilanthus, Pentaclethra, Persea, Petiveria, Philodendron, Scutellaria, Sesamum, Waltheria, Zingiber.

ECHINOCHLOA COLONUM (L.) Link. Barnyard grass (E); Arrocillo (S). The grain has served as a famine food, usually as a gruel.

Echiti: Maximiliana (C)

Eggplant: Solanum (E)

Egorojono: Leiphaimos (Ch)

EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (Mart.) Solms. Water hyacinth (E); Lechuga de agua (S); No melovide (C); Taruya (C) (Fig. 136). Liquified leaves may be taken as a tonic with no apparent harm. the younger parts serve as a potherb. Swollen leaf bases have been eaten deep-fried. Also eaten by cattle, this makes good organic fertilizer, tons of which are scraped up annually by the Panama Canad dredging division (!).

ELAEIS GUINEENSIS Jacq. Oil Palm (E); Palma african (P); Uruta (Ch). The hard, scarcely edible fruits are a good source of oil, which is used in Darien for cooking and hair dressings. Elsewhere, after the oil is extracted, the dried fibers are used for tinder and the fruit stalks are used for brooms. Tinder is also made from the fluff at the leaf base. The cabbages are eaten raw or cooked. Wine is made from the sap. Felled trees are attacked by edible "palm worms" (beetle larvae of the genus Rhynchophorus). The cabbage is used for menorrhagia and gonorrhea. The pulverized roots (considered poisonous) are used to treat headaches and are chewed as an aphrodisiac.

ELATERIUM LONGIFOLIUM Cogn. Gallotillo (P); Norbo cimarron (P). the fruits and leaves are edible cooked.

Elder: Sambucus (CR/ROC, E)

Elemi: Protium (C)

Elefante: Pennisetum (C)

Elephant ear: Colocasia (E)

Elephant grass: Pennisetum (E)

ELEPHANTIASIS: A disease in which the lymph vessels are blocked by a parasite. Treated with Carica, Eclipta, Guazuma, Solanum.

ELEPHANTOPUS spp. Lengua de vaca (P). The leaves are regarded as antidysenteric, stimulant, and tonic.

ELEPHANTOPUS MOLLIS H.B.K. Yerba de caballo (C); Suelda-con-suelda (C)

Elequem(n)e: Erythrina (CR,N)

Eleten: Libidibia (N)

ELEUSINE INDICA (L.) Gaertn. Goosegrass (E); Hierba de pata (P); Pata de gallina (C); Yerba dulce (C) (Fig. 137). The young seedlings serve as a potherb. the plant is a chologogue. Seeds serve as a famine food and for making alcoholic beverages. medicinally it is used for convulsions, diarrhea, and dysentery.

Elkia: Zamia (Cu)

Elotillo: Anthurium (CR)

ELYTRARIA TRIDENTATA Vahl. Coquillo (S). In Salvador, the plant is used for dysentery and stomach afflictions.

Embagatao: Sloanea (C)

Embiande: Pavonia (C)

Embisca: Mucuna (C)

Emblic: Phyllanthus (E)

Embrande: Pavonia (C)

EMETIC: A substance which induces vomiting. Achyranthes, Allamanda, Argemone, Boerhaavia, Cephaelis, Entada, Hibiscus, Jatropha, Luffa, Mimosa, Momordica, Ormosia, Plumbago, Psychortria, Sarcostema, Sesbania, Thevetia.

iEMILIA SONCHIFOLIA (L.) DC. ex Wight. Tassel flower (E) (Fig. 138). Elsewhere, young leaves are eaten with rice as a vegetable, and in soups.

Emir: Clerodendrum (C)

EMMENAGOGUE: A substance which stimulates the menstrual flow. Adiantumn, Allium, Aloe, Ananas, Aristolochia, Argemone, Aretmisia, Bambusa, Bidens, Brysonima, Caesalpinia, Capparis, Carica, Cassia, Casuarina, Cecropia, Chicococca, Cissampelos, Cochlospermum, Costus, Crescentia, Delonix, Eryngium, Gossypium, Guarea, Hibiscus, Lantana, Leucaena, Melia, Mikania, Momordica, Passiflora, Pedilanthus, Persea, Phaseolus, Plantago, Polygonum, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Psychotria, Renealmia, Schultesia, Scoparia, Sesamum, Sesbania, Simaba, Simarouba, Stachytarpheta, Thevetia, Urera.

EMOLLIENT: A substance which soothes irritated surfaces, internal or external. Acrostichum, Annona, Arundo, Basella, Borago, Bryophyllum, Buddleja, Byrsonima, Canna, Ceiba, Chiococca, Cissus, Commelina, Corchorus, Cordia, Crescentia, Cucumis, Cucurbita, Dendropogon, Eclipta, Euphorbia, Helicteres, Heliotropium, Hibiscus, Hippocratea, Jussiaea, Mammea, Melochia, Muntingia, Passiflora, Peperomia, Philoxerus, Pistia, Plantago, Pothomorphe, Scoparia, Sechium, Sesamum, Sida, Sterculia, Thespesia, Tillandsia, Triumfetta, Urena.

Emperatriz: Thunbergia (C)

Encaje: Pilea (C)

Encinillo: Weinmannia (C)

Encino: Quercus (CR)

Endurece mais: Capparis (N)

Enea: Ochroma (CR); Typha (C)

Eneldillo: Apium (CR)

Eneldo: Foeniculum (CR)

Enredadera: Antigonon (P)

Enredadera de monte: Psychotria (C)

Ensiva: Ocotea (P)

ENTADA SCANDENS (L.) Benth. St. Thomas bean (E); Sea bean (E); Javilla (P); Pirkok (Cu) (Fig. 139). The leaves are used as barbasco, the bark as a soap substitute. the seeds, edible after soaking and roasting, are regarded as anodyne, carminative, emetic, febrifuge, and stomachic. The mainland Cuna use them as a soap substitute.

ENTERITIS: Inflammation of the intestinal tract by infectionor irritating foods. Treated with Carica, Cassia, Centrosema, Coleus, Elytraria, Lantana, Lippia, Peperomia, Pseudelephantopus, Sida, Spigelia, Tecoma, Terminalia, Zingiber.

ENTEROLOBIUM CYCLOCARPUM (Jacq.) Griseb. Ear tree (E); Anjera (C); Carito (C); Caro (C); Corotu (P); Dormilon (C); Oreja (C); Orejero (C); Oviero (C); Pinon (C); Pinon de oreja (C); Tusipono (Ch) (Fig. 140). The young pods are sometimes cooked as vegetables; the mature pods, relished by cattle, are used as a soap substitute. The seeds are also cooked as food. The trunks are used to make piraguas (!) (e.g., in the Pearl Islands). The bark is used in cold syrups.

Epacina: Petiveria (N)

Epazote: Chenopodium (S)

EPIDENDRUM STENOPETALUM Hook. The inflorescence is mashed with Genipa and applied to the hands to improve a Choco fisherman's luck (!).

EPILEPSY: A convulsive disorder. Treated with Calocarpum, Indigofera, Moringa.

EPIPHYLLUM PHYLLANETHUS (L.) Haw. Cagaguala (C); Rabo de iguana (C). The fruits are edible. The flowers are employed as a cardiac tonic.

Eporro: Cecropia (Ch)

EQUISETUM BOGOTENSE H.B.K. Horsetail (E); Cola de caballo (C); Canutillo (C); Cola de mula (C). The plant is used in Chiriqui for liver and kidney ailments (!). Elsewhere, it is used for every problems, dysentery, gonorrhea, diabetes, hemorrhage, and pyorrhea.

ERAGROSTIS spp. Grains of species of Eragrostis have served as famine food.

ERECHTITES HIERACIFOLIA (L.) Raf. Fireweed (E); Tabaquillo (P). The species serves as a potherb in Asia.

ERECHTITES VALERIANIFOLIA (Wolf) DC. Bolador (C); Tachushiash (C); Venadillo (C) (Fig. 141).

Erefa: Theobroma (CR)

Erepe: Calatola (CR)

ERYNGIUM FOETIDUM L. False coriander (E); Fit-weed (E); Cilantro (C); Culantro (S); Kawawat (Cu); Spiritweed (J). This favorite leaf for flavoring soups in Latin America is eagerly collected by Darien natives. It is a highly regarded remedy for high blood pressure and fits. Around Sautata, an infusion with salt is take for colic and gas.

ERYSIPELAS: An infection of the skin with streptococci. Treated with Bixa, boerhaavia, Browallila, Caesalpinia, Calophyllum, Dorstenia, Gliricidia, Hamelia, Hibiscus, Hura, Indigofera, Iresine, Jacaranda, Pedilanthus, Plumbago, Porophyllum, Portulaca, Pothomorphe, Solanum, Thespesia, Vitis.

ERYTHRINA BERTEROANA Urban. Machete (E,J); Cresta de gallo (S); Elequeme (N); Gallito (S); Parsu (Cu); Pernilla de casa (P); Pito de peronilla (C) (Fig. 142). The Colombian name pito reflects a children's use of the plant. The corolla of this tree, placed in a hollow leaf stalk, serves as a whistle. The light wood of this living fence post has served as a cork substitute. Crushed branches are said to intoxicate fish. The leaves, flower buds, and young pods have served as a dangerous vegetable, containing about 4.4% protein. The Bayano Cuna use the plant for female infirmities (!). The Choco are said to use E. corallodendron as a remedy in appendicitis, avoiding many operations.

ERYTHRINA EDULIS Triana ex Micheli. Balu (C); Chachafruto (C); Poroto (C). The seeds, edible after preparation, are an excellent hog food, rendering the lard very white.

Escalera de mico: Bauhinia (C)

Escalera de mono: Bauhinia (CR)

Escambron: Drepanocarpus (C)

Escancel: Alternanthera (C)

Escandalosa roja: Hibiscus (C)

Escanjocote: Melicoccus (N)

Escanser: Alternanthera (C)

Escarcha: Mesembryanthemum (C)

Escoba: Eugenia (CR,P)

Escoba de castilla: Scoparia (CR)

Escoba dulce: Scoparia (P)

Escoba negra: Cordia (CR)

ESCOBEDIA SCABRIFOLIA Ruiz & Pav. Azafran (C). The roots are used to color foods. A concoction is drunk to combat hepatitis.

Escobila (o): Acisanthera (C,P); Calea (P); Conostegia (CR); Corchorus (P); Elephanbtopus (CR); Malvastrum (P); Pseudelephantopus (P); Sida (P); Waltheria (P); Xylopia (C)

Escobilla amarga: Scoparia (P)

Escobilla blanca: Waltheria (CR)

Escobo: Alchornea (C); Eugenia (CR)

Escolito: Cassia (C)

Escorzonero de Bogota: Polymnia (C)

Escremento: Capparia (N)

Eslo: Chrysophyllum (Cu)

Esmeraldo: Miconia (C)

Esmerelda: Psychotria (C)

Espada de Judas: Sansevieria (CR)

Espadero: Myrsine (C); Rapanea (C)

Espandana: Typha (CR)

Esparrago: Asparagus (CR)

Espartillo: Dendrobium (C); Eleusine (C)

Esparto: Spartina (C)

Espave, Espavel: Anacardium (CR,P)


ESPELETIA GLOSSOPHYLLA Mattfeld. Tabaco de la sierra (C)



ESPELETIA HARTWEGIANA Cuatr. Frailejon, lana de oveja (C)



ESPELETIA LOPEZII Cuatr. Frailejon (C)



ESPELETIA PHANERACTIS (Blake) A.C.Smith. Frailejon (C)



Espigadilla: Panicum (P); Scleria (P)

Espina corona: Smilax (N)

Espina hueca: Byttneria (P)

Espina de paloma: Duranta (P)

Espinero: Yucca (P)

Espinillo: Calyptocarpus (CR)

Espino: Barnadesia (C); Guettarda (W); Machaonia (P); Piptadenia (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Espino amarillo: Chloroleucon (P)

Espino blanco: Acacia (N); Bauhinia (N); Bumelia (CR); Guettarda (P); Machaonia (P); Randia (CR); Xylosma (CR)

Espino de brujo: Bumelia (C); Ximenia (C)

Espino corona: Smilax (S)

Espino negro: Duranta (C); Pisonia (N); Pithecellobium (C)

Espino de oro: Berberis (C)

Espino de paloma: Duranta (P)

Espino de playa: Pithecellobium (N)

Espino real de Espana: Parkinsonia (N)

Espinoso: Bombacopsis (P)

Espinudo: Lacmellea (CR)

Espiritu santo: Aechmea (CR); Peristeria (P,C)

Espuela de galan: Adonis (C)

Esponjilla: Luffa (C)

Espuelo: Berberis (C)

Espuma de mar: Asparagus (C)

Esquijoche: Borreria (CR); Plumeria (CR)

Esquinero: Serjania (C)

Esquitillo: Allophylus (CR)

Estamo real: Hierachloe (C)

Estancadera: Krameria (C); Melochia (C)

Estopa: Luffa (CR)

Estoraque: Styrax (C,CR)

Estrella: Crateva (P); Eucharis (C); Myriocarpa (CR); Piper (CR)

Estrella de Caqueta: Eucharis (C)

Estribo: Torrubia (C)

Estromelia: Cassia (C); Lagerstroemia (C)

Estropajo: Luffa (C)

Eswarguit: Aphelandra (Cu)

Eterreva: Pterocarpus (Ch)

Eucalipto: Eucalyptus (C, CR/ROC)


Eucaristo: Eucharis (CR)

EUGENIA JAMBOS (L.) Stokes. Rose apple (E); Manzanito de rosa (C); Pomarrosa (S) (Fig. 143). Fruits of this honey tree are edible raw or in jellies. The flowers and fruits are candied, and the boiled leaves serve as medicine for sore eyes.

EUGENIA MALACCENSIS L. Malay apple (E); Manzana de Faiti (P); Maranon de Curasao (P); Pomarrosa de Malaca (C) (Fig. 144). Cultivated for flowers and fruits, this tree provides also pink stamens said to be used in salads.

EUGENIA UNIFLORA L. Surinam cherry (E); Cereza de Cayena (C); Cereza cuardrada (C); Pitanga (C) (Fig. 145). The fruits are edible (!). The leaves repel insects.

Eupatoria: Stevia (C)

EUPATORIUM ACUMINATUM H.B.K. Patinegra, trebol aromatizador (C)


EUPATORIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM (H.B.K.) Spreng. Chilca blanco-ceniza (C); Amargoso (C)


EUPATORIUM HUMILE (Benth.) Hier. Moradita (C)

EUPATORIUM INULAEFOLIUM H.B.K. Salvia amarga (C); Salvia amarga cimarrona (C); Jarilla (C); Almoraduz (C)

EUPATORIUM LAEVIGATUM Lam. Chilca lunareja (C); Chilco (C); Tabaco (C)

EUPATORIUM ODORATUM L. Christmas bush (J); Hierba de chiva (P); Paleca (P); Salvia (C). Jamaicans in Panama make a tea from the leaves for a cold remedy.

EUPATORIUM PAEZANSE Hieron. Yerba de chivo (C)


EUPATORIUM SCABRUM L.f. Chilquita carrasposa (C)


EUPHORBIA COTINIFOLILA L. Barrabas (CR); Lorencillo (C); Manzanilla de lindero (C); Manzanilla platero (C); Matarraton (C); Nacedero (C). The caustic latex is used as a fish poison. The flowers are a honey source. The seeds are purgative. The foliage is eaten only by goats and is said to repel leafcutters.

EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. Hierba de pollo (S); Saca teta (S). The latex is applied by Jamaicans and Darienitas alike to the nipples of young girls to induce mammification (!).

EUPHORBIA LANCIFOLIA Schlect. Hierba lechera (CR/ROC).

Excremento: Capparis (N)

EXPECTORANT: A substance supposed to liquify the sputum. Adiantum, Allium, Argemone, Bambusa, Boerhaavia, Bravaisia, Byrsonima, Chrysophyllum, Cissampelos, Clusia, Combretum, Cordia, Crescentia, Cucurbita, Gliricidia, Gossypium, Hippocratea, Hymenaea, Lantana, Lippia, Lucuma, Malpighia, Malvaviscus, Myroxylon, Piper, Rhizophora, Sapindus, Sesamum, Sesuvium, Triumfetta.

- F -

FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM Moench. Buckwheat (E); Alforjon (C). The seed are a valuable grain, the leaves a potherb, rarely, if ever, planted in Panama. Elsewhere the plant serves as a honey and fodder plant.

Falco: Cephalotomandra (C)

Faldo: Ischnosiphon (P)

Falso guaco: Mikania micrantha (C)

Faragua: Hyparrhenia (P)

Farol: Abutilon (CR)

Farolollo: Abutilon (CR); Campanula (C)

Farolito: Abutilon (CR); Aristolochia (S); Cardiospermum (C)

FEBRIFUGE: A substance for combating fever. Acacia, Adansonia, Allamanda, Allium, Alternanthera, Anacardium, Andira, Argemone, Aristolochia, Artemisia, Bambusa, Bixa, Byrsonima, Caesalpinia, Calycophyllum, Capraria, Carapa, Cardiospermum, Carica, Cassia, Cedrela, Chomelia, Chrysophyllum, Cinchona, Cissampelos, Citrus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Conocarpus, Corynostylis, Costus, Coutabea, Coutarea, Crateva, Crescentia, Croton, Cuphea, Cyperus, Dodonaea, Doliocarpus, Corstenia, Doxantha, Emilia, Entada, Eryngium, Eupatorium, Gliricidia, Gunnera, Hedyosmum, Hippocratea, Indigofera, Jatropha, Lantana, Mammea, Melia, Mimosa, Lantana, Mammea, Melia, Mimosa, Momordica, Moringa, Neurolaena, Parkinsonia, Paspalum, Petiveria, Picramnia, Piper, Pithecellobium, Picramnia, Piper, Pithecellobium, Pluchea, Plumeria, Quassia, Randia, Rhizophora, Schultesia, Scoparia, Sesbania, Simaba, Simarouba, Siparuna, Solanum, Spondias, Swietenia, Tabebuia, Tamarindus, Tephrosia, Terminalia, Tetracera, Thevetia, Urera, Ximenia, Xylopia, Zornia.

Feguo: Brosimum (CR); Helicostylis (CR)

Feli: Pera (P)

FENCE POSTS (LIVING): Poles that take root as live trees when placed in the ground. Acnistus, Bursera, Diphysa, Erythrina, Ficus, Gliricidia, Guazuma, Jatropha, Lemaireocereus, Melia, Pereskia, Spondias, Tabebuia.

Fetis tree: Kigelia (E)

FICUS CITRIFOLIA P.Mill. Wild fig (E); Caucho menudito (C); Higueron (C,D); Higo (P); Saguagua (Cu); Suu (Cu); Tugua (Ch); Tuu (Cu) (Fig. 146). The ripe fruits are edible. The latex serves as chewing gum, vermifuge and birdlime. Indians use as a protective application to wounds (!). The leaves of some Ficus spp. serve as valuable fodder during the dry season. Some natives belileve that Ficus seeds turn into black flies (Simulium) (!).

Fiddlewood: Chimarrhis (B); Citharexylum (E)

Fig: Clusia (B); Ficus (E)

Fireweed: Erechtites (E)

FIREWOOD (GREEN): Wood that burns when green. Astrocaryum, Bactris, Brosimum, Bursera, Calycophyllum, Casuarina, Cochlospermum, Nectandra, Pterocarpus, Rhizophora, Simarouba, Sloanea, Trichilia.

Firiguelo: Phaseolus (C)

Fish-poison tree: Piscidia (E)

FISTULA: An abnormal passage between two internal organs. Treated with Thespesia.

Fitofito: Sisyrinchium (C)

Fittonia: Mala mujer (C); Zaragoza (C)

Fitweed: Eryngium (E)

Fiu: Calocarpum (CR)

Flamboyan: Delonix (S)

Flamboyant: Delonix (E)

Flametree: Delonix (E)

Flamula: Masdevallia (C)

Flat-sedge: Cyperus (E)

Flautillo: Pennisetum (C)

Flechero: Cochlospermum (C)

Floral: Sapium (C)

Flor de Alcatraz: Aristolochia (C)

Flor de alacran: Heliotropium (P)

Flor alta: Zinnia (C)

Flor de amarilla: Tecoma (N); Vochysia (C)

Flor de amor: Falcaria (CR)

Flor de angel: Caesalpinia (C); Delonix (C)

Flor de arco: Triplaris (N)

Flor de azahar: Cinchona (C)

Flor azul: Plumbago (C)

Flor de baile: Epiphyllum (C)

Flor blanca: Plumeria (CR)

Flor de burro: Capparis (C); Xylopia (C)

Flor de cera: Hoya (C)

Flor de chichine: Canavalia (P)

Flor de la cruz: Brownea (C); Petrea (P)

Flor de culebra: Aristolochia (D)

Flor de dia: Wercklea (CR)

Flor de espina: Randia (C)

Flor de fuego: Delonix (S)

Flor de garrobo: Triplaris (N)

Flor de garza: Hygrophila (P); Lobelia (P)

Flor de la Habana: Nerium (C)

Flor de indigo: Pithecellobium (P)

*Flor de Mayo: Meriana (C)

*Flor de muerto: Jussiaea (C); Oenothera (C)

Floripondio: Centrosema (P); Datura (P)

Florito: Caesalpinia (C)

Flor de Jesucristo: Brownea (CR)

Flor de luna: Calonyction (CR)

Flor de mariposa: Dalechampia (C)

*Flor de mayo: Meriania (C); Petrea (P); Vochysia (P)

*Flor de muerto: Coussarea (C); Jussiaea (C); Tagetes (CR); Palicourea (C)

Flor de navidad: Steiractinia oyedaeoides (C)

Floron: Plumeria (C)

Flor de pajarito: Arrabidaea (P)

Flor de palo: Plumeria (N)

Flor de pan: Plumeria (N)

Flor de paraiso: Sobralia (C)

Flor de pascua: Aristolochia (CR); Euphorbia (S)

Flor de pavo: Caesalpinia (C); Delonix (C)

Flor de principe: Pancratium (C)

Flor de reina: Cymbolanthus (CR)

Flor de sancayetano: Lantana (C)

Flor de Sanjuan: Cattleya (C)

Flor de Santa Ana: Beaumontia (CR)

Flor de toro: Plumeria (N)

Flor de vaca: Stanhopea (CR)

Flor de verano: Bougainvillea (N); Ipomoea (N)

Flor de volcan: Solanum (CR)

Flor de zorro: Capparis (C)

Flower fence: Caesalpinia (E)

Flotilla: Tradescantia (C)

FODDER: Plants which serve as food for cattle. Acrocomia, Bactris, Brosimum, Calophyllum, Canna, Cecropia, Ceiba, Crotalaria, Dioscorea, Eichhornia, Enterolobium, Erythrina, Fagopyrum, Ficus, Genipa, Guazuma, Manihot, Marathrum, Mirabilis, Parmentiera, Prosopis, Pseudolmedia, Saccharum, Samanea, Spondias, Sterculia, Trophis, Xylopia. Many grasses and legumes.

Forastera: Silene (C)

Fosforito: Protium (N); Trichilia (P)

Four-o'clock: Mirabilis (E)

Foxtail grass: Setaria (E)

FRAGARIA spp. Strawberry (E); Fresa (P). Apparently all Panama strawberries are grown in the Chiriqui Highlands.

Frailecillo: Jatropha (CR, CR/ROC); Tabernaemontana (C)

Frailejon: Espeletia spp. (C); Jatropha (C)

Frailejon blanco: Senecio rufescens (C)

Frailejon de Casilla: Gomphrena (C)

Framboyan: Delonix (S)

Frambuesa: Rubus (S)

Frangipani: Plumeria (E)

Fresa: Fragaria (S)

Frescura: Thespesia (N)

Fresno: Matayba (C); Rhus (C)

Fresno amarillo: Tecoma (C)

Fresnillo: Tecoma (C)

Fria: Dialium (P)

Friega-plata (o,os): Miconia (C,P); Pavonia (P); Solanum (N,P); Waltheria (P)

Frijol: Phaseolus (S)

Frijolato: Swartzia (C)

Frijol de monte: Cassia (P)

Frijol negro: Phaseolus (S)

Frijol de palo: Cajanus (P)

Frijol terciopelo: Stizolobium (C)

Frio: Saurauia (P)

Frisol: Phaseolus (C)

Froro: Erythrina (CR)

Fru: Erythrina (CR)

FRUIT EDIBLE, COOKED: Fruit said to be edible after cooking or processing. Aechmea, Alibertia, Artocarpus, Blighia, Cajanus, Canavalia, Capsicum, Carica, Cassia, Ceiba, Chayota, Cocos, Crotalaria, Cucurbita, Cyphomandra, Dolichos, Elaterium, Enterolobium, Guilielma, Hibiscus, Lagenaria, Lens, Luffa, Momordica, Montrichardia, Mucuna, Musa, Neptunia, Nymphaea, Phaseolus, Physalis, Prosopis, Psophocarpus, Sechium, Sesbania, Sicana, Solanum, Spathiphyllum, Vicia.

FRUIT EDIBLE, RAW: Fruits, at least part of which are edible raw when they ripen on the plant. Acacia, Acantho cereus, Achras, Acrocomia, Aechmea, Anacardium, Ananas, Annona, Anthurium, Ardisia, Aristolochia, Astrocaryum, Averrhoa, Bactris, Beilschmiedia, Bellucia, Borojoa, Bromelia, Brosimum, Bunchosia, Byrsonima, Calocarpum, Campomanesia, Carica, Casearia, Casimiroa, Cassia, Cavendishia, Celtis, Ceratonia, Cholorophora, Chomelia, Chrysobalanus, Chrysophyllum, Cissus, Citharexylum, Citrullus, Citrus, Clavija, Clidemia, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Conostegia, Cordia, Couma, Coupeia, Crateva, Cucumis, Cyclanthera, Cyphomandra, Dialium, Diospyros, Epiphyllum, Eugenia, Ficus, Fragaria, Fuchsia, Garcinia, Genipa, Gonzalagunia, Guazuma, Guilielma, Gustavia, Hamelia, Hedyosmum, Henriettea, Henrietella, Hesperomeles, Hirtella, Hylocereus, Hymenaea, Inga, Lacmellia, Lantana, Lemaireocereus, Licania, Loreya, Lucuma, Malpighia, Malvaviscus, Mammea, Mangifera, Manilkara, Maripa, Matisia, Melicoccus, Melothria, Miconia, Momordica, Monstera, Morinda, Morisonia, Mourira, Muntingia, Musa, Myrcia, Opuntia, Pandanus, Parmentiera, Passiflora, Patinoa, Paullinia, Pentagonia, Pereskia, Persea, Phyllanthus, Physalis, Phytelephas, Pithecellobium, Podocarpus, Posoqueria, Poulsenia, Pourouma, Pouteria, Prosopis, Pseudolmedia, Psidium, Puncia, Pyrenoglyphis, Quararibea, Randia, Rheedia, Rollinia, Roystonea, Sabicea, Sambucus, Satyria, Saurauia, Sicana, Sideroxylon, Simarouba, Sloanea, Solanum, Spondias, Symphonia, Talisia, Tamarindus, Theobroma, Thevetia, Tournefortia, Trapa, Trophis, Vitex, Vitis, Ximenia, Zizyphus.

Fruta de burro: Capparis (C); Xylopia (C)

Fruta de culebra: Melothria (C)

Fruta del diablo: Rauvolfia (P)

Fruta dorado: Virola (CR,P)

Fruta de gonzalo: Vitex (C)

Fruta de indio: Pourouma (C)

Fruta de mono: Isertia (P); Pachira (P); Posoqueria (CR,P), Rheedia (P), Salacia (P)

Fruta de murcielago: Isertia (P); Posoqueria (P); Strychnos (P)

Fruta de pan: Artocarpus (S)

Fruta de pava: Adenaria (P); Ardisia (P); Chione (CR); Conostegia (P); Miconia (C); Ossaea (C); Psychotria (C)

Fruta de piojo: Apeiba (P)

Fruta de rosa: Hemiangium (N)

Fruta de zorro: Capparia (C)

Frutilla: Tournefortia (N)

Fuschia: Clerodendron (CR)

FUCHSIA ARBORESCENS Sims. The fruit is edible.

Fumo: Toxicodendron (C)

FUNASTRUM CLAUSUM (Jacq.) Schlechter. Bejuco de leche (C); Mata-torsalo (S). A poultice of the leaves is applied to kill screw-worm larvae in human flesh. The latex removes warts.

Funcia: Scleria (C)

Fune: Trichanthera (C)

Funeraria: Cobaea (C)

FUNGICIDE: A substance that kills fungi, e.g., ringworm. Anacardium, Bixa, Carica, Cassia, Mangifera, Thespesia, Vismia, Ximenia.

FURCRAEA sp. Cabuya (CR,P,C). A good source of cordage. It is reported to be used as a fish poison around Ocu. A detergent is obtained by pounding the leaves and flower stalks, which also has bleaching qualities.

Fusete: Chlorophora (C)

Fusia: Fuchsia (CR)

Fustic: Chlorophora (E)

- G -

Gabellon: Phyllanthus (C)

Gachipa: Guilielma (C)

GALACTAGOGUE: A substance increasing flow of milk (see also lactogogue). Brosimum, Carica, Centropogon, Cyperus, Euphorbia, Faramea, Gossypium, Jatropha, Lepidium, Momordica, Phyllanthus, Portulaca, Ricinus, Sesamum, Trophis.

Galba: Calophyllum (C)

Galbe: Chamaesenna (C)

GALINSOGA PARVIFLORA Cav. Guasca (C); Chipaca (C) (Fig. 147)

Gallenaza: Porophyllum ruderale (C)

Gallina: Phyllanthus (CR)

Gallina gorda: Annona (C)

Gallinazo: Dipterodendron (CR); Erigeron (C); Hedyosmum (C); Jacaranda (CR); Lippia (C); Pentaclethra (D); Porophyllum (C); Schizolobium (CR,D); Tagetes (C)

Gallincillo: Crotalaria (CR)

Gallinero: Pithecellobium (C)

Gallinilla: Canavalia (CR)

Gallinita: Centrosema (CR)

Gallita: Rodriquezia (C)

Gallito: Aristolochia (C); Caesalpinia (P); Erythrina (P); Gyrocarpus (N); Ochroma (N)

Gallito colorado: Pedilanthus (C)

Gallitos: Tillandsia and other Bromeliaceae: Pedilanthus (C)

Gallos: Tillandsia, etc.

Gallote: Lonchocarpus (P); Trophis (P)

Gallotillo: Elaterium (P)

Gamalote: Olyra (CR); Paspalum (CR)

Ganja: Cannabis (J)

Gaque: Clusia (C); Vallea (C)

Garbancillo: Duranta (C)

Garbanzo: Cicer (CR); Phyllanthus (C)

Garcero: Licania (C)

GARDINIA MANGOSTANA L. Mangosteen (E) (Fig. 148). The fruits are edible raw or cooked with rice.

Garden cress: Lepidium (E)

Garden huckleberry: Solanum (E)

Gargoran: Didymopanax (P)

Garibe de pena: Begonia (P)

Garlic: Allium (E)

Garlic wood: Ilex (B)

Garrapata: Alibertia (N); Eupatorium (N); Hirtella (C); Lonchocarpus (C)

Garrapatilla: Peperomia (CR)

Garricillo: Psychotria (P)

Garroche: Quararibea (CR)

Garrocho: Viburnum (C)

Garza: Tabebuia (C)

Gasipaes: Guilielma (C)

Gateado: Astronium (C)

Gateador: Coccoloba (CR)

Gateadera: Lycopodium (C)

Gatillo: Ochroma (N)

Gaulin: Alfaroa (CR)

Gavilan: Engelhardtia (CR); Pentaclethra (N); Schizolobium (CR,N)

Gavilana: Albizia (CR); Neurolaena (CR)

Gavilana-capitana: Neurolaena (CR/ROC)

Gavilancillo: Pithecellobium (CR)

Gazania remarcada: Gazania speciosa (C)

GAZANIA SPECIOSA Less. Gazania remarcada (C)

Gea: Guilielma (Ch)

Genecero: Enterolobium (N)

Genene: Caryocar (C)

Gengibre: Zingiber (S)

Gengibrillo: Paspalum (S)

Genicero: Pithecellobium (CR)

GENIPA AMERICANA L. Genipap (E); Abugui (Cu); Chipara (Ch); Guaytil blanco (P); Jugua (S); Quipara (Ch); Saptur (Cu) (Fig. 149). The pulp of the fruits, edible raw, is used to make sweet and fermented beverages and is sometimes pickled with vinegar and onions. The flowers are attractive to bees and the fruits to cattle. Indians paint their bodies black with the pulp. Some Indians paint their feet with the juice, believing that it makes them invisible to snakes (!). It appears to be bactericidal, germicidal, and insect repellent, and may improve the complexion. It is said to be the only medicine capable of flushing the parasitic catfish, which attacks man south of the study areas.

Genipap: Genipa (E)

Genisero: Enterolobium (CR)

Genizaro: Pithecellobium (C); Samanea (C)

GEONOMA CONGESTA H.Wendl. ex Sp. Cortadero (S); Doquidua (Ch). This is the most common thatch palm on the R. Areti (!). Hearts of Costa Rican species are eaten roasted.

Geranio: Pelargonium (CR)

Gherkin: Cucumis (E)

Giant cane: Gynerium (E)

Giganton: Datura (C); Trophis (C)

Gigua: Astrocaryum (Ch)

Gigualti: Genipa (N)

Ginger: Zingiber (E)

Girasol: Helianthus (C); Zinnia (P)

Girasolillo: Dyssodia (CR)

Gitana: Clianthus (C)

GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (Jacq.) Steud. Mother of cocoa (E); Baba (P); Bala (P); Madera negra (P); Mataraton (S); Quick-stick (J) (Fig. 150). The flowers of this honey tree are cooked in batter. the seeds, bark, and/or leaves are used to poison rats. The tree is often used for living fence posts (!). The leaves are applied as poultices to bruises, erysipelas, and other sores, and the juice of the leaves is applied as a folk treatment for baldness. In Yaviza, the leaves are boiled with leaves of lemon and escobadoza to form an application for headaches. Rio Sucio Negroes use them for fevers (!). Around La Nueva a leaf infusion is used as a bath for debility. A branch placed in the hat is supposed to relieve the heat.

Globe amaranth: Gomphrena (E)

Gloria de la manana: Ipomoea (P)

GNAPHALIUM ELEGANS H.B.K. Vira-vira (C); Yerba gallinoza (C)


GNETUM LEYBOLDII Tul. The seeds are roasted and eaten by the Choco (!) (Fig. 151).

Goa bean: Psophocarpus (E)

Goajire: Parkinsonia (C)

Goatwood: Cassipourea (E)

GOETHALSIA MEIANTHA (Donn. SM.) Burret. Chancho blanco (CR); Guacimo Blanco (P). The fruits are popular with macaws.

Golden shower: Cassia (E)

Golden-spoon: Byrsonima (E)

Golondrina: Alternanthera (CR); Euphorbia (CR,P,S); Polypodium (C)

Goma: Cordia (P)

Goma elemi: Bursera (S)

Gombo: Abelmoschus (C)

Gomo: Cordia (C)

Gomo blanco: Cordia (C)

GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA L. Bachelor's button (E); Siempreviva (P); Suspiro (P) (Fig. 152). The plant is regarded as a heart remedy.

GONZALAGUNIA RUDIS Standl. Mentolin (C); Niguita (P); Usiburnu puruiwat (Cu). The white fruits are rarely eaten in Colombia (!). The plant is used in medicinal baths by the Bayano Cuna.

Gonzalo alves: Astronium (E)

Goongo Pea: Cajanus (E)

Gooseberry: Phyllanthus (E)

Goosegrass: Eleusine (E)

Gordura: Melinus (C)

Gorgojero: Cupania (P)

Gorgojillo: Cupania (P); Miconia (P)

Gorgojo: Cupania (P); Miconia (P)

Gorgojo blanco: Cupania (P)

Gorgoran: Virola (P)

Gorreta: Cephaelis (C)

GOSSYPIUM spp. Cotton (E); Algodon (S); Mojofono (Ch); Upsana (Cu). West Indian Negroes tie strings of the seeds around the joints to treat rheumatism. Sap is astringent and pectoral. Seeds can be eaten but should be boiled first as they can contain the poisonous principle gossypol. Raw seeds are considered aphrodisiac, expectorant, laxative, and nervine, and are given for headache. Bayano Cuna cultivate cotton and weave their own hammocks. The roots are considered abortifacient, antihemorrhagic, and emmenagogic. The leaves are used to treat rheumatism among the Chepigana Negroes. Around La Nueva the flowers are used to treat bat bites.

Gota de oro: Galphimia (CR)

Gota de sangre: Euphorbia (C); Clerodendrum

Goterero: Psychotria (C)

GOUANIA LUPULOIDES (L.) Urban. Beuco de Rama (C); Jaboncillo (C); Rabo de mono (C) (Fig. 153). The twigs are chewed to heal and harden the gums and to treat sore throat. They were formerly used in making beer. Macerated stems produce a lather. The stems are used for cordage.

Gourd: Lagenaria (E)

Gracena: Taetsia (CR)

Grama: Gynerium (C)

Grama de camino: Panicum (P)

Gramalote: Hymenachne (C); Paspalum (D)

Granada: Punica (S)

Granade de monte: Rourea (C)

Granadilla: Caesalpinia (C); Couroupita (P); Dialium (C); Machaerium (C); Panicum (P); Passiflora (S); Podocarpus (C)

Grandfather's moss: Tillandsia (E)

Granizo: Hedyosmum (C); Pilea (C)

Grana de oro: Solanum (C)

Grao: Pterocarpus (C)

Grape: Vitis (E)

Grapefruit: Citrus (E)

Grau blanco: Pterocarpus (C)

Graveyard flower: Plumeria (C)

Greenbrier: Smilax (E)

Greenheart: Nectandra (E)

Grevillo: Grevillea (CR)

Grosella: Malpighia (P); Pedilanthus (P); Phyllanthus (C,CR); Ribes (C)

Grosella azulada: Clidemia (N)

Grosella de Nicaragua: Phyllanthus (N)

Grosellero: Ribes (C)

Ground coco: Eulophia (E)

Ground cherry: Physalis (E)

Guaba: Phytolacca (C)

Guabayo: Eugenia (C)

Guabino: Enterolobium (P)

Guabo: Quassia (CR)

Guaca: Caesalpinia (CR); Spilanthes (C)

Guacaci: Laetia (C)

Guacal: Crescentia (CR,N)

Guacamaya (o): Acacia (C); Albizia (C); Basiloxylon (C); Bocconia (CR); Croton (C); Cupania (C); Heliconia (P); Protium (C); Trichostigma (C); Triplaris (C)

Guacamaya pequena: Caesalpinia (N)

Guachamaca: Malouettia (C)

Guachapi: Passiflora (C)

Guachapali: Diphysa (P)

Guacharaco: Cecropia (C); Cupania (C); Matayba (C); Tabernaemontana (C)

Guacharaco de tierra fria: Guarea (C)

Guache: Andropogon (C)

Guachipelin, Guachipilin: Diphysa (S)

Guachivan: Carludovica (P)

Guacimilla (o): Helicteres (P); Heliocarpus (D); Pavonia (P); Prockia (C)

Guacimo: Bursera (C); Cordia (C); Guazuma (S); Laetia (C); Luehea (CR,P)

Guacimo baba: Apeiba (C)

Guacimo baboso: Triumfetta (P)

Guacimo blanco: Goethalsia (CR,P); Guazuma (CR)

Guacimo colorado: Guazuma (C); Luehea (CR,N)

Guacimo macho: Luehea (CR,N)

Guacimo molenillo or molinero: Luehea (N,P)

Guacimo nogal: Cordia (C)

Guacimo de ternero: Guazuma (P)

Guacimo torcido: Helicteres (P)

Guaco: Aristolochia (S); Eupatorium (S); Mikania (C)

Guacuco: Malpighia (CR)

Guadua: Guadua (C)

GUADUA ANGUSTIFOLIA Kunth. Bamboo (E); Bambu (P); Guadua (C); Guadua manso (C). The canes are used for construction and water troughs. In the Choco they are propagated by cuttings to be used for building materials. Clumps of bamboo along the river indicate human disturbances in Pacific Colombia.

Guadua manso: Guadua (C)

Guagara: Cryosophila (CR); Manicaria (P,C); Sabal (P); Scheelea (P)

Guagara de puerco: Acrostichum (P)

Guagra: Cryosophila (CR)

GUAIACUM OFFICINALE L. Lignum-vitae (E); Guayacan (S); Guayaco (C); (Fig. 154). Cultivated in Panama, this is one of the heaviest commercial timbers, and one of the more expensive. An extract and the resin from the wood was formerly used as antivenereal, diuretic, stimulant, and sudorific.

Guaica: Combretum (C)

Guaimarito: Ficus (C)

Guaimaro: Brosimum (C); Pourouma (C); Helicostylis (C)

Guaimero, Guaymero: Brosimum (C); Trophis (C)

Guaina: Urera (C)

Guaita: Trichilia (N)

Guaitil: Genipa (CR); Sickingia (CR)

Guaitil blanco: Genipa (P)

Guaitil colorado: Sickingia (P)

Guajiniquil: Inga (B)

Guajo: Maximiliana (C)

Gualanday: Jacaranda (C)

Gualchapa: Passiflora (C)

Gualola: Polygonum (C)

Gualpite: Xylopia (C)

Gualte: Wettinia (C); Aiphanes (C); Catostigma (C); Iriartea (C)

Guamacho: Pereskia (C); Xylosma (C)

Guamachito: Bumelia (C)

Guamarillo: Pseudosamanea (N)

Guambia: Spigelia (C)

Guamito macho: Brasilettia (C); Caesalpinia (C0

Guamo: Crudia (C); Inga (C)

Guamo blanco: Guarea (C)

Guamo churimo: Inga (C)

Guamo cimarron: Guarea (C)

Guamo machete: Inga (C)

Guamo cimarron: Guarea (C)

Guamo machete: Inga (C)

Guamo macho: Inga (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Guamo mestizo: Hirtella (C)

Guamo mico: Inga (C)

Guamo prieto: Pithecellobium (C)

Guamo rorado: Carapa (C)

Guamuche, Guamuchil: Albizia (C); Pithecellobium (N)

Guamuco: Datura (C); Spigelia (C)

Guanabana: Annona (S)

Guanabana torete: Annona (P)

Guanabano: Annona (P)

Guanancaste: Enterolobium (CR)

Guanancona: Annona (C)

Guanco: Guarea (C)

Guandu: Cajanus (P)

Guangare: Manicaria (C)

Guango: Albizia (C); Pithecellobium (P)

Guanto: Datura (C)

Guapaste: Lonchocarpus (N)

Guapinal: Hymenaea (C)

Guapinol: Hymenaea (S)

Guapinol negro: Cynometra (CR)

Guara: Astrocaryum (C); Coccoloba (C)

Guaracaro: Phaseolus (C)

Guaragoa: Coccoloba (C); Guarea (P)

Guarana: Paullinia (C)

Guarango: Caesalpinia (C); Mimosopsis (C); Senegalia (C); Tara (C)

Guarda rocio: Hypericum (C)

GUAREA MULTIFLORA A.Juss. Cedro macho (D). The wood is favored for rice mortars and pestles (!).

Guarguerones: Antirrhinum (C)

Guaria morada: Cattleya (CR)

Guaritoto: Jatropha (C)

Guarmuche: Albizia (C)

Guarte: Wettinia (C)

Guarumo: Cecropia (S); Pourouma (CR)

Guarumo macho: Pourouma (CR)

Guarumo de montana: Pourouma (CR)

Guarzo: Phaseolus (C)

Guasa: Euterpe (C)

Guasca: Galinsoga (C)

Guasco: Cordia (C); Eschweilera (C)

Guasguin: Diplostephium cinerascens (C)

Guasimilla: Waltheria (P)

Guasquilla: Aspilia tenella (C); Wulffia baccata (C)

Guastomate: Ardisia (CR); Stylogyne (CR)

Guata: Solanum (C)

Guataco: Rauvolfia (CR)

Guataco colorado: Rauvolfia (N)

Guatatuco: Kohleria (S)

Guate-guate: Passiflora (P)

Guatemala: Cosmos bipinnatus (C); Solanum (C); Tigridia (CR)

Guava: Inga (P); Psidium (E)

Guava de casilla: Inga (CR)

Guava machete: Inga (CR)

Guava de mono: Inga (P)

Guava real: Inga (CR)

Guavita: Desmodium (S)

Guavita cansa-boca: Inga (P); Pachyrhizus (P)

Guavito, Guavito amargo: Quassia (P)

Guavo: Inga (P); Pithecellobium (CR); Quassia (CR)

Guavo amarillo: Inga (CR)

Guavo cimarron: Inga (CR; Lindackeria (C)

Guavo dormilon: Parkia (C)

Guavo machete: Inga (CR)

Guavo de mono: Inga (S)

Guavo montana: Pithecellobium (CR)

Guavo peludo: Inga (CR)

Guavo vaina: Parkia (C)

Guayaba: Eugenia (C); Psidium (S); Quararibea (P)

Guayaba agria: Psidium (P)

Guayaba de agua: Psidium (P)

Guayaba arrayan: Psidium (P)

Guayaba de gusano: Psidium (P)

Guayaba de mico: Posoqueria (CR)

Guayaba de montana: Terminalia (CR)

Guayaba perulera: Psidium (N)

Guayaba de sabana: Psidium (P)

Guayabillo: Calycolpus (CR,P); Psidium (CR); Quarraribea (P); Terminalia (D,CR)

Guayabita (o): Psidium (P); Triplaris (P)

Guayabita del Peru: Psidium (P)

Guayabita rastrera: Psidium (P)

Guayabito: Campomanesia (C); Myrtus (C)

Guayabito de cerro: Grislea (C)

Guabito arraijan: Psidium (P)

Guayabito montana: Calycolpus (P)

Guayabito de monte: Alibertia (D)

Guayabito piru: Psidium (C)

Guayabito de sabana: Psidium (P)

Guayabo: Calycophyllum (C); Eugenia (C); Guettarda (W); Hamelia (P); Psisium (S); Quararibea (W); Ruprechtia (C)

Guayabo alazano: Calycophyllum (P)

Guayabo amarillo: Lindackeria (C)

Guayabo blanco: Brosimum (S)

Guayabo cascudo: Eugenia (C)

Guayabo colorado: Calycophyllum (C); Eugenia (C)

Guayabo hormiguero: Triplaris (P)

Guayabo joveroso: Calycophyllum (C)

Guayabo de leon: Eugenia (C); Terminalia (CR)

Guayabo de leche: Campomanesia (C)

Guayabo macho: Eschweilera (P); Myrcia (C)

Guayabo del mico: Posoqueria (C,CR), Zuelania (C)

Guayabo de mono: Miconia (C)

Guayabo del monte: Terminalia (CR)

Guayabo murcielago: Eugenia (C)

Guayabon: Terminalia (CR, N)

Guayabo negro: Hamelia (W)

Guayabo de parva: Bellucia (C)

Guayabo prieto: Calyptranthes (C); Eugenia (C)

Guayabo sabanero: Psidium (C)

Guayabo volandor: Ruprechtia (C)

Guayabo zancon: Triplaris (C)

Guayacan: Arthrosamanea (C); Bulnesia (C); Guaiacum (C,N); Lafoensia (C); Minquartia (C); Oliganthes (C); Sporobolus (C); Swartzia (CR); Sweetia (CR); Tabebuia (S); Tecoma (C); Vitex (C)

Guayacana: Smilax (C)

Guayacan blanco: Pithecellobium (C)

Guayacan de bola: Bulnesia (C)

Guayacan carrapo: Bulnesia (C)

Guayacan Chaparro: Arthrosamanea (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Guayacan cienaga: Arthrosamanea (C); Pithecellobium (C)

Guayacan coco: Lecythis (C)

Guayacan congo: Andira (C)

Guayacan corriente: Sweetia (C)

Guayacan ensino: Bulnesia (C,CR)

Guayacan jobo: Centrolobium (C)

Guayacan de manizal: Lafoensia (C)

Guayacan negro: Tabebuia (P)

Guayacan polvillo: Bulnesia (C); Centrolobium (C); Tabebuia (C); Tecoma (C)

Guayacan trapiche: Poponax (C)

Guayacillo: Rinorea (P)

Guayaco: Guaiacum (C)

Guayamero: Brosimum (C); Helicostylis (C)

Guayaniquil: Inga (CR)

Guayote: Gonolobus (CR)

Guaytil: Sickingia (W)

Guaytil blanco: Genipa (P)

Guaytil colorado: Sickingia (P)

Guayuyo: Trema (C)

GUAMA ULMIFOLIA Lam. West Indian elm (E); Bastard cedar (J); Cabeza de Negrito (P); Guacimo (C,P) (Fig. 155). The green fruits of this honey tree are edible fresh or cooked, and are relished by cattle. They are crushed in water to make a beverage, and to add flavor to meats. The leaves and fruits are eaten by cattle and deer. The bark is used for cordage, and is regarded as sudorific. It is used to treat elephantiasis, cutaneous diseases, and chesxt afflictions. The sap is used to clarify syrup in sugar-making, and was used for food and shaving cream in Colombia. In Darien, the uncooked bark is soaked with malva to drink for afflictions of the kidney and liver (!). In the Pearl Islands, people believe that touching the tree will slow bleeding (!).

Guazumillo: Pavonia (P)

Guerregue: Astrocaryum (C); Guilielma (C)

Guichire: Maximiliana (C)

Guicombo: Abelmoschus (C)

Guijarro: Stemmadenia (CR)

Guilache: Berberis (C)

GUILIELMA GASIPAES (H.B.K.) Bailey. Peach palm (E); Chontadura (C); Gea (Ch); Ico (Cu); Mantiene-moza (C); Nalu (Cu); Pejibaje (P); Pichiguao (C); Pisba (P); Tenga (C); Urre (Noanama); Gea (Embera). The fruits are popular all over Panama, cooked with salt. The Choco do not cook it with salt because they believe this will make the fruits on the tree fall off green (!). Yurumanqui Indians obtain salt by cooking the spadix. The fruit has about twice as much protein as plantains, manioc, or potatoes, and is abundant from September through December. The hard wood is used for making bows and arrows. the Borucas make fire with a stick of this on a block of Guazuma. Needles are used in primitive tatooing elsewhere. The cabbage is also quite edible. Guaymis fell the tree in the waning moon, let it lie three days, then take the heart for the preparation of ferments. It is also good for making sweet chichas. The flowers are said to be edible, having the flavor of cauliflower. The seeds are also edible. Salaqui Choco, during their first menses, are not supposed to eat this fruit, or any toothed animal, in the belief it will cause boils and pimples. It is a daily entry among the Choco, especially from January through April. The seeds are planted and trees will bear fruit in 7 years. The fruits and terminal buds are eaten, and the fruits are used to make a beer. Shrimp and catfish are caught in Colombian catangas ("lobster pots") baited with peach palm fruits or corn.

Guillotilla: Pittiera (CR)

Guime: Anthurium (C)

Guinda: Zizyphus (C)

Guinea: Panicum (CR)

Guinea grass: Panicum (E)

Guinea-hen weed: Petiveria (E)

Guineo: Desmopsis (CR); Musa (S); Panicum (C); Sapranthus (CR)

Guino: Carapa (C)

Guirache: Syagrus (C)

Guisante: Pisum (S)

Guisaro: Psidium (CR)

Guisero: Psidium (CR)

Guisjoche: Bourreria (CR)

Guitil: Stemmandenia (CR)

Guitite: Acnistus (CR)

Guizaro: Psidium (CR)

Gully-root: Petiveria (E)

Gulupo: Passiflora (C)

Gum arabic: Acacia (E)

Gumbo: Abelmoschus (E)

Gumbolimbo: Bursera (E)

Guna: Warscewiczia (D)

Gungo pea: Cajanua (J)

Gurak: Vismia (CR)

GURANIA WAGNERIANA Cogn. Vitoria (C). Ya-te-vi ulcers are treated with pulverized leaves of this species.

Gurapo: Delostoma (C)

Gusanero: Astronium (C)

Gurgurus: Cochlospermum (C)

Gusanillo: Parosela (CR); Piper (P)

Gusano: Acalypha (C)

GUSTAVIA NANA Pittier. Membrillo (C,P); Paco (C). The fruits, eaten raw or cooked, are also made into chichas (!).

GUSTAVIA SUPERBA (H.B.K.) Berg. Chupo (C); Membrillo (C,P); Paco (C); Tupu (Cu) (Fig. 156). Decoctions of the leaves are said to have saved many conquistadors wounded with poisoned arrows. Eaten raw or cooked, the pulp is used like grease to cook rice.

Gu-tse: Ficus (CR)

Gutta-percha: Mimusops (E)

GYNANDROPSIS SPECIOSA (H.B.K.) DC. Aleli calentano (C); Caracol (C). Elsewhere the leaves are used as a vegetable.

GYNERIUM SAGITTATUM (Aubl.) P.Beauv. Giant cane (E); Canabola (C); Cana blanca (S); Cana flecha (C); Carrizo (C); Chia (Ch); Chulquin (C); Chusque (C); Lata (C); Masar (Cu); Pindos (C); Zuza (C). Gynerium is very important in the construction of native huts, especially the walls in Darien, Choco, and San Blas (!). In Colombia, it is occasionally cultivated as a construction material, as a combustible, and for use in weaving. Giant cane houses are said to last for 200 years in xeric environments. Roots are diuretic, and are used for alopecia. The flower stalks, known as viruli, are used for arrows, spears, etc. (!).

GYNOXYS PARVIFOLIA Cuatr. Rama blanca (C)

- H -

Haba: Phaseolus (P); Vicia (C,CR)

Haba de monte: Dioclea (P)

Habilla: Entada (CR); Hura (S)

Hackberry: Celtis (E)

HAEMATOXYLON CAMPECHIANUM L. Logwood (E) (Fig. 157). The heartwood of this good honey plant, used to treat cancer, is antidiarrhetic and antidysenteric.

HAEMOPTYSIS: Spitting of blood. Anacardium, Carica, Musa, Portulaca, Terminalia, Waltheria.

Haguey: Calatola (P); Grias (P)

Hala: Haematoxylon (C)

HALLUCINOGEN: A substance producing visions, illusions, etc. Andira, Argemone, Datura, Myristica, Pachira, Piptadenia, Piscidia, Rivea.

Hamati: Cavanillesia (P)

HAMELIA PATENS Jacq. Red berry (E); Scarletbush (E); Anileto (CR); Azulillo (CR); Coralillo (CR); Palo camaron (CR); Pissi (CR); Uvero (P); Zorrillo (CR) (Fig. 158). The ripe fruits are edible (!). The plant is elsewhere considered as a remedy for cancer, erysipelas, and malaria.

Harino: Calycophyllum (P); Dipterodendron (P); Pithecellobium (P)

Harton: Musa (C)

Haru: Bixa (Ch)

Hashish: Cannabis (E)

HASSELTIA FLORIBUNDA H.B.K. Raspalengua (D) (Fig. 159) . Fruits of this small tree might be tried as a survival food.

Hatico: Ixophorus (C)

Hat palm: Carludovica (E)

Hawkweed: Hieracium (E)

Hayo: Erythroxylum (C)

Hayuelo: Dodonaea (C)

HEADACHE: A pain in the head. Abrus, Acacia, Adenanthera, Argemone, Capsicum, Coix, Commelina, Elaeis, Gossypium, Lagenaria, Melia, Morinda, Ocimum, Petiveria, Piscidia, Pothomorphe, Protium, Ricinus, Siparuna, Solanum, Spigelia, Terminalia, Thespesia.

HEDEOMA AFF PULEGIOIDES: Wild peppermint (E); Menta (CR/ROC)

HEDYOSMUM MEXICANUM Cordemoy. Almizcle (C); Colchon de pobre (C); Gallinazo (

C); Granizo (C); Planta del soldado (C); Silvasilva (C); Vara blanca (CR). the fruit are edible. The leaves are used to make a tea or coffee substitute, and to flavor contraband liquor in Colombia. An infusion of the bark is believed febrifugal, restorative, and tonic.

Helecho de agua: Ceratopteris (S)

Helecho de auila: Pteridium (C)

Helecho macho: Dryopteris (C)

Helecho marrano: Pteridium (C)

Helecho peine: Polypodium (C)

Helecho volador: Nephrolepis (C)

HELICHRYSUM BRACTEATUM Andr. Boton de oro (C); Inmortales dobles (C); Siempreviva (S); Inmortales de bracteas (C)

HELICONIA spp. Wild plantain (E); Janga (Ch); Keskes (C); Plantanillo (C,P); Susucan (Cu) (Fig. 160). The young shoots of Heliconia bihai L. serve as a vegetable. The bracts collect potable water, but may be a breeding ground for mosquitoes (!). They are a favorite feeding place for hummingbirds (!). Leaves are often used to maje temporary umbrellas, shelters, and bedding (!). Among the Chiman Choco, they are wrapped around aching stomachs. Darien people fashion cups out of the leaves for drinking water in the bush (!). Young spears of Heliconia spp. are used medicinally by the Bayano Cuna (!). Darien Negroes used boiled young spears to poultice on the putrid ulcers of advanced snakebite cases.

HELICOSTYLIS LATIFOLIA Pittier. Verba (P). The wood is sometimes used for making dugouts.

HELICTERES GUAZUMAEFOLIA H.B.K. Berberqui santo (P); Guacimillo (P); Guacimo torcido (P); Majaguilla (P); Torcidillo (P) (Fig. 161). This shrub furnishes a cordage and the leaves are used as an emollient.

HELIOCARPUS POPAYANENSIS H.B.K. Baho blanco (C); Balso (C); Majagua (C); Majao (C); Palo bobo (C); Pestano de mula (C). Mosquito nets can be strung with Darien's favorite cordage, the inner bark of majaguilla (!).

Heliotropio: Heliotropium (CR)

HELIOTROPIUM CURASSAVICUM L. Heliotrope (E); Cotorrera de playa (S). The ashes are used for salt.

Heliotropo: Hedychium (C)

HEMORRHOIDS: Varicose veins of the lower rectum and anus. Treated with Acacia, Acnistus, Albizia, Aloe, Avicennia, Caesalpinia, Capsicum, Carica, Cassia, Centella, Chenopodium, Cissus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Crescentia, Dendropogon, Guazuma, Heliotropium, Hibiscus, Jatropha, Luffa, Mangifera, Mucuna, Pachyrhizus, Piper, Pistia, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Renealmia, Ricinus, Scoparia, Spondias, Tamarindus, Tillandsia.

HEMOSTATIC: A substance for controlling bleeding. Ageratum, Boerhaavia, Brownea, Bryophyllum, Cereus, Clitoria, Diphysa, Gossypium, Lantana, Lecythis, Ormosia, Pterocarpus, Rhizophora, Solanum.

Hemp: Cannabis (E)

Hemp, sun: Crotalaria (E)

Henene: Caryocar (P)

Henequen: Agave (E)

Henna: Lawsonia (E)

HENRIETTEA SUCCOSA (Aubl.) DC. The fruit is edible.

HENRIETTELLA spp. The fruits of most species are probably edible.

HERNANDIA SONORA L. Mago (S) (Fig. 162). The sap is reported to be depilatory.

HESPEROMELES GOUDOTIANA (Ducq.) Killip. Mortino (C). The fruits are edible and astringent.

HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. Kenaf (E); Pavona encendida (S) (Fig. 163). The seeds, edible after roasting, are said to be aphrodisiac. the oil expressed from the seeds is used for cooking and illumination. The aperient leaves, used as a potherb, are sold in the United States as marijuana.

HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS L. Chinese hibiscus (E); Papo (P); Palo de la reina (P); Pejo (C); Tapo (P) (Fig. 164). Chinese pickle and eat the flowers. The young leaves serve as a potherb. The petals are used to blacken shoes and eyebrows.

HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. Jamaica sorrel (E); Roselle (E); Jamaica (CA); Cabitutu (Cu); Rosella (C); Vinuela (S) (Fig. 165. The swollen red calyces are used for making beverages, jellies, and jams. The leaves are used for potherbs, salads, and curries. The seeds are demulcednt, diuretic, and tonic, and are used in debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, and strangury. They contain oil and are eaten iin Africa. Uala Cuna toast the red fruits to make a coffee-like beverage. The name cabitutu translates to coffee flower.

HIBISCUS SCHIZOPETALUS (Mart.) Hook. Arana (C); Canastilla (C); Paraguita china (P); Waitutu (Cu). Like the Chinese Hibiscus, this handsome shrub is found in many Choco and Cuna gardens (!). Choco use the flowers for garlands (!). Cuna use the flowers also for eye medicine (!). Colombians use infusions of the flowers for colds and coughs.

HIBISCUS TILIACEUS L. Lilnden hibiscus (E); Algondoncillo (P); Majagua (S); Mahoe (P) (Fig. 166). The flowers, attractive to bees, and young leaves serve as a potherb. Boiled in milk, the flowers are supposed to be good for earache. The bark furnishes good cordage that is unusual in being stronger when wet. It is used for making barkcloth, hammocks, mats, and rope. The wood is good for twirlstick fires.

HICCUPS: A sharp inspiratory sound caused by contractions of the diaphram. Treated with Mangifera, Phaseolus.

Hiede-hiede: Cestrum (P)

Hiedra: Boussingaultia (CR); Hedera (CR)

Hierba de Adan: Chelonanthus (C)

Hierba de agua: Arthrostemma (P); Begonia (P)

Hierba de alacran: Paullinia (P); Pectis (P)

Hierba de almorrana: Salvia (C)

Hierba borriguera: Justicia (P)

Hierba buena: Mentha (CR)

Hierba de cancer: Hydrolea (C)

Hierba capitana: Mikania (C)

Hierba centella: Boerhaavia (C)

Hierba de chiva: Eupatorium (P)

Hierba de conejo: Micromeris (C)

Hierba de corazon: Salvia (CR)

Hierba de coristo: Antiphytum (C)

Hierba de cui: Oldenlandia (P)

Hierba de culebra: Phytolacca (C)

Hierba dulce: Ageratum (C); Borreria (C); Eleusine (C)

Hierba de diablo: Plumbago (C)

Hierba egipcia: Dactyloctenium (C)

Hierba elefante: Pennisetum (CR)

Hierba de fraile: Parsonia (C)

Hierba gallega: Evolvulus (C)

Hierba de gallinazo: Cassia (C); Solanum (P)

Hierba gallota: Solanum (P)

Hierba gorda: Eryngium (C)

Hierba de guambia: Spigelia (C)

Hierba guayacan: Imperata (P); Sporobolus (C)

Hierba hedionda: Solanum (C)

Hierba hatico: Ixophorus (C)

Hierba hemostatica: Ageratum (C)

Hierba de hierro: Pharus

Hierba de huambim: Spigelia (C)

Hierba jorra: Tournefortia (C)

Hierba lechera: Euphorbia (CR/ROC)

Hierba de limon: Cymbopogon (S)

Hierba de limon de China: Pectis (D)

Hierba de la muela: Hyptis (C)

Hierba mora: Saracha (CR); Solanum (S)

Hierba de la mula: Lippia (CR)

Hierba de murcielago: Cassia (C)

Hierba de pajacillo: Galinsoga (C)

Hierba de pajarito: Struthanthus (P); Galinsoga (C)

Hierba de la paloma: Calea (CR)

Hierba de Para: Panicum (S)

Hierba del Paraguay: Scoparia (C)

Hierba de pasmo: Siparuna (P)

Hierba de pata: Eleusine (P)

Hierba de la plata: Mesembryanthemum (C)

Hierba del piojo: Delphinium (C)

Hierba de playa: Cassia (C)

Hierba de pollo: Casearia (C); Euphorbia (P); Kallstroemia (C); Lindernia (C)

Hierba de la porta: Hydrolea (C); Cassia (C)

Hierba de puerco: Monstera (P); Sida (P)

Hierba de reuma: Hyptis (C)

Hierba sagrado: Lantana (C)

Hierba de sal: Philoxerus (S)

Hierba de sampedro: Geranium (C)

Hierba de San Antonio: Elephantopus (CR)

Hierba de San Carlos: Marsypianthes (CR)

Hierba de San Juan: Hyptis (P); Vernonia (P,C)

Hierba santa: Stemodia (CR); Crassula (C)

Hierba de Santa Maria: Cacalia (C); Cleome (C); Conobea (C)

Hierba de sapo: Peperomia (P); Physalis (P); Scoparia (C)

Hierba del sol: Acaena (C)

Hierba del soldado: Melochia (P); Waltheria (P)

Hierba tiegro: Olyrum (C); Panicum (C)

Hierba te: Capraria (CR,P); Pectis (P)

Hierba de la Trinidad: Justicia (C)

Hierba del venado: Conyza (C)

Hierba de la virgin: Polygala (C)

Hierba zorra: Lantana (P)

Higo: Ficus (S); Opuntia (C)

Higo tuno: Opuntia (C)

Higuanillo: Lonchocarpus (P)

Higuera: Gunnera (CR); Oreopanax (CR)

Higuerilla: Ricinus (S)

Higuerillo: Ricinus (CR)

Higuerillo blanco (o rojo): Ricinus (CR)

Higuero: Ficus (CR); Oreopanax (CR)

Higuero de lata: Bactris (C)

Higueron: Ficus (P)

Higueron colorado: Ficus (CR)

Higuillo: Carica (C)

Higuito: Ficus (P)

Hinchador: Rhus (CR)

Hinojillo: Piper (CR)

Hinojo: Foeniculum (C); Piper (P); Pothomorphe (D)

HIPPOCRATEA VOLUBILIS L. The seeds are reported to be edible.

HIPPOMANE MANCINELLA L. Manchineel (E); Mananillo (S) (Fig. 167). Cataplasms of Solanum nigrum or quitense are suggested as a treatment. The latex is very dangerous (!). The fruits, looking and smelling like crab apples, are very poisonous. When crabs eat the fruits, they too become poisonous. Honey produced from the flowers is reported to be non-toxic. The latex is sometimes used in arrow poisons and to poison water holes for the fish therein (!). the wood is sometimes used in furniture construction. Dry fruits are said to be safe enough to use as a diuretic.

HIRTELLA AMERICANA L. Pasito (C). The fruit and seeds are edible (!).

HIRTELLA RACEMOSA Lam. Pigeon plum (E); Icacillo (S). The pulp of the fruit is edible.

Hivilan: Monnina (C)

Hobo: Spondias (C)

Hochororejo: Clavija (Ch)

Hodropica: Pistia (C)

Hog plum: Spondias (E); Ximenia (E)

Hoja archa: Gunnera (C)

Hoja blanca: Calathea (P)

Hoja de buitre: Lilmnocharis (C)

Hoja chigue: Curatella (CR); Petrea (N); Tetracera (N)

Hoja de corazon: Philodendron (C)

Hoja de duende: Bactris (CR)

Hoja de estrella: Piper (CR)

Hoja de gallo: Asterogyne (C); Geonoma (C)

Hoja hedionda: Solanum (P)

Hoja de lapa: Cyclanthus (CR)

Hoja de menudo: Agonandra (C)

Hoja de milagra: Zebrina

Hoja de milagro: Zebrina (CR/ROC)

Hoja de mono: Lecythis (C)

Hoja de murcielago: Pentagonia (P)

Hoja de nombre: Philodendron (CR)

Hoja de pajaro: Paullinia (CR)

Hoja de pantano: Gunnera (C)

Hoja de pasmo: Miconia (CR)

Hoja peluda: Clidemia (P)

Hoja de raiz: Canna (C)

Hoja de raya: Limnanthemum (C)

Hoja quema: Onoseris (CR)

Hoja de sal: Calathea (P); Heliconia (C)

Hoja de salbe: Buddleja (CR)

Hoja santa: Bryophyllum (C)

Hoja de Santa Maria: Onoseris (C)

Hoja de sen: Caesalpinia (CR)

Hojita de tenir: Arrabidaea (C)

Holillo: Raphia (N)

Holy-ghost-flower: Peristeria (E)

Hombre grande: Quassia (CR, CR/ROC)

Hombron: Dracontium (CR); Quassia (CR)

HONEY PLANT: A plant whose flowers are regularly visited by honey-producing bees. Acacia, Andira, Avicennia, Bourreria, Byrsonima, Casearia, Ceiba, Citharexylum, Citrus, Coccoloba, Coffea, Cordia, Cupania, Cydista, Cyrilla, Dendropanax, Eugenia, Euphorbia, Fagopyrum, Genipa, Gliricidia, Guazuma, Haematoxylon, Hibiscus, Hippomane, Hymenaea, Inga, Laguncularia, Lathyrus, Lonchocarpus, Malvaviscus, Melicoccus, Moringa, Nectandra, Picramnia, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rhizophora, Samanea, Sapindus, Spondias, Sterculia, Tamarindus, Tecoma, Vicia, Zanthoxylukm.

Hopbush: Dodonaea (E)

HORDEUM VULGARE L. Barley (E); Cebada (C). Though rarely if ever grown in Panama, this valuable food and forage crop is prescribed by Panamanian doctors as diuretic, dysceptic, and for measles (!).

Hormigo: Triplaris (CR)

Hormiguero: Tococa (C); Triplaris (C)

Horquetilla: Randia (CR)

Horsebrier: Smilax (E)

Horseradish: Armoracia (E)

Horseradish tree: Casuarina (E); Moringa (E)

Hortensis: Aster leaves (C)

Hosmeca: Pseudocalymnia

Huachipilin: Diphysa (CR)

Huacinia: Apeiba (P)

Huacuco: Malpighia (CR)

Huamochil: Pithecellobium (N)

Huar: Nicotiana (Cu)

Huasca: Eschweilera (D)

Huele noche: Cestrum (CA)

Huesillo: Allophylus (CR); Casearia (CR); Cupania (CR); Faramea (P); Talilsia (CR)

Huesito: Ardisia (C); Casearia (C); Cassipourea (P); Coussarea (D); Faramea (P); Guettarda (C); Lantana (C); Malpighia (C); Memora (C); Prockia (C); Psychotria (P); Rapanea (C); Trichilia (P)

Huesito amarillo: Psychotria (C)

Huesito blanco: Casearia (C)

Huesito negro: Guettarda (P); Heisteria (C)

Huesito de tierra fria: Holtonia (C)

Hueso: Coccoloba (P); Erythroxylum (C)

Huevo: Solanum (C)

Huevo de burro: Capparis (C)

Huevo caballo: Stemmadenia (CR)

Heuvo de gallo: Passiflora (P)

Huevo de gato: Pterocarpus (P); Sloanea (C); Solanum (P); Stemmadenia (P); Tabernaemontana (P)

Huevo de guidere: Erythroxylum (C)

Huevo de icotea: Clavija (C)

Huevo de mono: Isertia (P); Posoqueria (P)

Huevo de morrocoyo: Clavija (C)

Huevos de caballo: Stemmadenia (C)

Huevos de gato: Pterocarpus (P)

Huevos de perro: Solanum (CR)

Huevo de piche: Phaseolus (C)

Huevo de tanga: Chrysochlamys (C)

Huevo de tigre: Thevetia (P)

Huevo vegetal: Blighia (P)

Hugro: Lindackeria (CR)

Huichira: Maximilana (C)

Huino: Carapa (C)

Huiscoyol: Bactris (CR)

Huisquilla: Sechium (C)

Huitite: Xylosma (CR)

Hule: Castilla (S)

Hule blanco o macho: Castilla (CR)

HURA CREPITANS L. Sandbox tree (E); Castaneto (C); Acuapar (C); Ceiba amarilla (C); Nuno (D); Tronador (P) (Fig. 168). the irritant latex is used as a barbasco and arrow poison, and is said to cause ailing teeth to fallout. the latex is used to treat skin diseases, rheumatism, and intestinal worms and was formerly used in the United states to prepare tear gas. The poisonous seeds, eaten by macaws, are used as a purgative in Costa Rica. they are used to poison noxious animals. The dry leaves are eaten by cattle during the dry season. A bark extract is used for leprosy. The wood is used locally in light construction, and for dugouts. Burning wood repels insects.

Hyacinth bean: Dolichos (E)

Hyacinth, water: Eichhornia (E)

HYDRAGOGUE: A strong laxative, producing a water discharge from the bowels. Solanum.

HYDROLEA SPINOSA L. Abrojo (S); Hierba de cancer (C); Hierba de potra (C). The leaves, which serve as a potherb, are used to treat gangrene.

HYDROPHOBIA: Rabies. Treated with Achyranthes,


HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS (Haw.) Britt. & Rose (Fig. 169). The fruit is edible.

HYMENAEA COURBARIL L. Courbaril (E); Stinking toe (E); West Indian locust (E); Algarrobo (S); Guapinal (C); Nazareno (C) (Fig. 170). The malodorous pulp around the seeds of this honey tree is edible. Mixed with water to for a beverage, it may be fermented. Copal (or fossilized resin) is recommended for poor appetite, asthma, beriberi, blennorrhagia, bronchitis, cystitis, expectorant, indigestion, laryngitis, and stomachic. The trunks are sometimes used for dugouts. The bark is used as a tea for rheumatic pains in Panama.

HYPARRHENIA RUFA (Ness) Stapf. Faragua (P). This is an important forage grass, especially on the Azuero Peninsula (!).

HYPOCHOERIS RADICATA L. Serraja (C); Serraja Paramo (C)

HYPOCHOERIS SONCHOIDES H.B.K. Chicoria cimarrona (C)

HYPTIS SUAVELOENS (L.) Poir. Hierba de la muela (C); Salvia (E); Purga-purga (P). The aromatic foliage repels mosquitoes. Refreshing beverage is made by soaking the mucilaginous seeds in water.

HYPTIS VERTICILLATA Jacq. John Charles (J); Paleca (P). The tea is a favorite remedy for indigestion, rheumatism, itch, and insect stings.

- I -

Ibakai: Cenchrus (Cu)

Iban: Achras (N)

Ibe: Jessenia (Cu)

Ibilan: Monnina (C)

Ibude: Castilla (Ch)

Icaco: Chrysobalanus (S)

Icaquillo: Eugenia (P)

Ice cream bean: Inga (E)


ICHTHYOTHERE TERMINALES (Spreng.) Blake. Bayra (C); Jarilla blanca (C)

Ico: Guilielma (Cu)

Ictericia: Cassia (P)

Ideui: Mauritia (C)

Igaico: Lepidocaryum (C)

Igarwala: Ceiba (Cu)

Igname: Dioscorea (C)

Igo: Ficus (P)

Igua: Dipteryx (Cu); Pseudosamanea (C)

Iguanero: Avicennia (C); Citharexylum (P); Pelliciera (C); Piptadenia (C)

Iguanero de agua: Dugandia (C)

Iguanillo: Lonchocarpus (P)

Iguano: Dipterodendron (CR); Leucaena (W)

Iguaraya: Lemaireocereus (C)

Ikor: Zanthoxylum (Cu)

Iksi: Swietenia (Cu)

Ila: Iriartea (Cu); Socratea (Cu)

Ilang-ilang: Cananga (S)

Illa: Bactria (Cu)

Ilusion: Briza (C); Tricholaena (CR)

Inaja: Maximiliana (C)

Immortal: Erythrina (P)

Imperial: Axonopus (C)

Inaciabi: Neurolaena (Cu)

Inakale: Isotoma (Cu)

Inanabiske: Cassia (Cu)

Inanusu: Ocimum (Cu); Spigelia (Cu)

Inapisu: Pithecellobium (Cu)

Inaya: Maximiliana (C)

Incienso: Clibadium (C); Clusia (C); Protium (C)

India: Zizyphus (E)

Indian almond: Terminalia (E)

Indian corn: Sorghum (E)

Indian mulberry: Morinda (E)

Indigo: Indigofera (E)

INDIGOFERA SUFFRUTICOSA Mill. Indigo (E); Abgi gastuet (Cu); Abugi (Cu); Anil (C); Jiquelite (S) (Fig. 171). Although export has all but ceased, the plant is still used as an analgesic, antispasmodic, antiepileptic, and ecbolic. Ailigandi Cuna use the leaves as a tea to purify the blood and as a source of a blue stain (!).

Indio: Schizolobium (P)

Indio en cuero: Bursera (P); Terminalia (C)

Indio desnudo: Bursera (S)

Indio viejo: Vernonia patens (C)

INGA EDULIS Mart. Ice cream bean (E); Cajetaho (Ch); Guava (P); Maria (Cu) (Fig. 172). The pulp is commonly eaten.

INGA FAGIFOLIA (L.) Willd. Sweat pea (E); Churimo (C); Guama (P); Guava (P); Ingua (Cu); Mari (Cu); Tuetajo (Ch) (Fig. 173). The pulp around the seeds is eaten; it is sweet and quenches the thirst. Colombians believe the fruits cause colic.

Ingerto: Plumeria (CR)

Ingua (Maria): Inga (Cu)

Injerta: Monnina (C)

Injerto de montana: Lucuma (P)

Inkberry: Randia (J)

Inkwa: Inga (Cu)

INSECTICIDE: A substance that kills insects. Aloe, Anacardium, Annona, Carapa, Cassia, Chenopodium, Cleome, Clibadium, Cymbopogon, Datura, Dialyanthera, Dioclea, Hippocratea, Indigofera, Jatropha, Lonchocarpus, Mammea, Melis, Pachyrhizus, Passiflora, Piper, Quassia, Ricinus, Sapindus, Sarcostemma, Siparuna, Solanum, Strychnos, Tephrosia, Thevetia, Trichilia, Vernonia.

INSECT REPELLENT: A substance that repels insects. Anacardium, Bixa, Carapa, Cedrela, Cephaelis, Citrus, Cleome, Cocos, Cucurbita, Eugenia, Dieffenbachia, Genipa, Hura, Hyptis, Indigofera, Lathyrus, Manihot, Melinus, Neurolaena, Pachyrhizus, Petiveria, Piper, Polygonum, Pothomorphe, Quassia, Scleria, Spigelia, Tridax, Zebrina.

Insiba: Ocotea (P)

Ipacina: Petiveria (N)

Ipecac: Cephaelis (E)

Ipki: Bactris (Cu); Bambusa (Cu); Guadua (Cu)

IPOMOEA AQUATICA Forsk. Chinese spinach (E) (Fig. 174). This species is grown around the Canal Zone as a potherb.

IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) Lam. Sweet potato (E); Batata (S); Boniato (C); Camote (D); Kualu (Cu) (Fig. 175). Cultivated by the Amerindians long before the coming of the Europeans, sweet potatoes are of little importance in the interior of Panama. Sweet potatoes, at the time of conquistadores, were present both in Darien and in Veraguas, where the Guaymi were said to offer them to Cerro Nubu. For man, the sweet potato, raw or more usually cooked, furnishes sugar, starch, and a little fat. Maya Indians usually bake them in ashes and eat them unseasoned. For livestockk, the tops serve as fodder. Some natives eat the leaves.

IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE (L.) Roth. Seaside morning glory (E). The roots and stems cooked have served as dangerous survival foods. The stems cause dizziness in man and cattle who eat them. The leaf extract is useful in treating jellyfish sting and as an antipruiritic. The leaves are usually used, either boiled for external application as an anodyne in colic or rheumatism, or powdered and incorporated in an ointment said to have good local effects on bedsores. They may also be used as an escharotic in the treatment of ulcers.

Ira: Chaetoptelea (CR); Meliosma (CR); Ocotea (CR)

Iraca: Carludovica (C); Mauritiella (C)

Ira Chiricana: Vantanea (CR)

Ira colorado: Aiouea (CR); Laplacea (CR)

Ira copalilla: Ocotea (CR)

Ira mangle: Ocotea (CR)

Ira rosa: Nectandra (CR); Virola (CR)

Ira zopilote: Ocotea (CR)

IRIARTEA sp. Stilt palm (E); Ila (Cu); Jira (S); Palma barrigona (C); Zanora (P). The outer core of the trunk is used to make the floors of most Choco houses (!). Armed prop roots are used to grate coconut. Colombias unstilted belly palm is used to make containers for rubber.

Iris: Brunfelsia (CR)

Ironweed: Vernonia (E)

Irwa: Calathea (Cu)

ISERTIA PITTIERI Standl. Jaboncilla (C). In the Choco, the leaves are used for soap and the waxen perfumed flowers for funeral wreaths.

Isitutu: Bouganvillea (Cu)

Isiuala: Bombacopsis (Cu)

Iskarmas: Ardisia (Cu); Hamelia (Cu)

Ismoyo: Spondias (CR)

ISOTOMA LONGIFLORA (L.) Presl. Ciega ojo (C); Inakale (Cu) (Fig. 176). Although the latex of this plant is supposed to be caustic, the plant is found in nearly every Cuna dooryard garden (!). A Bayano Cuna informant states that the latex is taken internally as a medicine. Elsewhere it is believed to cause blindness.

Isperhuala: Manilkara (Cu)

Istatel: Avicennia (P)

Itabo: Yucca (CR)

Ivory palm: Phytelephas (E)

Iwadurbugit: Desmodium (Cu)

Ixkade: Manihot (Ch)

- J -

Jabillo: Hura (S)

Jaboncillo: Gouania (S); Isertia (C); Monoplegma (CR); Phytolacca (CR); Sapindua (S)

JACARANDA AURANTIACA Ait. Curobubo (C); Palo de buba (P). The bark is sometimes used to treat skin diseases in Panama. The wood may be used in light construction.

Jacinto: Moringa (P)

Jacinto de agua: Eichhornia (C); Pontederia (C)

Jack bean: Canavalia (E)

Jackfruit: Artocarpus (E)

Jacob's coat: Coleus (J)

JACQUINIA sp. Barbasco (S); Barbasco de Pua (C); Hunca-hinca (C) (Fig. 177). Crushed roots or fruits (sometimes with lime added) are used as a fish poison, sometimes as an abortifacient. The flowers are strung on a cord to make long-lasting garlands.

Jago: Genipa (C)

Jaguna: Genipa (P); Scheela (C)

Jagua amarilla: Chimarrhis (P); Genipa (P)

Jagua blanca: Genipa (P)

Jagua colorado: Genipa (P)

Jagua macho: Randia (D)

Jagua de montana: Genipa (P); Sickingia (P)

Jagua negra: Genipa (P)

Jaguey: Ficus (C); Grias (S)

Jalacate: Calea (CR); Salvia (CR)

Jalapa: Allamanda (CR); Cydista (CR)

Jaltomate: Saracha (CR)

Jamaica: Hibiscus (S); Pimenta (CR)

Jamaica sorrel: Hibiscus (E)

Janeiro: Eriochloa (C)

Janga: Heliconia (Ch)

Japonesa: Congea (S)

Jaqueira: Artocarpus (C)

Jaquillo: Jatropha (C)

Jaragua: Melinis (C)

Jaral: Calea (CR); Lantana (CR)

Jarilla: Eupatorium inulaefolium (C); Lantana (CR); Stevia lucida (C)

Jarilla blanca: Ichthyothera terminalis (C)

Jarina (o): Dipterodendron (CR); Enterolobium (CR,P); Pithecellobium (P)

Jarro caliente: Machaerium (CR)

Jasmincillo: Petiveria (C)

Jasmin de arbol: Posoqueria (N)

Jasmin de monte: Tabernaemontana (P)

Jasmine: Jasminum (E)

Jasu: Cissus (CR)

Jatamaco: Bursera (C)

JATROPHA CURCAS L. Physic nut (E); Coquillo (S); Jaquillo (C,P); Kwiwala (Cu); Pinon (C,P) (Fig. 178). The plant is used as a lilving fence post. the leaves are used as a fish poison and to fumigate for bedbugs. The poisonous nuts, mixed with palm oil to kill rats, or used to make soap and candles, are sometimes eaten after roasting. Bayano Cuna use the plant as a purgative (!). Styptic latex is used to cure piles and burns. Root ashes are used as a salt substitute. In Darien, gently boiled leaves are appliled as poultices to external ulcers; they are taken internally for jaundice (!). The latex serves as an antiseptic (!).


JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. Col de Nicaragua (P); Tartago emetico (C) (Fig. 179). This is one of Panama's potherbs noted by Seemann in the 19th century. The roasted tubers are eaten. The fruit, latex, and seeds are poisonous; the latter are purgative, and roasted to treat fevers and venereal diseases.

JATROPHA URENS L. Stinging nettle (E); Guaritoto (C); Ortiga (S); Pringamoza (C); Take (Cu). This is one of Panama's many stinging nettles. Known as 'take' to the Cuna, this species is used to whip minor criminals (!). Infusions of the leaves in Colombia are used as a diuretic and to dissolve kidney and gall stones.

Jaul: Alnus (CR)

Jaulo: Acalypha (C)

JAUNDICE: A yellow tinge to the skin, eyes, etc., caused by an increase in bile pigment. Treated with Allium, Ananas, Bambussa, Bocconia, Boerhaavia, Eleusine, Jatropha, Solanum, Tamarindus.

Javilla (o): Entada (CR,P); Hura (S)

Jayo: Platypodium (C)

Jayo macho: Miconia (C)

Jayo de monte: Erythroxylum (C)

Jazmin: Bouvardia (CR); Catharanthus (P); Isotoma (CR); Ixora (CR); Jasminum (P); Rinorea (C)

Jazmin de arbol: Posoqueria (C)

Jazmin azul: Petrea (C)

Jazmin del Cabo: Gardenia (CR)

Jazmin del embarcadero: Posoqueria (C)

Jazmin de estrella: Isotoma (CR)

Jazmin de mico: Posoqueria (C)

Jazmin del monte: Hillia (CR); Tabernaemontana (D)

Jazmin de oriente: Clerodendrum (C)

Jazmin de la virgen: Bouvardia (CR)

Jazmin de volcan: Hillia (CR)

Jea: Guilielma (Ch)

Jebe: Piscidia (C)

Jelinjoche: Pachira (CR)

Jenene: Caryocar (D,C)

Jengibre: Zingiber (S)

Jingibre arborescente: Croton (C)

Jerusalem corn: Sorghum (E)

JESSENIA POLYCARPA Karst. Ibe (Cu); Milpesos (C); Sokarjo (Ch); Trupa (D). Pericarp yields an oil called 'manteca negra' selling for 10 pesos a fifth (!). The oil is used medicinally as an anodyne (!). The milky residue is a nutritive beverage called 'yucuta'.

Jicama: Pachyrhizus (CR)

Jicara (o): Crescentia (S); Minicaria (C); Phytelephas (C)

Jicarillo: Posoqueria (N)

Jigua: Genipa (C); Nictandra (C)

Jigua negra: Licaria (P)

Jiguilote: Cordia (CR)

Jimsonweed: Datura (E)

Jinicuite: Bursera (N)

Jinocuavo, Jinote, Jiote: Bursera (CR)

Jiote: Bursera (CA)

Jipijapa: Carludovica (P)

Jiquelite: Indigofera (S)

Jiquimilla: Polymnia riparia (C)

Jira: Iriartea (P); Socratea (P)

Joba: Zea (Cu)

Jobillo: Astronium (CR); Mosquitoxylon (P); Trichilia (N)

Jobitillo: Phyllanthus (W)

Jobito: Spondias (CR)

Jobito de puerco: Spondias (S)

Jobo: Licania (S); Spondias (S)

Jobo de lagarto: Sciadodendron (P); Xylosma (P)

Jobo macho de tierra fria: Brunellia (C)

Jobotillo: Phyllanthus (P)

Job's tears: Coix (E)

Joche: Plumeria (CR)

Jocomico: Rheedia (N)

Jocote de jobo: Spondias (N)

Jocote de mico: Simarouba (N)

Jocote montero: Spondias (N)

Jocotillo: Oxalis (CA)

John Charles: Hyptis (J)

John Crow Wood: Cespedesia (E)

Joint bush: Miconia (E)

Jolillo: Raphia (N)

Jorco: Rheedia (CR)

Joromito: Crescentia (C)

Joropo: Carludovica (Ch)

Josefita: Miltonia (C)

Josmeca: Adenocalymna (CR)

Joveroso: Sideroxylon (C)

Juajua: Maranta (Ch)

Juanbernardo: Conostegia (P)

Juanculope: Cornutia (C)

Juandecalle: Trixis (CA)

Juan garrote: Coccoloba (C)

Juanilama (Juanislama): Lippia (CR, CR/ROC)

Juanilama de monte: Lippia (N)

Juanilama mocha: Hyptis (CR)

Juanita: Bignonia (C)

Juan lanas: Clematis (C)

Juanramos: Tournefortia (C)

Juansoco: Couma (C)

Juan de la verdad: Aegiphila (P); Cestrum (P)

Juche: Plumeria (CR)

Juco: Trema (CR)

Judasbolsa: Calceolaria (C)

Judias: Phaseolus (C)

Judromajo: Theobroma (Ch)

Jug tree: Cordia (B)

Julio: Melanthera (P)

Junco: Cyperus (S); Dichromena (S); Eleocharis (S)

JUNIGA ACEROIDES Cuatr. Manito de oso (C)


JUNGIA MOSCHATA Triana. Mano de Leon (C)

Jupiter: Lagerstroemia (S); Malpighia (CR)

Juria: Mauritia (C); Mauritiella (C)

Juriso: Serjania (Cr)

Jurubai: Cochlospermum (C)

Jurubey: Capparis (C)

Justa razos: Zanthoxylum (C)

JUSTICIA CARTAGINENSIS L. Hierba borriguera (P); Negrajoro (P); Hierba de la Trinidad (C). n Salvador, it is used to treat convulsions in children.

JUSTICIA PECTORALIS Jacq.: Carpenter bush (E); Cerebril (CR/ROC); Tilo (CR/ROC)

JUSTICIA TINCTORIA (Oerst.) Hemsl. Azul de mata (CR/ROC); Sacatinta (CR/ROC).

Juste: Corchorus (E)

- K -

Ka: Capsicum (Cu)

Kaba-kra: Helicostylis (CR)

Kabi: Coffea (Cu)

Kafir corn: Sorghum (E)

Kagaseret: Digitaria (Cu)

Kakiska: Calathea (Cu)

Kakua-biui: Talauma (P)

KALLSTROEMIA MAXIMA (L.) Torr. & Gray. Abrojo (C); Caltrop (C); Hierba de pollo (C). The tender young plants are used as a potherb (!). The leaf infusion is used as a diuretic and cataplasm, and is said to hasten suppuration.

Kana: Piper (Cu)

Kanabuchuru: Solanum (Cu)

Kapekwa: Mimosa (Cu)

Kapok: Ceiba (E)

KAPOK: A soft downy substance used for stuffing pillows, etc. Ceiba, Cochlospermum, Gossypium, Ochroma, Pseudobombax, Typha.

Kapur: Capsicum (Cu)

Karburquia: Solanum (Cu)

Karduk: Polypodium (Cu)

Kas-kra: Psidium (CR)

Kawawat: Allium (Cu); Eryngium (Cu)

Kaya: Saccharum (Cu)

Kenaf: Hibiscus (E)

Kenna: Mouriri (P)

Keskes: Heliconia (Cu)

KIGELIA PINNATA (Jacq.) DC. Fetish tree (E); Sausage tree (E). The seeds are eaten roasted during famines. The plant apparently is not cultivated in Darien.

Kikuyo: Pennisetum (C)

Kino: Dialyanthera (C)

Kipkuo: Hibiscus (CR)

Kita: Zygia (CR)

Kogakia: Desmodium (Cu)

Kom-kra: Calocarpum (CR)

Korbugia: Picramnia (Cu)

Koro: Mauria (C)

Korob: Achras (CR)

Krassa: Calophyllum (N)

Krokua: Hibiscus (CR)Krokra: Apeiba (CR); Enterolobium (CR)

Kualu: Ipomoea (Cu)

Kuandu: Clavija (Cu)

Kubeo: Calea yuruparina (C)

Kudsir: Enterolobium (CR); Guazuma (CR)

Kueri-kanga: Erythrina (CR)

Kuer-kra: Zygia (CR)

Kugu: Clitoria (Cu)

Kuibirual: Dalbergia (Cu)

Kuilup: Inga (Cu)

Ku-kra: Zanthoxylum (CR)

Kunu: Castilla (Cu)

Kuppu: Sterculia (Cu)

Ku-rok: Calocarpum (CR)

Kuru: Enterolobium (CR)

Kusep: Passiflora (Cu)

Kuskin sabalet: Carludovica (Cu)

Kwakwarkia: Cleome (Cu)

Kwala: Sida (Cu)

Kwala tumat: Malachra (Cu)

Kwanmati: Amaranthus (Cu)

Kwarkwat: Carica (Cu)

Kwiba: Cavanillesia (Cu)

Kwidamachi: Vitex (Cu)

Kwinkwimas: Clibadium (Cu)

Kwinur: Dialyanthera (Cu)

Kwiwala: Jatropha (Cu)

- L -

Lacayoxo: Cocos (C)

Laceplant: Pilea (E)

LACMELLEA EDULIS Karst. Lechemiel (C). The latex and fruits are sweet.

LACMELLEA FLORIBUNDA B.&H. Tachuelo (C). The fruits are edible, and suitable for making canned juices, preserves, and jellies.

Lacre: Vismia (C); Elaegia (C)

LACTOGOGUE: A substance which stimulates the flow of milk. Sesamum.

LACTUCA SATIVA L. Lettuce (E); Lechuga (S) (Fig. 180). Lettuce fares poorly in lowland Panama, but one occsionally sees lerf lettuce, especially on the fincas of Colonistas or in a Choco azotea (an old dugout, elevated, partly filled with dirt, and used for raieing sensitive vegetables, herbs, spices, and medicinals) (!). The inspissated juice of lettuce, known as lactucarmin, acts as a sedative and has been recommended as a substitute for opium.

Ladies-tresses: Spiranthes (E)

LAFOENSIA PUNCIFOLIA DC. Amarillo (P); Moreno (P); Palomo (CR); Pino amarillo (P) (Fig. 181). The wood is favored for dugouts and cabinet work (!).

Lagartillo: Alibertia (P); Heliotropium (CR); Zanthoxylum (CR)

Lagarto: Abelmoschus (C); Zanthoxylum (CR)

Lagarto amarillo: Zanthoxylum (CR)

Lagarto negro: Lacmellia (CR); Zanthoxylum (CR)

LAGENARIA LEUCANTHA (Lam.) Rusby. Brujito (P); Calabash gourd (E); Calabazo (C); Cuyabra (C); Pilgrim bottle (E); Tula de mate (P) (Fig. 182). The young fruits are cooked as a vegetable but ripe fruits are poisonous. Young shoots and leaves are used as potherbs. The seeds are taken internally for headache. The gourds are used for drinking utensils.

Lagrimas de Maria: Chiococca (P); Zephyranthes (CR)

Lagrimas de San Pedro: Coix (C); Tournefortia (C)

Laguna: Vochysia (C)

LAGUNCULARIA RACEMOSA (L.) Ga rt.f. Buttonwood (E); White mangrove (E); Mangle blanco (P); Mangle marquita (CR); Palo de SAl (CR) (Fig. 183). Wood of this honey plant is used for charcoal, posts, and tanning. The tree is considered antidysenteric.

Laidre: Stemmadenia (C)

Lame: Ceroxylon (C)

Lampa: Hernandia (P)

Lampana: Lantana (C)

Lana: Blandowia (CR); Bombacopsis (C); Ochroma (CR,P); Pseudobombax (C)

Lana de raton, Lanilla, Lanita de raton: Aristida (P)

Lance: Maconia (C); Vismia (C)

Lancewood: Calycophyllum (E)

Lano: Ceiba (C)

Lantama: Lantana (C)

Lantana: Lantana (C)

LANTANA CAMARA L. Common lantana (E); Hierba de zorro (P); Pasarin (P); San Rafelito (P); Wild mint (J); Wild sage (J); Venturosa (C). The fruits, like those of Solanum nigrum, are reported both poisonous and edible. The leaves make a stimulant, diaphoretic, emmenagogic, and febrifugal tea; they are used for colds and stomach disorders. The plant is also used for anemia, leprosy, and rheumatism.

Lanzo: Miconia (C)

Lata: Arundo (C); Bactris (C); Gynerium (C); Pyrenoglyphis (P)

lATHYRUS ODORATUS L. Chureca (CR); Doncenon (D). The flowers, providing well forbees, even to the point of intoxication, are said to repel house flies.

Latigo: Machaerium (C); Trema (C)

Lato: Citronella (C); Hedyosmum (C)

Laurel: Cordia (S); Ehretia (CR); Myrica (C); Styrax (CR)

Laurel blanco: Cordia (S)

Laurel de cera: Myrica (C)

Laurel comino: Aniba (C)

Laurel de la Habana: Nerium (C)

Laurel macho: Cordia (N)

Laurel rosado: Nerium (C)

Laureno: Cassia (P)

Lava perro: Thevetia (P)

Lava platos: Solanum (P)

LAXATIVE: A substance which helpe evacuate the bowels. Cassia, Colocasis, Crescentia, Desmodium, Gossypium, Mangifera, Raphanus, Sesamum, Sesbania, Turnera.

Leadtree: Leucaena (E)

LEANDRA SUBSERIATA (Tr.) Cogn. Mora (C). Stems are used in the Choco for home-made pipes called churembelas.

Lech (leche): Sepium (CR)

Lechemiel: Lacmelliea (C)

Leche perra: Helicostylia (C); Pseudolmedia (C)

Leche de perro: Asclepias (CR)

Lechero: Brosimum (CR); Calotropis (C); Euphorbia (C); Ficus (C)

Lechetrezna: Euphorbia (C)

Leche de vaca: Brosimum (C)

Lechilla: Euphorbia (CR)

Lecho: Allamanda (C)

Lecho macho: Heteropteris (C)

Lechosa: Trophis (P); Calotropis (C); Carica (C)

Lechoso: Tabernaemontana (N)

Lechudo: Clarisia (C)

Lechuga: Lactuca (S); Stemmadenia (P); Tabernaemontana (P)

Lechuga cimarrona: Pistia (C)

Lechuga maritima: Batis (N)

Lechuguilla: Chaptalia nutans (C); Conyza (CR); Elephantopus (CR); Pistia (S); Sonchus (CR)

LECYTHIS MINOR Jacq. Coco mono (C); Olla de mono (C). The oil rich seeds are eaten raw, toasted, or in confections. Some species are used in asthma remedies.

Leek: Allium (E)

LEISHMANIASIS: A tropical disease transmitted by flies. Treated with Pothomorphe.

LEMAIREOCEREUS GRISEUS (Haw.) Br. Cardon Candelabro (C). Both the heart and the fruit of this living-fence cactus may be eaten.

Lemon: Citrus (E)

Lemon grass: Cymbopogon (E);

Lemon verbena: Lippia (E)

Lempa: Hernandia (P)

Lena gata: Conostegia (CR)

Lengua de buey: Capparis (C); Cordia (P); Verbesina (P); Vernonia (P)

Lengua de diablo: Anthurium (CR)

Lengua de gato: Baccharis (C); Conostegia (CR)

Lengua de tigre: Datura (C); Trichomanes (C)

Lengua de vaca: Conostegia (CR); Elephantopus (P); Heliconia (P); Leandra (CR); Miconia (Ch); Rumex (C); Vernonia (P)

Lengua de venado: Bunchosia (C); Byrsonima (C); Capparis (C); Elaphoglossum (C); Polypodium (C)

LENS ESCULENTA Moench. Lentil (E); Lentejas (C). Lentils may be eaten parched or cooked in soups. Young pods are often cooked like string beans. The seed paste is applied to ulcers.

Lenteja: Lens (S)

Lentil: Lens (E)

Lentisco: Litsaea (CR)

LEPIDIUM SATIVUM L. Garden cress (E); Creson (S). Rare or absent in lowland Panama, leaves and unripe pods are eaten in salads or as a potherb. They are regarded as alterative, aphrodisiac, diuretic, tonic, and a liver cure. The seeds yield as edible oil.

LEPROSY: A chronic disease affecting the skin and nerves. Treated with Agave, Anacardium, Caesalpinia, Calotropis, Casearia, Cassia, Ceiba, Drepanocarpus, Fevillea, Hura, Hydrocotyle, Lantana, Luffa, Momordica, Pentaclethra, Plumbago, Rhizophora, Ricinus, Serjania, Smilax, Solanum.

Lerdo: Carica (CR)

Lettuce: Lactuca (E)

Lettuce, Water: Pistia (E)

LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (Lam.) DeWit. Leadtree (E); Acacia (S); Panelo (C) (Fig. 184). Young fruits, leaves and flower buds are used as a potherb, but might be dangerous. Seeds, reputedly poisonous, are roasted and used as a coffee substitute and are often used in necklaces (!).

Levanta perro: Pristimera (C)

LIABUM BONPLANDII Cass. Yerba de Santa Maria (C)

LIABUM CALIENSE Hieron. Santamaria de abejas (C)

LIABUM IGNIARIUM (H.B.K.) Less. Santa Maria (C)

LIABUM MEGACEPHALUM Sch. Bip. Bejuco amarillo (C)

LIABUM NIGROPILOSUM Hieron. Santamaria (C)


Liberal: Salvia (C)

LICANIA ARBOREA Seem. Alcornoque (CR); Raspa (P); Roble blanco (CR). The fruit is probably edible. The oil rich seeds are strung on sticks as candlenuts.

LICANIA PLATYPUS (Hemsl.) Fritsch. Monkey apple (E); Chupa (C); Sangre (P). The fruit is edible.

Licorice, wild: Abrus (E)

Liendre de puerco: Eriochloe (C)

Lifeplant: Bryophyllum (E)

Liga: Sapium (C)

Lignumvitae: Guaiacum (E)

Lijo: Matayba (C)

Lila: Aster (CR); Ixora (P); Melia (S)

Lily: Lilium (E)

Lima bean: Phaseolus (E)

Lime: Citrus (E)

Lime, Spanish: Meliococcus (E)

LIMNOCHARIS FLAVA (L.) Buch. Yellow velvetleaf (E); Hoja de Buitre (S) (Fig. 185). Young leaves and flower clusters are eaten as a potherb. this plant is a rice field weed in Colombia.

Limon: Citrus (S)

Limonacho: Achatocarpus (C)

Limoncillo: Achatocarpus (C); Bumelia (CR,P); Cassipourea (P); Cymbopogon (C); Gyrocarpus (C); Mollinedia (CR); Randia (CR); Sapindus (P); Schaefferia (C); Siparuna (S); Ximenia (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

Limoncillo mojan: Achatocarpus (C)

Limon real: Citrus (S)

Limon cimarron: Siparuna (C)

Limpiadente: Capparis (C); Diospyros (C)

Linden hibiscus: Hibiscus (E)

LINDERNIA DIFFUSA (L.) Wettst. Hierba de pollo (Ch). Cooked leaves are used in the choco to induce vomiting.

LIPPIA ALBA (Mill.) N.E.Brown. Achureiala (Cu); Lemon verbena (E); Jaunilama (CR, CR/ROC); Mastranto (P); Orozul (P). In Panama, the leaves make a tea used for stomach disorders. In Darien, the tea is used for coughs and colds. Bayano Cuna cultivate the plant as a medicinal.

LIPPIA GRAVEOLENS H.B.K.: Oregano cimarron (CR/ROC); Wild marjoram (E)

Lirio: Couma (C); Lindenia (CR); Spathiphyllum (P)

Liriio amarillo: Crocoima (C)

Lirio de mayo: Cattleya (C)

Lirio de agua: Eichhornia (CR)

Lirio de monte: Sisyrinchium (C)

Lirio de pantano: Eichhornia (C)

Lisa: Bixa (Cu)

LITHONTRIPTIC: A substance for the remobal of stones, e.g., gallstones. Bambusa, Cassia, Cissampelos, Cupania, Echinodorus, Eclipta, Jatropha, Melia, Momordica, Moringa, Polypodium, Raphanus, Solanum, Urera.

Live-forever: Bryophyllum (E)

Llagas de San Sebastian: Monstera (C)

Llanten: (unidentified mint used by Darientitas as a cancer cure and as a diuiretic.)

Llanten: Plantago (C, CR/ROC); Plumbago (C)

Llanto: Guapira (P)

Llanton: Plantago (CR)

Llayo: Licania (CR); Rehdera (CR)

Lloron: Laplacea (CR); Solanum (C)

Lloron colorado: Hieronyma (CR)

Lluvia de coral: Russelia (N)

Lluvia de fuego: Russelia (C)

Lluvia de oro: Pyrostegia (C)

Lluvia de perlas: Rhipsalis (C)

Lobo: Trichillia (C)

Locktotl: Malpighia (N)

Logwood: Haematoxylon (E)

Lombricera: Spigelia (C)

Lomo de caiman: Chimarrhis (C); Platypodium (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

LONCHOCARPUS LATIFOLIUS (Willd.) H.B.K. Dogwood (E,J); Coto (CR) (Fig. 186). Roots and fruits of this ornamental honey plant are said to be insecticidal. The durable timber is used in construction.

Lora (o): Dipterodendron (CR); Duranta (P)

Lorencillo: Euphorbia (C)

Lorito: Pithecellobium (CR); Podocarpus (CR); Trichomanes (C); Weinmannia (CR)

Lovegrass: Eragrostis (E)

Lucaica: Carludovica (C)

Lucateva: Carludovica (C)

Lucky-nut: Thevetia (E)

Lucua: Carludovica (C)

Lucuma: Pouteria (CR)

LUCUMA SALICIFOLIA H.B.K. Zapotillo (CR). The fruit is edible; it is reportedly sopo0rific. The kernels are regarded as antiperiodic and soporific. Lucutema: Cassia (C)

LUFFA ACUTANGULA (L.) Roxb. and L. CYLINDRICA (L.) Roem. Sponge gourd (E); Calabazo (S); Pazte (P); Coladera (C); Estropajole (C); Melocoton (C); Mochilita (C) (Fig. 187). the young fruits are consumed as a vegetable. Ripe seeds are emetic and purgative. The leaves are used to treat leprosy, piles and splenitis. The ripe fruits have a coarse sponge inside, which is much used for cleaning dishes in Darien.

Luisa: Lippia (C)

Lulo: Solanum (C,P)

Lulo de perro: Solanum (C)

Lulumoco: Saurauia (C)

Lumbre: Caesalpinia (C); Tabebuia (C)

LYCOSERIS CROCATA (Bertol.) Blake. Amapola (C); Mapola (C); Mapola de monte (C)


LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill. Tomato (E); Toamte (S) (Fig. 188). Tomatoes, eaten raw or stewed, do not fare well in the Canal Zone except with the Chinese gardeners. In Darien, the cherry varieties are occasionally grown successfully. La Nueva Negroes use the buds for yellow fever.

- M -

Macana: Aiphanes (C); Guilielma (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C)

Macana real: Guilielma (C)

Macano: Chlorophora (P); Diphysa (P)

Macano amarillo: Diphysa (P)

Macarata: Lonchocarpus (C)

Mace: Myristica (E)

Machari (e): Rheedia (C,P); Symphonia (C)

Machete: Erythrina (E,J)

Machete vaina: Bauhinia (C); Erythrina (P)

Macho: Tetrathylacium (P)

Machunat: Musa (Cu)

Macias: Myristica (S)

Maciega: Paspalum (C)

Macondo: Cavanillesia (C)

Macreleaf: Conostegia (B)

Macuelizo, Macuil, maquilis, macuilez, macuiligua, maculis, maculiz, prieto: Tabebuia

Macuiro: Aspidosperma (C)

Madeira vine: Andredera (C)

Madera de aega: Urera (P)

Madera negra (o): Gliricida (CR,P)

Madre de cacao: Gliricidia (S)

Madreselua: Lonicera (CR)

Madriado, madrial: Gliricidia (N)

Madronita: Dendrostylis (C)

Madrono: Alibertia (CR,P); Amaioua (P); Calycophyllum (S); Escallonia (CR); Pogonopus (D); Rheedia (P)

Madrono de comer: Alibertia (CR,P)

Madupuru: Artocarpus (Cu)

Madura platano: Phyllanthus (C); Sciadodendron (C)

Maduraverde: Chrysophyllum (C)

Mafafa: Colocasia (C)

Magepa: Bignoniacea (Cu); Cuna dye plant (cf. Arrabidaea chica)

Magnolia: Magnolia (CR); Taulauma (P); Vochysia (CR)

Mago: Hernandia (S)

Mahajo: Casearia (C)

Mahoe: Hibiscus (P)

Mahogany: Swietenia (E)

Mahogany, bastard: Carapa (E)

Maicilla: Anthurium (CR); Sorghum (CR); Tripsacum (S)

Maidenhair fern: Adiantum (P)

Maiz de agua: Victoria (C)

Maiz negrito: Tournefortia (CR)

Maiz pepo: Euterpe (S); Syagrus (C)

Maiz de perro: Pernettia (C); Phytolacca (C)

Maiz tostado: Cochlearia (C); Randia (C)

Majagua: Apeiba (CR); Hibiscus (S); Mutingia (C); Pseudobombax (C); Xylopia (CR)

Majagua colorado: Trema (C)

Majagua gallina: Andira (C); Chlorophora (E); Lonchocarpus (C)

Majagua de Indio: Eschweilera (P)

Majagua melada: Heliocarpus (C)

Majagua de playa: Hibiscus (CR)

Majaguilla: Cassia (C); Daphne (C); Helicteres (P); Heliocarpus (P); Muntingia (P); Trema (D)

Majaguita: Pavonia (CR); Trema (C)

Majaguito: Muntingia (C)

Majaguito de playa: Hibiscus (C)

Majaguo: Pachira (C)

Majaio: Casearia (C)

Majajo: Casearia (C)

Majanjo: Muntingia (C)

Majao: Heliocarpus (C)

Majomo: Lonchocarpus (C)

Makeka: Bixa (Cu)

Malabar-plum: Eugenia (E)

MALACHRA spp. Borraja (P); Kwala tumat (Cu); Malva (P). This highly regarded medicinal plant is made into a tea for stomachache among the Bayano Cuna and for fever among the Tupisa Choco. One enterprising Negro witch doctor among the Maje Choco follows an injection of antibiotic with leaves of malva and epsom salts for venereal disease. If his injections faile to cure bronchitis, he resorts again to the malva leaves mixed with those of cepa de caballo, siempreviva, balsa, and guarumo blanco, accompanied by a message of vaporrub, alcohol, and children's urine. Western Panamanians in Darien use a Malva tea and aspirin to treat colds. Malva leaves are often used in baths for pregnant women. La Nueva Negroes use the leaf infusion for bilious afflictions.

Malachuite: Chomelia (CR)

Malagano: Apeiba (C); Leuhea (C)

Mala gente: Oreopanax (CR)

Malagueta (o): Guatteria (P); Xylopia (CR)

Malagueta hembra: Xylopia (P)

Malagueto macho: Xylopia (P)

Malagueto montana: Virola (P)

Malagueto prieto: Guatteria (W)

Malama: Leopoldina (C)

Malambito: Vochysia (C)

Malambo: Chamaedorea (C); Croton (C); Geonoma (C)

Mala mujer: Fittonia (C)

Malanga: Xanthosoma (S)

Malangay: Colocasia (C)

MALARIA: An acute infectious fever-producing disease. Treated with Acacia, Anacardium, Caesalpinia, Capsicum, Coffea, Elephantopus, Momordica, Morinda, Musa, Neurolaena, Parkinsonia, Scoparia, Schultesia, Simba, Simarouba, Smilax, Sterculia, Tithonia, Trichilia, Urera.

Mala sombra: Guapira (P); Waltheria (P)

Malay apple: Eugenia (E)

Malcasada: Asclepias (P,C)

Malibu: Astrocaryum (C); Posoqueria (C)

Malibu muyo pavo: Palicourea (C)

Malinche: Caesalpinia (C)

Mallow, country: Abutilon (E)

MALPIGHIA PUNICIFOLIA L. Cereo (P); Grosella (P). The acid fruits are used in jellies and jams.

Malva: Malchra (P); Turnera (C)

Malva aspera: Malachra (C)

Malva blanca: Malvastrum (C); Waltheria (P)

Malva macho: Malachra (P)

Malva morado: Malva (C)

Malva de olor: Pelargonium (CR)

Malavavisco: Lavatera (C)

MALVAVISCUS ARBOREUS Cav. Pape (P); Quesito (C) (Fig. 189). The fruit is sweet and edible. It is an important honey plant.

MALVAVISCUS POPULLIFOLIUS Presl. Manzanilla (S); Papito de monte (P). The insipid fruit is sometimes eaten, and the leaves are said to alleviate acute stomachache.

Malvecino: Lonchocarpus (P)

Mama: Manihot (Cu)

Mamacillo: Quercus (P)

Mama Juanita: Muehlenbeckia (C)

Mamar: Coussapoa (Cu)

Mamarron: Scheelia (C)

Mamecillo: Lucuma (P)

Mamey: Calocarpum (P); Mammea (S); Pouteria (P)

Mamey de Cartegena: Mammea (P)

Mameycillo: Calocarpum (C); Pouteria (P); Quercus (P); Sloanea (P)

Mameycillo blanco: Guarea (P)

Mameycillo colorado: Sloanea (P)

Mameyito: Lucuma (P)

Mamey de tierra: Calocarpum (P)

Mamey oloroso: Prunus (P)

Mamito: Dialyanthera (C)

MAMMEA AMERICANA L. Mamey (E,S); Mamey de Cartagena (P); Mameyo (Ch); Mammi (Cu) (Fig. 190). Ripe fruits are eaten raw or jellied; green fruits are jellied. The seeds, reputedly poisonous, are toxic to insects, fish, and chickens. The latex is used to extract chiggers, and to kill ticks, parasites, and insects.

Mammey apple: Mammea (E)

Mammi: Mammea (Cu)

Mamo: Dialyanthera (C)

Mamon: Lucuma (CR); Melicoccus (P)

Mamoncillo: Melicoccus (C)

Mamon cotopris: Talisia (C)

Mamon de leche: Sideroxylon (C)

Mamon de mico: Talisia (C)

Mamon de monte: Talisia (C)

Mamon de tigre: Sideroxylon (C)

Manaca: Euterpe (P); Oenocarpus (C); Scheelia (CR)

Managus, Maragua: Poulsenia (P)

Manangolo: Randia (C)

Manata: Brosimum (C)

Manca-caballo: Prosopis (C,P)

Mancha: Virola (D)

Manchador: Vismia (C)

Mancha-mancha: Miconia (P); Vismia (C)

Manchador: Guarea (C)

Manchineel: Hippomane (E,P)

Mandarina: Citrus (CR)

Mandiba: Dioclea (C)

Mandiya: Siparuna (C)

Mandu: Lagenaria (Cu)

Mandus: Vismia (C)

Mangabe: Didymopanax (P); Pourouma (P); Sciadodendron (P)

Mangalango: Xylopia (N)

Mangalito: Trichilia (C)

Mangana: Lafoensia (P)

MANGE: A contagious skin disease of hairy animals. Treated with Cassia, Prioria.

Mangel: Escallonia (C)

MANGIFERA INDICA L. Mango (E,Cu,S) (Fig. 191). Widely cultivated in Panama, the renowned mango tends to seed itself easily, although fruits from spontaneous seedlings may have the flavor of turpentine. The mango, besides being eaten as a ripe fruit, is sued as follows in India. When green, the stone is extracted, the fruit halved or sliced, and (1) put in curries, (2) made into brine pickles, said to taste like olives, (3) made into preserves by boiling and cooking in sugar, (4) boiled and strained with milk and sugar made into a custard known as mango-fool, (5) sundried and subsequently used to add acidity to certain curries, (6) when very young cut into small pieces, mixed with salt, sliced peppers and milk to form a tasty salad. When ripe, (1) it is made into curries and salads like (6) above, (2) the juice is squeezed out, spread thinly on plates and allowed to dry into a cake, (3) the seeds, removed from the woody husk, may be boiled with potherbs eaten roasted, or ground to form a flour, which tends to induce constipation. Cubans substitute mangoes for squash, eat fried mangoes, mango fritters, mango omelets, and if there is rice, then rice with mangoes. Young flowers and newly unfolded leaves are said to be edible but could be dangerous to sensitive people. The sap may cause a rash like poison oak. Nonetheless, gum from the trunks is eaten in India, and is used for mending pottery. The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis (with honey), and catarrh. The resin is used for cracked feet, ringworm, and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups. Dried flowers are used to treat gleet. Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke and they may be just rubbed on the body. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent, and the gum is used to treak scabies; the seeds are anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, antimenorrhagic, antidysesnteric, and unguent. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles. The wood is favored for making shovels for working in the Salinas around Aguadulce.

Mangle: Avicenna (P); Rhizophora (P); Symmeria (C)

Mangle de agua: Bravaisia (CR,P)

Mangle amarillo: Picramnia (C)

Mangle blanco: Bravaisia (CR,P); Laguncularia (P); Trichilia (C)

Mangle bobo: Languncularia (C)

Mangle caballero: Rhizophora (S)

Mangle de colorado: Rhizophora (S); Tovomitopsis (P)

Mangle de Buenaventura: Pelliceria (C)

Mangle dulce: Trichilia (C)

Mangle garbancillo: Conocarpus (C)

Mangle gateador: Rhizophora (CR)

Mangle humo: Muellera (C)

Mangle marequita: Conocarpus (CR); Languncularia (CR)

Mangle de montana: Clusia (C)

Mangle montanero: Tovomitopsis (P)

Mangle de monte: Laplacea (P)

Mangle negro: Avicennia (P); Conocarpus (C,CR)

Mangle pinuela: Conocarpus (P); Pelliceria (CR,P)

Mangle rojo: Rhizophora (C,P)

Mangle de sabana: Rapanea (P)

Mangle salado: Avicennia (CR,P); Rhizophora (P)

Mangle salsa: Avicennia (CR)

Mangle de la sierra: Capparis (C)

Mangle sito: Trichilia (C)

Mangle torcido: Conocarpus (P)

Manglillo: Ardisia (C); Chaunochiton (CR); Chrysochalmys (C); Citharexylum (P); Heisteria (CR); Rapanea (P); Ternstroemia (P)

Mango: Mangifera (E,S)

Mango de mono: Vitex (P)

Mangosteen: Garcinia (E)

Mangotin: Unidentified Anacardiaceae (P)

Mangrove, black: Avicennia (E)

Mangrove, button: Conocarpus (E)

Mangrove fern: Acrostichum (E)

Mangrove, pineapple: Pelliceria (E)

Mangrove vine: Rhabdadenia (E)

Mangrove, white: Laguncularia (E)

Mangue: Attalea (C)

Manguena: Solanum (CR)

Mangujito: Muntingia (C)

Mani: Arachis (S); Caryocar (C)

MANICARIA SACCIFERA Gaertn.: Monkey-cap palm (E); Cabeza de Negro (P); Guagara (C); Palma de Jicara (C). The spathes are used as hats and the leaves are used for thatch (!). The fruits are eaten by pigs and other frugivorous mammals. The juice is used for curing colds and asthma.

Mani-cuni: Mauritia (C)

MANIHOT ESCULENTUS Crantz: Cassava (S); Mama (Cu); Yuca (S). Cassava, supposedly native in Brazil, is widely cultivated in the tropics for its edible roots. Since some varieties contain hydrocyanic acid, they must be processed before utilization. They may be boiled and eaten like potatoes, or grated to yield the crude tapioca or cassava starch which can be dried and pounded to make cassava cakes, which may be baked or fried like corn cakes. Such cakes, especially burned or charred ones are used as the for a beer in the West Indies, the cakes are partially chewed mixed with boiled dreg water to ferment. Raw Cassava starch is also fermented as an intoxicant. The poisonous or bitter cassava is rendered harmless after prolonged boiling and forms the basis of the West Indian pepper pot. Cassava is mixed with coconuts to form a staple in Africa, and it is frequently converted into cassava chips by sun drying. The chips keep well but must be boiled to be safe. The leaves, containing 7% protein (fresh wt.) serve as a potherb in Africa. Yurumanguy Indians eat the leaves. Cassava does not keep well and is best taken from the garden to the pot. Broken cassava stems or crushed leaves are supposed to repel driver ants. Latex from the stem has been used like eye-drops for conjunctivitis. Stewed and pulped leaved are applied to tumors. A spoonful of yuca flour in half a glass of water is Costa Rica's prescription for the "turistas". The poison of the bitter cassava is so potent that it was used by the Amerindians to kill their Spanish presecuters; 36 drops killed one criminal in 6 convulsive minutes.

MANILKARA BIDENTATA (A.DC.) Chev.: Balata (E,S) (Fig. 192). An excellent timber tree furnishing edible fruits. The latex was formerly gathered in Panama.

MANILKARA ZAPOTA (L.). v. Royen: Sapodilla (E) Isperhuala (Cu); Nipero (S) (Fig. 193). The fruits are edible. The lates is the source of chewing gum. the tree furnishes good wood.

Manita: Celosia (C)

Manito de oso: Jungia aceroides (C)

Mano: Jungia spp.

Manoco: Oenocarpus (C)

Mano de leon: Sloanea (CR)

Mano de mono: Pachira (P)

Mano de tigre: Maranta (C); Melochia (CR); Neurolaena (C); Oreopanax (C)

Manrubia: Ageratum (C)

Manteco: Brysonima (C); Croton (C); Cupania (CR); Gustavia (C); Laetia (C)

Mantiene-moza: Guilielma

Manto de cristo: Datura (C)

Manto de novia: Solanum (C)

Manto de viuda: Datura (CR)

Manu: Caryocar (CR); Guarea (CR); Minquartia (CR)

Manubo: Llagunoa (C)

Manu negro: Minquartia (CR)

Manwood: Calocarpum (B); Minquartia (B); Vitex (B)

Manzana: Eugenia (CR,S)

Manzana amarilla: Posoqueria (C)

Manzana estrella: Phyllanthus (S)

Manzana de faiti: Eugenia (P)

Manzana de playa: Crateva (N)

Manzana rosa: Eugenia (S)

Manzanilla (o): Anthemis (C); Aster (CR); Chrysanthemum (C); Euphorbia (C); Hippomane (S); Matricaria (CR); Rhus (C); Tagetes (CR); Toxicodendron (C)

Manzanillo de playa: Hippomane (S)

Manzanillo platero: Euphorbia (C)

Manzanillo de sabana: Ternstroemia (P)

Manzanita de rosa: Erythroxylum (C); Eugenia (C)

Manzanito de rosa prieta: Eugenia (C)

Manzano morado: Lucuma (C)

Manzano negro: Coussarea (C)

Mapola: Lycoseris (C); Malvaviscus (CR,P)

Mapola de monte: Hybanthus (C)

Mapurito: Petiveria (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

Maquenque: Coccoloba (P); Euterpe (C); Oenocarpus (CR,P); Socratea (CR)

Maquenco: Catoblastus (C)

Maqueno: Musa (C)

Mara: Eleocharis (C)

Maraco: Couroupita (C)

Maragua: Poulsenia (D)

maraja: Bactris (C)

Marango: Moringa (P,CR)

Maranon: Anacardium (E,S)

Maranon de Curasao: Eugenia (E,P)

MARANTA ARUNDINACEA L. Arrowroot (E); Juajua (Ch); Sagu (C,P). The root, washed, pounded, and bleached, yields an edible starch called arrowroot, believed antidotal for poisoned arrows.

Mararale: Aiphanes (C)

Mararaya: Aiphanes (C)

Marare: Aiphanes (C)

Mararo: Protium (C)

MARATHRUM sp. Pasacarne (S). Some species serve as salads and potherbs, and furnish forage for cattle. The Veraguas name pasacarne means that once cooked it is better than meat.

Maravilla: Helianthus (C); Ferraria (C); Momordica (C); Mirabilis (S); Ruellia (C); Tigridia (C)

Maravilla de Caqueta: Coryanthes (C)

Maraya: Geonoma (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C)

Marbela: Clerodendrum (C)

Maravillosa: Calendula (C)

Marciega: Paspalum (C)

Marcuaja: Passiflora (C)

Mare: Brosimum (C)

Marequito: Conocarpus (CR)

Maretiro: Capparis (C)

Marfil: Amyris (C); Homalium (C); Vantanea (C)

Marfil vegetal: Astronium (C); Phytelephas (C,P)

Margarita: Ardisia (P); Aster (C); Chrysanthemum (C,CR); Zinnia (P)

Margarita amarilla: Coreopsis (CR); Hypochaeris (CR)

Margarita de los campos: Turnera (N)

Margarita grande: Chrysanthemum (CR)

Margariton: Chrysanthemum (C)

Maria: Calophyllum (P); Miconia (CR)

Mariangola: Coutarea (C); Randia (C)

Maria colorado: Calophyllum (CR); Miconia (CR)

Marialopez: Turnera (CA)

Marianunut: Cassia (Cu)

Marigold: Tagetes (E)

Marihuana: Cannabis (E,S)

Marijuana: Cannabis (E,S)

Marillo: Symphonia (CR)

Marimbita amarilla: Solanum (N)

Marimbo: Macrolobium (C)

Marion: Bucida (P)

MARIPA PANAMENSIS Hemsl.: Miel Quemada (C). the seeds are imbedded in an edible pulp.

Mariposa: Onicidium (C)

Mariquita: Conostegia (CR); Prunus (CR)

Mariquito: Conocarpus (CR)

Mariquito de marea: Posoqueria (P)

MARISCUS JAMAICENSIS (Crantz) Britton: Sawgrass (E); Serrucho (S). The leaf bases are edible raw.

Mariti: Mauritia

Marjoram: Origanum (E)

Marking nut: Semearpus (E)

Marnoga: Cookina (Cu)

Mararale: Aiphanes (C)

Marrano: Pteridium (C)

Marubio blanco: Ageratum (C)

Marrucha: Baccharis (C)

MATISIA CORDATA Humb. & Bonpl.: Chupa-chupa (C); Zapote (C,D) (Fig. 194). The pulp of the fruit is edible, but often laden with insect larvae.

Mato: Aristolochia (C); Caesalpinia (P)

MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L. Manzanilla (C) (Fig. 195). Used for a sedative tea.

Matrimonio: Zinnia (CR)

Mauro: CAsearia (P)

Maya: Bromelia (C)

Mayadena: Mamoncillo: Petrea (C)

Mayo: Palicourea (C); Vochysia (CR)

Mayo blanco: Vochysia (CR)

Mazababo: Carapa (C)

Mazamora: Brownea (C)

Me: Capsicum (Ch); Crescentia (CR)

Mechoacan: Ipomoea (CR)

Mecri: Vochysia (P)

Mediagola: Coutarea (C)

Medialuna: Capparis (C)

Megua: Connarus (C)

Mejorana: Origanum (C)

Mekuru: Crescentia (CR)

Melado: Melinis (C)

Melao: Passiflora (C)

MELIA AZEDERACH L.: Chinaberry (E); Jacinto (P); Paraiso (C) (Fig. 196). The poisonous fruits, used to stupefy fish, are eaten by birds. Fermented fruits are poisonous to pigs. The trees are used as living fence posts in western Panama. The plant is considered purgative and vermifuge.

MELICOCCUS BIJUGATUS Jacq.: Spanish lime (E); Mamon (P); Mamoncillo (C); Quenepa (C) (Fig. 197). The pulp around the sedds is delicious (!). The seed is edible roasted, and used as a substitute for cassava by Orinoco Indians.

Melocoton: Luffa (C)

Melon: Cucumis (P)

Meloncillo: Passiflora (P)

Melosita: Pavonia (C); Wissadula (C)

MELOTHRIA GUADALUPENSIS (Spreng.) Cogn.: Wild cucumber (E); Sandillita (P). The green fruits are pickled. Ripe fruits, with the aroma of cucumber, are eaten, especially by the Jamaicans.

Membrillo: Cespedezia (P); Clavija (P); Grias (P); Gustavia (P)

Membrillo macho: Grias (P)

Meme: Wettinia (C)

Menta: Hedeoma (CR/ROC)

Meo: Cucurbita (Cu)

Meoparado: Lonchocarpus (C)

Mercolina: Amaranthus (CR)

Merdiera: Byrsonima (CR)

Merey: Anacardium (C)

Mergikualu: Solanum (Cu)

Merique: Crescentia (C,D)

Mescal: Agave (S)

Mesica: Brosimum (N)

Mesquite: Prosopis (E)

Mestizo: Cupania (C); Guarea (C)

Mesusu: Colocasia (Ch)

Metocoy: Colocasia (C)

Mexican wormseed: Chenopodium (E)

Miaparao: Lonchocarpus (C)

Micay: Axonopus (C)

Michinche: Campomanesia (C)

Michineumu: Tabernaemontana (Ch)

Michino: Chrysophyllum (C)

Michu: Sapindus (C)

MICONIA spp.: Joint bush (E); Dos caras (S) (Fig. 198). The fruits are mostly edible (!).

Mielcilla: Jaegeria (CR)

Mielilla: Holcus (CR); Melampodium (CR); Plumbago (CR); Sigesbeckia (CR); Trifolium (CR)

Miel quema: Randia (D)

Miel quemada: Maripa (C)

Migi: Musa (Cu)

Migucho: Jessenia (C)

Miguelario: Dialyanthera (P)


MIKANIA GUACO H.&B.: Guaco (S,C); Bejuco guaco (C). This is reported to be an efficient snakebite medicine in Panama (!).



MIKANIA RUIZIANA (Poepp.): Guaco lanoso (C)

Milflor: Clerodendrum (CR); Reseda (C)

MILKTREE: A tree with potable latex. Brosimum, Couma, Lacmellia.

Milkweed: Asclepias (E)

Milkwood: Tabernaemontana (B)

Millo: Lasiacis (P)

Milobano: Eriopsis (C)

Milpesa: Jessenia (C)

Milpesillo: Oenocarpus (C)

Milpesos: Attalea (C); Hura (C); Jessenia (C); Oenocarpus (C)

Miltomate: Physalis (CR)

Mimbre: Salix (C); Tessaria (C)

Mimbrena: Salix (C)

MIMOSAPIGRA L.: Bashful plant (E); Cacin (Ch); Dormilon (S); Kapkwa (Ch); Zarza (S). A decoction of leafy stems is used as a mouthwash for toothache. the roots are sniffed for head colds. The fruits are used in eye medicines.

MIMUSOPS DARIENENSIS Pittier: Bulletwood (E); Nispero (S). This is a source of balata gum, extracted like chicle, and formerly exported from Panama. the wood is used for construction.

Minkra: Cochlospermum (P)

MINQUARTIA GUIANENSIS Aubl.: Manwood (E,J); Criollo (P); Cuajada negro (CR,P); Manu (CR); Nispero negro (P); Palo criollo (P); Palo de piedra (CR). The strong tough timber lasts for years in contact with the soil.

MIRABILIS JALAPA L.: Four-o'clock (E); Buenas tardes (P); Don Diego de noche (C); Tabaquillo (C) (Fig. 199). Often cultivated for decoration, the leaves serve as a potherb, and are used as a catapalsm. The roots are said to be good pig food, and are used as a purgative.

Mirajo: Patinoa (Ch)

Mirame linda: Hibiscus (N)

Mirasol: Tithonia (CR)

Miriti: Mauritia (C)

Mirto: Ligustrum (CR); Murraya (S); Myrcia (CR)

Mis kuebu: Tabernaemontana (Cu)

Mismia: Cleome (C)

Mispinu: Acalypha (Cu)

Mistletoe: Phoradendron (E)

Mistletoe cactus: Rhipsalis (E)

Mochiguiste: Pithecellobium (CR)

Mochilita: Luffa (C)

Moco: Saurauia (CR)

Mocora: Carludovica (P)

Mocuteno: Cassia (C)

Moe: Cucurbita (Cu)

Moenu: Colocasia (Ch)

Mojan: Achatocarpus (C)

Mojau: Ochroma (Ch)

Mojofono: Gossypium (Ch)

Mokantia: Muehlenbeckia (C)

Molenillo: Bactris (C); Chamaedorea (C); Geonoma (C); Iryanthera (C); Kniphofia (CR); Luehea (CR); Quararibea (CR); Rinorea (P)

Molinillo: Luehea (N); Trichilia (N)

Molinok: Pothomorphe (Cu)

Moli ua: Montrichardia (Cu)

MOLLUGO VERTICILLATA L.: Carpetweed (E); Alfombra (CR); (Fig. 200). This plant serves as a famine potherb.

Mombin: Spondias (E)

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L: Balsam-pear (E); Balsamino (P); Sorosi (J); Sibicogen (C) (Fig. 201). Parboiled leaves are used as a vegetable, said to contain 4.5% protein. Green fruits are also used as a vegetable, but the seeds are reputedly poisonous. Nonetheless, the seeds are sometimes sun cured and added to meat dishes. The fruits are used to make lather. The pulp around the seeds is edible. Powdered, the plant is used to treat leprosy and malignant ulcers. Sap from the leaves and fruits is used for colic and worms. Jamaicans in Panama make a tea from the fruit to cure fevers and to induce vomiting. In Los Santos a decoction of the leaves mixed with a yellow malva is used to alleviate insect bites and itch (!). The root is regarded as aphrodisiac. Tea made from the leaves is regarded as febrifugal by Darienitas. Las Perlas, the bitter juice is taken as a malaria preventative. Around Sautata, it is as highly regarded as quinine for curing malaria. The fruits are used as a soap substitute.

Mompala armarilla: Hibiscus (P)

Monca blanca: Piper (CA)

Monca prieta: Cyphomandra (P)

Mondongo: Brosimum (C)

Monenillo: Bactris (C)

Monito: Abelmoschus (C)

Monja blanca: Piper (C)

Mondonguito: Zizyphus (C)

Monkey-apple: Dialium (E); Licania (E); Posoqueria (B)

Monkey cap palm: Manicaria (E)

Monkey comb: Apeiba (E)

Monkey tambrin: Inga (E)

MONOLENA CORDIFOLIA Triana: Chuico (C). Macerations are used in the Choco for bilious disorders.

MONSTERA DELICIOSA Liebm.: Ceriman (E); Anona pina (P); Blalzo (C) (Fig. 202). The fruits are edible raw but may contain painful crystals. A decoction of the plant is used in arthritis. Aerial roots are sometimes used in basketry.

Montano: Coussapoa (CR); Hillia (CR)

MONTANOA LEHMANII (Hieron.) Blake: Arboloco (C)



Monte negrito: Cassia (N)

Montenegro: Aster sinesis (C)

Montes de oc: Chamaesenna (C)

Montogoyo: Xanthosoma (Ch)

MONTRICHARDIA ARBORESCENS (L.) Schott: Aninga (C); Arracacho (C); Castano (D); Chupaya (C); Moli-ua (Cu); Puppua (Cu). the toasted fruits are edible. Cuna roast the nuts in ashes, peel them and eat them. They fed the leaves to pigs. Parboiled leaves are poulticed for erysipelas. The acrid sap is applied to ulcers. Motorists ascending the rivers of Darien favor the castano side to the cativo side because there is less current on the slip-off side, usually occupied by the castano backed up by Mora. The Montrichardia thickets are often cleared to make way for lowland rice cultivation. Lengths of the poles about 2 feet long are often used to line the bottoms of dugouts! In the Choco it is being studied for pulp fiber potential. In Paraguay the starchy root is used for food.

Moonflower: Calonyction (E)

Mopa-mopa: Elaegia (C)

Moquillo: Oreopanax (CR); Saurauia (CR,C)

Mora: Blakea (C); Chlorophora (S); Conostegia (C); Leandra (C); Miconia (C); Ossaea (C); Rubus (S); Tococa (C)

Mora de caballo: Lantana (CR)

Moradita: Eupatorium humile (C)

Moradito: Cuphea (C)

Morado: Peltogyne (P); Diospyros (C)

MORA OLEIFERA Ducke: Alcornoque (D); Nato (C). This brackish water swamp species occupies about 40,000 hectares in the Choco, and is used for railroad ties. Biochemical analysis of this seemingly poisonous seed, the largest dicotyledonous seed, might point toward a commercial potential.

Morcate: Schweirinia (C); Tibouchina (C)

Moreno: Lafoensia (P)

Moriche: Mauritia (C)

Moramatizadilla: Lantana (C)

Morillo: Brosimum (CR); Chlorophora (CR); Trophia (P)

MORINDA spp.: Indian mulberry (E); Painkiller (J) (Fig. 203). Green fruits of the Asian Morinda citrifolia L. are used in curries. Ripe fruits are eaten by people and hogs. Young leaves are used as a potherb, containing 4.5-6% protein. The seeds of some varieties are roasted and eaten. A red dye is obtained from the bark. The leaves and bark of a species cultivated in Ailigandi are used to treat malaria (!). In the West Indies, hot or wilted leaves are pressed on painful parts of the body; the leaves are poulticed to headaches. Crushed leaves in lard or camphor are placed on the head for head colds and neuralgia.

MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam.: Horseradish tree (E); Angela (C); Jacinto (P); Marango (CA); Narango (CA) (Fig. 204). The leaves, flowers, pods, and twigs of this honey tree are used as potherbs. The roots are used like horseradish, and are eaten as a vegetable in Africa. The leaves, 7-10% protein, are cooked with ash of plantain to make soup; crushed leaves are applied to snakebites, wounds, and ulcers, and are used for the extraction of guinea worms. Fruits, probably green, are made into pickles. The young seeds are substituted for green peas; fried seeds are said to taste like ground nuts. The bark, used for toothache, is believed to be abaortifacient, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiscorbuitc, diuretic, rubefacient, and stimulant. In the Philippines, it is believed that if the chewed root be put on a snakebite, the poison will be spread. Oil expressed from the seeds can be used for salads, cooking, and illumination. Roots are used to treat sathma, dropsy, dyspepsia, earache, palsy, epilepsy, fevers, gout, hysteria, rheumatism, and spasms. A root-bark infusion is used in certain yellow fever treatments. Macerations of the younger portions are used to make an invigorating shampoo.

Moriseco: Bidens (CR)

MORISONIA AMERICANA L.: Naranjito (C) (Fig. 205). The scarce pulp of the fruit is sweet and edible.

Morita: Chlorophora (C)

Morning glory: Ipomoea (E)

Morocolo: Lonchocarpus (C)

Morro: Crescentia (N)

Morrocoy: Banara (C); Pholodendron (C)

Mortino: Clidemia (C); Hesperomeles (C); Rapanea (C); Vaccinium (C)

Mortino falso: Pernettia (C)

Mosquerito: Croton (C)

Mosqueta: Philadelphus (CR)

Mosqueta de montana: Guettarda (CR); Philadelphus (CR)

Mosquero: Croton (C)

Mosquiro: Croton (C)

Mosquitero: Croton (C)

Mosquito de montana: Guettarda (CR)

MOSQUITO REPELLENT: A substance that repels mosquitoes. Avicennia, Cocos.

Mosquito wood: Mosquitoxylum (J); Posoqueria (B)

Mostaza: Brassica (P)

Mostrenco: Randia (CR)

Mostrenque: (D). An unidentified armed vine that furnishes potable water.

Motas: Pseudobombax (P)

Mote: Tournefortia (C)

Mother-in-law plant: Dieffenbachia (E)

Mother-of-cocoa: Gliricidia (E)

Motilon: Eurya (C); Hedyosmum (C); Hieronyma (C)

Motocoy: Philodendron (C)

Mountain jasmine: Stemmadenia (B)

MOURIRI sp.: Arracheche (P); Cierito (P); Kenna (P); Solacra (P) (Fig. 206). The fruits are edible, and the wood is good for fence posts.

Moza: Solanum (Cu)

Mozote: Bidens (S); Desmodium (P); Pavonia (P); Triumfetta (S)

Mozote deradilla: Cosmos (S)

Mozotillo: Bidens (S); Priva (N)

Muco: Couroupita (C)

Mucuna: Swartzia (C)

MUCUNA PRURIENS (L.) DC.: Cowhage (E); Demar Pirkok (Cu); Ojode Buey (P); Ojo de Venado (C); Pica-Pica (P) (Fig. 207). The green pods are cooked like stringbeans. Mature seeds, considered aphrodisiac, have served as a flour source in some Mucuna species. The roots are used to treat cholera. If the hairs get in eyes, wash with olive oil or fat. Hairs, taken internally as a vermifuge, are reportedly used externally as an aphrodisiac. The seeds are used for necklaces and buttons. Darienitas pocket them as good-luck charms.

Mucuteno: Chamaesenna (C)

Muela: Zanthoxylum (C)

Muelle: Schinus (C)

MUELLERA MONILIFORMIS L.f. (Fig. 208). The fruits are used as a fish poison in Darien.

Muelo: Drimys (CR)

Mulasapi: Cornutia (Cu)

Mulato: Senegalia (C); Swartzia (C)

Mulberry: Morus (E)

Muneca (o): Bunchosia (C); Cordia (CR,P); Cornutia (CR); Crateva (CR); Hasseltia (N)

Muneca amarilla: Cordia (W)

Mung bean: Phaseolus (E)

MUNTIGINIA CALABURA L.: Panama berry (E); Acuruco (C); Capulin (CR); Chirriador (C); Chitato (C); Chitoto (C); Majaguillo (P); Majaguito (C); Majanjo (C); Pasito (P); Periquito (C); Tapabotija (C) (Fig. 209). The fruits, edible raw, are widely eaten by birds. The tough bark is used as cordage and to make bark cloth. The antispasmodic flowers are used to sooth nerves and headaches.

Murcielago: Benthamantha (C); Passiflora (S); Cordia (C); Cornutia (P); Pentagonia (C)

Murara: Carludovica (C)

Murrapo: Carludovica (C)

Murrapo: Carludovica (C); Heliconia (C)

MURRAYA EXOTICA L.: Satinwood (E); Azahar de la India (P); Azahar de la Novia (P); Jasmin de Arabica (P); Jazmin (P); Mirto (P). The twigs are used to relieve toothache, and flowers are used for funeral wreaths in Darien (!). Macerated leaves are packed into sore teeth.

Murta (o): Ardisia (CR); Calyptranthes (CR); Coccoloba (C); Eugenia (CR,P); Myrica (CR)

Murucutu: Couroupita (C); Lonchocarpus (C)

Muruti: Mauritia (C)

MUSA spp.: Banana (E); Plantain (E); Guineo (P); Platano (P). Several varieties of banana and plantain are cultivated in Panama; the banana or guineos, Musa sapientum L.; the plantain or plantano, Musa paradisiaca L.; and the dwarf banana, Musa acuminata Colla. All are widely planted in the tropics, and some varieties tend to persist after cultivation. The banana is known to the Choco as amponimia, to the Cuna as uamadun; the plantain is known to the Choco as pata, to the Cuna as maci. Among the Bayano Cuna and the Choco, bananas and plantains are the staples. With other ethnic groups in Darien, rice is the staple. Among the Cuna, green bananas (unamadun) and plantains (masdurti) are baked with the skins in hot ashes. Also the fruit is boiled and mashed into a dough (masoiraleta for bananas, masi uamaduno for plantains) to which game or fish is often added. Bananas are eaten raw, while plantains are cooked, steamed, boiled, baked, or fried. Plantains and bananas can be dried for trips. Ripe fruits may be peeled and sliced, dried and preserves. Green fruits may be scalded, peeled, sliced sun dried, ground, and sifted to form a flour used for making mush and breads. Such flours keep well and are said to be good for diarrhea, dysentery, and dyspepsia. Flower heads of many varieties are cooked and eaten in curries. The inner parts of the stem (cabbage) are eaten, diced and boiled, or dried and made into a flour. Young shoots have served as vegetables. Terminal buds of the inflorescences and immature fruits are said to be used in curries. Young unopened buds in the center of the stem may be eaten raw or cooked. Rhizomes of certain varieties are said to be cooked and eaten. The unripe pulp of some varieties is parched as a coffee substitute. Antiscorbutic ashes of the plants may be used as a substitute for salt. When there is too much salt in a stew, Darien Negroes add the peel of green plantain for about 5 minutes to take out the salt. Vino de banano is fermented in the Antilles. A similar liquid is prepared in the Congo, where it has the reputation of preventing malaria. Choco make a beer from plantain called masato. Flour of dried green plantain, cooked with coconut milk and flavored with ginger or pineapple rind, plus sugar, is called mazamorra de platano. Chocao is made from ripe plantain, coconut milk, ginger, and sugar. In Africa, ripe fruits are peeled and put in a piragua lined with Imperata. Then they are trampled and the liquid poured off. The residue is washed and the washing mixed with the juice in a clean canoe, covered with banana leaves and allowed to ferment with flour ground from Sorghum, forming a sort of beer. Banana leaves, waterproof after scorching, are more pliable and serve in construction of emergency shelters, beds, clothing, etc. Green, they make effective temporary umbrellas and sunshades, and are used to wrap food for roasting. Choco porters effectively plug up leaks in their piraguas by pounding the plantain fruit into the hole (!). Sap of the plantain, considered alexeritic, is sometimes used for snakebite. Young leaves are applied to burns as a cooling poultice. The roots are considered alterative, anthelmintic, antibilious, antidiabetic, antidotal, antiscorbutic, and styptic, and are used in a powder for anemia and venereal diseases. Juice of the leaf and bark is considered as an antidote for opium and arsenic overdoses. Flowers are considered antidiabetic and antidysmenorrhoeic. The ashes of the plant are used as an antacid for acidity, colic, and heartburn. Green fruits, considered antiflatulent and astringent, are powdered, and used for diaabetes and dyspepsia. A Colombian witch doctor, living among the Choco on the Rio Maje, grates the green fruits of the guineo bicho and applies the powder to bleeding wounds for 4 days. This witch doctor's most wasteful practice, as told by Dra. Arauz, is his anemia treatment. Grated green plantano is mixed with chicken eggs, wine, nutmeg, and salt. If taken internally, this might alleviate anemia, but instead, it is applied to the patient's wrists, ankles, and stomach, where the "doctor" supposes it will be absorbed. A steady diet of ripe plantain is said to aid bilious disorders, diabetes, and dysentery; cooked fruits serve as an unguent, also as an ointment for haemoptysis and syphilitic eruptions. Ashtma sufferers might try an old Asian recipe; daily express and take the juice of a small banana seedling, root and all, with a spoon of sugar. In Cuba, the sap is applied to chronic sores. Elsewhere the ashes of the plant are bound over the ulcer with banana leaves. Present Salaqui Choco believe the fruits can cause spots on the face. Cuna males drink astringent juice from young plants to give them strength. Infants are bathed in it. The tahiti plantain is supposed to be the source of a deadly poison for darts.

Musgo: Tradescantia (C)

Muskmelon: Cucumis (E)

Musk okra: Abelmoschus (E)

Mustard: Brassica (E)

Mutisia: Solandra (C)

MUTISIA CLEMATIS L.f.: Clavellino, Clematide, Clavellina de bejuco, Bejuco clavellivo (C)

MUTISIA GLABRATA Cuatr: Clavellina (C)

Muy: Mauritia (C)

Mygonette: Lawsonia (E)

MYRCIA SPLENDENS (Sw.) DC.: Punch berry (E); Mirto (CR); Ojo menudo (S); Pimento (P) (Fig. 210). The fruits are edible but astringent.

MYRISTICA FRAGRANS Houtt.: Mace (E); Nutmeg (E); Macias (S); Nuez Moscada (S) (Fig. 211). Nutmeg and mace are spices occasionally used as narcotics. An edible butter is derived from the fruits. Fresh husks of the ripe fruits are a source of jelly. Nutmeg, considered aphrodisiac, digestive, stimulant, and sometimes narcotic, is rarely cultivated in Panama and Colombia.

Myrobalan: Phyllanthus (E)

MYROXYLON PEREIRAE Klotzsch: Balsam of Peru (E); Balsamo (S); Paila (Cu); Pidoquera (Ch); Tache (C) (Fig. 212). The gum, regarded as stomachic and expectorant, is used in ointments and perfumes, and to treat ashtma, catarrh, rheumatism, and venereal diseases. The tree yields a good lumber, some exported to the United States. Seeds are used to flavor aguardiente in Guatemala. Grated bark is used to treat the umbilical scars of the Colombian Choco, and to treat female hemorrhages. Panama Choco use the aromatic bark as an underarm deodorant (!). Perhaps this is the Cuna paila or Panama palo santo, an aromatic wood used to make necklaces and toilet water, rubbed over the foreheat to treat headache. The seed is mixed with various black dyes to stabilize them.

- N -

Naba: Astrocaryum (Cu); Crescentia (Cu)

Nabillo: Brassica (CR)

Nacedero: Trichanthera (C); Euphorbia

Nacuma: Carludovica (C)

Nage: Canna (Cu)

Naguapate: Cassia (CA)

Naibe ugigwi: Selaginella (Cu)

Naidi: Euterpe (C)

Naja: Pereskia (C)

Nakikwa: Cuphea (Cu)

Nalu: Guilielma (Cu)

Namagua: Poulsenia (P)

Nambar: Amyris (CR); Dalbergia (N); Platymiscium (CR)

Name: Dioscorea (S)

Nampi: Dioscorea (S)

Namu: Petiveria (C)

Nanache: Byrsonima (C)

Nance, Nanche, Nancito: Byrsonima (S); Clethra (CR); Saurauia (CR)

Nance colorado: Banisteria (CR)

Nance hembra: Byrsonima (CR)

Nance macho: Clethra (CR)

Nancene de Barbados: Malpighia (C)

Nance verde: Byrsonima (N)

Nanciguiste: Celtia (CR)

Nancito: Hieronyma (N)

Nanju: Abelmoschus (CR)

Napier: Pennisetum (P)

Napsenina: Euphorbia (Cu)

Narachole: Citrus (Cu)

Narchol madriquet: Citrus (Cu)

Narango: Moringa (CA)

Naranja: Citrus (S)

Naranja China: Solanum (P)

Naranjillo: Bravaisia (C); Casearia (C); Crateva (C); Heisteria (CR); Ilex (C); Solanum (P); Swartzia (P)

Naranjillo bobo: Bravaisia (P)

Naranjillo colorado: Heisteria (P)

Naranjito: Amyris (C); Casearia (C); Crateva (C); Cyphomanda (P); Morisonsia (P); Swartzia (D)

Naranjo de monte: Swartzia (P)

Naranjuelo: Amyris (C); Capparis (C); Rheedia (C)

Naras: Citrus (Cu)

Narastumma: Citrus (Cu)

Narciso: Nerium (P)

Nardo: Hippeastruma (CR); Polianthes (CR)

Nargusta: Terminalia (S)

Naripema: Astronium (C)

Nasedera: Trichanthera (D)

NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE R.Br.: Watercress (E); Berro (C,D); Mastuerzo (C) (Fig. 213). The leaves, eaten raw in salads in many colombian villages, are cooked like broccoli in Guatemala. The plant, considered antiscorbutic and diuretic, is used for liver ailments.

Nato: Copaifera (C); Mora (C)

Nauapate: Cassia (CR); Mimosa (CR)

Naumo: Pseudosamanea (C)

Navajuela: Scleria (CR)

Nazareno: Hymenaea (C); Peltogyne (CR,P)

Necha: Fevillea (C)

NECKLACE MATERIAL: A substance used in the making of rosaries. Abrus, Adenanthera, Caesalpinia, Canavalia, Canna, Coix, Erythrina, Jacquinia, Jatropha, Leucaene, Momordica, Myroxylon, Mucuna, Ormasia, Rauvolfia, Rhynchosia, Sapindus, Sapium, Thevetia.

NECTANDRA spp.: Candlewood (E,J); Sigua (P). Several species produce good timber, and the wood of some burns green. N. panamensis Mez, the sigua canelo, is considered antidysenteric.

Needlewood: Xylosma (B)

Negrajora: Acrostichum (P); Justicia (P)

Negrillo: Lonchocarpus (C); Machaerium (C); Odontadenia (P)

Negrito: Annona (P); Diphysa (C)

Negrito colorado: Lelchythis (P)

Nejo: Annona (Ch)

Nensarrajo: Chrysophyllum (Ch)

Neptunia: Neptunia (C)

NEPTUNIA PLENA Benth.: Water mimosa (E); Neptunia (C); Sensitiva de Agua (C). The plant serves as a potherb. the pods also serve as a famine food.

Nero: Astrocaryum (C)

Nervillo: Drymaria (CR)

Nettle: Urera (E)

NEUROLAENA LOBATA (L.) R.Br.: Contragavilan (P); Gavilana (CR); Gavilana-capitana (CR/ROC); Inaciabi (Cu); Mano de tigre (C) (Fig. 214). Around La Nueva, a favorite malaria remedy consists of the leaves mixed with honey and vendejuana. A tea of the leaves is used in Darien as a febrifuge and to treat malaria. It is also applied to itching areas (!). The juice is rubbed on the skin as a reputed tick repellent. Some people consider it germicidal. It is taken internally as a bitter tea by the Ailigandi Cuna for stomach ache (!). Some Colombians believe it is good for gonorrhea.

Niagurgin: Rolandra (Cu)

Nikernut: Caesalpinia (E)

NICOTIANA TABACUM L.: Tobacco (S); Uar (Cu) (Fig. 215). Tobacco was cultivated in the West Indies before the advent of the Spaniard. Nicotine, the narcotic "gift" of the Indian to the European invader, may have taken a greater toll on the invader's ruthless toll on the Amerindians. By 1600, the smoking habit was well fixed throughout Europe. Tobacco is cultivated for home consumption among the Cuna who call it Uarguit. It is rarely cultivated bythe Choco. Elsewhere green tobacco leaves are thrown into stews. Guaymi INdians wear tobacco-leaf leggins to ward off snakebite, and elsewhere the leaves are applied to ulcers. In Bolivia, decomposing meat is stuffed with tobacco to catch condors which get drunk from eating the meat.

Nightshade: Solanum (E)

Nigua: Margyricarpus (C)

Niguita: Gonzalagunia (P)

Niguito: Conostegia (C); Cordia (CR); Miconia (C)

Nikla: Cecropia (Cu)

Ninichi: Aristolochia (C)

Nino en cota: Haemocharis (CR)

Nino muerto: Asclepias (P); Cosmos (P)

Ninusapu: Clibadium (Cu)

Niopo: Niopa (C)

Niorno: Bauhinia (C)

Nipe: Sapium (P)

Nisala: Bixa (Cu)

Nisperillo: Ficus (C)

Nispero: Achras (S); Lucuma (B); Manilkara (C,CR,P); Pouteria (CR); Sacoglottis (CR); Vantanea (CR)

Nispero amarillo: Dipholis (CR)

Nispero balata: Manikara (P)

Nispero blanco: Ficus (CR)

Nispero colorado: Lucuma (W); Pouteria (CR)

Nispero macho: Clethra (C)

Nispero macho de tierra fria: Laplacea (C)

Nispero de monte: Achras (C); Pouteria (P)

Nispero negro: Minquartia (P)

Nispero de saino: Morisonia (C)

Nispero tierno: Achras (C)

Nispero zapote: Manilkara (P); Pouteria (CR)

Niungue: Datura (C)

Nogal: Cariodendron (C); Cordia (C); Juglans (C)

Noli: Acanthorhiza (P); Cryosophilla (C); Corozo (C); Tessmanniophoenix (C)

Nomas: Peperomia (Cu)

No-me-olvides: Eichhornia (C); Myosotis (CR)

Nomoncri: Lecythis (P)

Nopal: Opuntia (S)

Nopas: Erythrina (C)

Norbito: Passiflora (CR)

Norbo: Passiflora (CR)

Norbo cimarron: Elaterium (P)

Nori: Zanthoxylum (CR)

Noro: Byrsonima (C); Hesperomeles (C)

Norrio: Passiflora (C)

Novio: Pelargonium (C)

Nudillo: Panicum (C); Tradescantia (C)

Nudo: Capparis (C)

Nuez de agua: Trapa (C)

Nuez de India: Aleurites (S)

Nuez moscada: Myristica (S)

Nuez de Para: Bertholettia (C)

Nuez de San Juan: Lecythis (N)

Nugnualla: Ceiba (Cu)

Nula: Coccoloba (Cu)

Nulu: Dipteryx (Cu); Psidium (Cu); Terminalila (Cu)

Nume: Phytelephas (C)

Nune (o): Hura (P)

Nunisup: Theobroma (CR)

Nuno: Tabernaemontana (P)

Nunonunar bala: Cochlospermum (Cu)

Nunupa: Unidentified seed or fruit (perhaps Pimenta or Ficus) used by the Bayano Cuna for making necklaces.

Nunurkwa:Eryngium (Cu)

Nupa: Cryosophila (D)

Nupas: Erythrina (C)

Nuppil: Crescentia (Cu)

Nurrua: Calathea (Cu)

Nuru: Chamaedorea (P)

Nusasapi: Solanum (Cu)

Nusnagwat: Carludovica (Cu)

Nutgrass: Cyperus (E)

Nurusol: Phyllanthus (Cu)

Nutmeg: Myristica (E)

Nutsedge: Cyperus (E)

Nutsulet: Passiflora (Cu)

Nux-vomica: Strychnos (E)

NYMPHAEA spp.: Water lily (E); Flor de agua (S) (Fig. 216). Seeds and rhizomes of many species serve as famine foods.

- O -

Oa: Bromelia (Cu)

Oabo: Calocarpum (P)

Oak: Quercus (E)

Oats: Avena (E)

Oba: Bromelia (Cu); Zea (Cu)

Obango: Jessenia (C)

Ochi: Musa (Cu)

OCHROMA LAGOPUS Sw.: Balsa (E,S); Cotton tree (E); Ceiba de lana (C); Lana (P); Puero (P); Tucumo (C) (Fig. 217). Choco Indians make rafts out of 3 short poles of balsa capable of floating a man. They also carve designs in balsa to use as prints to paint some of the more elaborate designs on their bodies (!). Ashes from balsa are put in with the dye (Genipa) to stabilize the mixture (!). The nuchus or medicine statues of the Cuna are usually carved of balsa (!). Some Indians (e.g., in Peru) coat blowgun darts with balsa kapok as a balancer, and to seal the tube of the blowgun (!).

OCIMUM BASILICUM L.: Sweet basil (E); Albaca (CR, D); Albahaca (CR, CR/ROC); Albahaca fina (P); Pisep (Cu) (Fig. 218). The edible mucilaginous seeds, soaked in water to make a beverage, are considered aphrodisiac, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifugal, and stimulant, and are used as a cataplasm. Among the Ailigandi Cuna and Colombian curanderos, the leaves, used for seasoning, are macerated and applied externally for headache (!). The juice of the plant is used to treat earache.

OCIMUM sp.: Albaca (CR, D); Albahaca (CR, CR/ROC); Toronjil (P). Used in Darien as a spice and remedy, albaca is placed on corpses during funerals. Leaves of La Nueva's albaca blanca are used to reduced swellings. The plant, like Capsicum, is used to treat hunting dogs that have been bitten by wild animals.

Ocobo: Tabebuia (C)

Ocote: Brosimum (CR)

Ocre: Aspidosperma (C)

Odobacri: Sterculia (P)

OENOCARPUS sp.: Bamboo palm (E); Maquenque (D). The ripe black fruits are eaten by man and other frugivores. The hearts are also quite edible (!). Choco say that the fruits are used to make beverages with salt and sugar.

Ogo: Cedrela (Ch)

Ogop: Cocos (Cu)

Oi: Coix (Cu)

Oil Palm: Corozo (E); Elaeis (E)

OIL PLANTS: Plants used as a source of edible or useful oils. Acrocomia, Aiphanes, Apeiba, Attalea, Beilschmiedia, Bertholettia, Cannabis, Ceiba, Cocos, Corozo, Dialyanthera, Elaeia, Hibiscus, Jessenia, Lecythis, Lepidium, Licania, Moringa, Papaver, Pentaclethra, Ricinus, Scheelia, Sesamum, Simarouba, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Virola, Ximenia, Zea.

Ojito de nena: Pithecellobium (C)

Ojoche: Brosimum (S); Pseudolmedia (CR)

Ojoche macho: Batocarpus (CR); Brosimum (CR); Trophis (P)

Ojo del gato: Dichromena (P)

Ojo de poeta: Thunbergia (C)

Ojo de venado: Mucuna (S)

Okora: Cocos (Cu)

Okra: Abelmoschus (E,C)

Old maid: Vinca (E)

Old woman's bitter: Citharexylum (E)

Oleander: Nerium (E)

Oleander yellow: Thevetia (E)

OLIGANTHES DISCOLOR (H.B.K.) Sch. Bip.: Cenizo, Susaca, Comejenero, Sauce, Guayacan (C)

Olivo: Befaria (C); Capparis (CR); Conomorpha (C); Myrica (C); Olea (C); Sapium (P); Simarouba (CR,P); Thevetia (C)

Olivo de cera: Myrica (C)

Olivo macho: Sapium (P)

Olla de mico: Bertholletia (C)

Olla de mono: Apeiba (C); Eschweilera (C); Lecythis (CR,P)

Olla de zorro: Chloroleucon (C)

Ollito: Eschweilera (P)

Ollito de mono: Lecythis (C)

Olloco: Ullucus (C)

Olobre: Tabebuia (Cu)

Olocoton: Carica (N)

Oloroso: Humiria (C); Ocotea (C)

Olosapo: Couepia (CR)

Olotillo: Dicliptera (CR)

Ondequera: Caseria (C)

Onion: Allium (E)

ONOSERIS ONOSEROIDES (H.B.K.) Robinson: Hoja de Santamaria (C)

ONOSERIS PURPUREA (L.f.) Blake: Santa Maria (C)

Onote: Bixa (C)

Onotillo: Vismia (C)

Onoto: Bixa (C)

OPUNTIA sp.: Prickly pear (E); Tuna (S). The fruits are edible. Despined flower buds are roasted, dried, and cooked in stews. Parched seeds are used for thickening soups. The fruits are mixed with Acacia bark to make the beverage called tecuin in Mexico. Vegetative buds may be eaten cooked or dried. The indigestible seeds are ground into meal by northern Indians after they have passed through their bodies. This finds its way into one of the many snakebite remedies. Chewing on cactus fruits and stalks can stave off dehydration in arid climes.

Oquito: Ixora (P)

Orange: Citrus (E)

ORBIGNYA CUATRECASANA Dugand: Taparo (C). Oil from the fruit is used in cooking. The fruit itself is eaten after cooking and grinding. Imprudent eating is supposed to intoxicate.

Orchoro: Dactylis (C)

Oreganito macho: Lippia (C)

Oregano: Lippia (CR); Origanum (C)

Oregano cimarron: Lippia (CR/ROC)

Oreja: Enterolobium (C)

Oreja de burro: Cissampelos (C); Pseudelephantopus (S)

Oreja de conejo: Salmea (CA)

Oreja de coyote: Pseudelephantopus (S); Turnera (N)

Oreja de mula: Eichhornia (C); Miconia (P)

Oreja de raton: Hydrocotyle (C); Vandelia (C)

Oreja de sapo: Pseudelephantopus (S)

Orejero: Enterolobium (C)

Orejuelo: Alchemilla (C)

Orey: Campnosperma (P)

Oriera: Enterolobium (C)

Orilla de mar: Caesalpinia (C)

Orim: Campnosperma (C)

Oropel: Helichrysum (CR)

Orsul: Lippia (N)

Orozuz: Lippia (S)

Ortiga: Fleurya (P); Jatropha (S); Loasa (P); Urera (S); Wigandia (CR)

Ortiga blanca: Urera (CR)

Ortiga de montana: Wigandia (CR)

Ortiga vienticuatro: Loasa (CR)

Ortutu: Impatiens (Cu)

Orumo: Cecropia (C)

ORYZA SATIVA L.: Rice (E); Arroz (Ch,S); Oroz (Cu). In Darien, as in many torpical areas, rice replaces other cereals as the staff of life with some ethnic groups. Among the inland Cuna and Choco, rice is supplanted by Musa as the most important staple. With the bran intact rice is nutritious with starches and fats, but not high enough in proteins. Rice diets should be supplemented with legume proteins. Perhaps for this reason arroz y frijoles is a popular diet in Latin America. Colombian Choco Indians make bollos of rice mixed with corn wrapped in Calathea. Most Darien houses have their mano de pilon for threshing rice, the chaff going to the chickens and pigs. Seedlings of rice are also edible. The grain is simetimes fermented to make rice beer. The grain may be converted to starch for breadstuffs and puddings. A poultice of rice make a good application for burns.

Osi: Ananas (Cu)

Otaheite gooseberry: Phyllanthus (E)

Otera: Psidium (C)

Oto: Xanthosoma (P)

Otoba: Dialyanthera (C); Virola (C)

Otobo: Virola (C)

Oto de lagarto: Dieffenbachia (P)

OURATEA sp.: Caidita (C) (Fig. 219). The fruits are used for fish bait (!).

Ovina: Coix (Cu)

Oviero: Enterolobium (C)

OXALIS CORNICULATA L.: Sourgrass (E); Wood sorrel (E); Vinagrillo (S) (Fig. 220). The leaves are eaten raw in salads or as a potherb. The seeds serve as a famine food.

OXALIS HEDYSAROIDES H.B.K.: Sanguinaria (C). Cultivated in raised gardens in the Choco for hemorrhage after childbirth.

- P -

Pacaya: Chamaedorea (CR,S)

Pacaya de caballo: Geonoma (CR)

Pacaya de dante: Chamaedorea (CR)

Pacaya de raton: Euterpe (CR)

Pacha: Andropogon (C)

Pachaca: Capparis (C)

Pachar: Piper (Cu); Pothomorphe (Cu)

PACHIRA AQUATICA Aubl.: Provision tree (E); Beno (Cu); Cacao de monte (C); Ceiba de agua (C); Jelinjoche (CR); Quiriguillo (CR); Salero (C); Zapotolongo (C) (Fig. 221). Roasted seeds yield a flour for making bread. Young leaves serve as a potherb. The bark is used as a diabetes cure. In Antioquia, the fruits are used only for making totumos (!). Choco witch doctors are said to use the seeds as a narcotic.

Pachiuba: Iriartea (C)

Pachuba: Iriartea (C)

Pachuda: Iriartea (C); Socratea (C)

PACHYRHIZUS EROSUS (L.) Urban: Yam-bean (E); Guavita cansa-boca (P); Habilla (CR) (Fig. 222). The roots are eaten raw and cooked in soup.

Pacito: Muntingia (P)

Pacito de montana: Bumelia (C)

Paco: Cespedesia (C); Gustavia (C); Mayna (C)

Pacon(un): Sapindus (N)

Pacora: Acrocomia (P); Cespedesia (C)

Pacunja: Bidens (C)

Paico: Chenopodium (P); Cordia (P); Eugenia (P)

Paila: ? Myroxylon (Cu)

Paipute: Casearia (CR)

Paiputo: Xylosma (CR)

Paira: Melanthera (CR)

Paishte: Luffa (CA)

Paitilla: Citrullus (C)

Paja de babilla: Sparganium (C)

Paja de empajar: Lilaea (C)

Paja macho de monte: Rhynchospora (P)

Paja de paramo: Calamagrosists (C)

Paja de zorro: Andropogon (C)

Pajaro amarillo: Pavonia (C)

Pajarito: Epidendrum (C); Masdevallia (C); Oncidium (C); Vigna (C)

Pajaritos amarillos: Tropaeolum (C)

Pajaritos azules: Delphinium (C)

Pajito de raton: Andropogon (C)

Pajon: Setaria (P)

Pakaburwi: Picramnia (Cu)

Pakwa: Renealmia (Cu)

Palabra de mujer: Lantana (C)

Palanco: Sapranthus (CR)

Palchavaca: Passiflora (C)

Paleca: Eupatorium (P); Hyptis (P)

Palisandro: Dalbergia (C)

Palitaria: Parietaria (C)

Palito de hueso: Malpighia (C)

Pallars: Phaseolus (C)

Palma de almendron: Attalea (C)

Palma amarga: Welfia (C); Sabal (C)

Palma barnez: Oenocarpus (C)

Palma barrigona: Iriartea (C)

Palma bobo: Cyathea (C)

Palma brava: Bactris (S)

Palma de cera: Ceroxylon (S)

Palma de chascara: Aiphanes (C)

Palma coco: Astrocaryum (C); Cocos (C)

Palma colorado: Euterpe (E); Welfia (C)

Palma conga: Welfia (CR,P)

Palma crespa: Catostigma (C)

Palma cristi: Ricinus (C)

Palma de cuesco: Scheelea (C)

Palma cumare: Astrocaryum (C)

Palma del desierto: Hedyosmum (C)

Palma dulce: Scheelea (C)

Palma enana de cuesco: Cryosophila (C)

Palma escoba: Acanthorrhiza (P)

Palma de stera: Astrocaryum (C)

Palma de gallinazo: Ceroxylon (C)

Palma de guagara: Sabal (P)

Palma helecho: Cyathea (S)

Palma de Jicara: Manicaria (P); Phytelephas (C)

Palma de manteca: Corozo (C)

Palma de marfil: Phytelephas (C,P)

Palma de marrano: Scheelea (C)

Palma mono: Welfia (C)

Palma negra: Astrocaryum (S)

Palma del norte: Xiphidium (P)

Palma de puerco: Scheelea (C)

Palma de ramos: Ceroxylon (C)

Palma real: Attalea (S); Roystonea (S); Dictyocaryum (C); Scheelea (CR,P); Welfia (CR,P)

Palma sara: Copernicia (C)

Palma de sebo: Corozo (C)

Palma de tonillo: Pandanus (C)

Palma de vino: Acrocomia (S); Attalea (C); Scheelea (C)

Palma zancona: Syagrus (C)

Palma zancudo: Iriartea (C); Metasocratea (C); Scheelea (C)

Palm, black: Astrocaryum (E); Bactris (E); Pyrenoglyphis (E)

Palm, grass: Tradescantia (P)

Palm, hat: Carludovica (E)

Palmiche: Corozo (CR); Elaeis (CR); Euterpe (C); Geonoma (C)

Palmiche blanco: Geonoma (C)

Palmiche colorado: Euterpe (C)

Palm, ivory: Phytelephas (E)

Palmilera: Socratea (CR)

Palmilla: Cassia (P); Synechanthus (P)

Palmita: Carludovica (P); Xiphidium (P)

Palmita japonesa: Selaginella (C)

Palmito: Euterpe (CR); Socratea (CR); Welfia (CR); Yucca (P)

Palmito de velas: Gonzalagunia (C)

Palmito dulce: Chamaedorea (CR)

Palm, monkey: Manicaria (E)

Palmo: Euterpe (C)

Palm, oil: Corozo (E); Elaeis (E); Jessenia (E)

Palm, peach: Guilielma (E)

Palm, pinecone: Raphia (E)

Palm, stilt: Iriartea (E); Socratea (E)

Palm, traveler's: Ravenala (E)

Palo de aceite: Pentaclethra (N)

Palo de agua: Bravaisia (CR,N,P); Capparis (C); Ficus (CR); Trichanthera (P)

Palo amarillo: Chlorophora (C)

Palo de aji: Drimys (C)

Palo de anastasiso: Trichilia (N)

Palo de anis: Ocotea (C)

Palo azul: Calatola (CR)

Palo bagre: Coccoloba (C)

Palo de balsamo: Myroxylon (S)

Palo de barril: Jacaratia (C)

Palo blanco: Casearia (C); Symplocos (C); Vernonia (P); Xylosma (C)

Palo bobo: Erythrina (P)

Palo de bojon: Cordia (C)

Palo brasil: Caesalpinia (C); Haematoxylum (C); Sickingia (C)

Palo de buba: Jacaranda (P)

Palo de calabaza: Crescentia (P)

Palo de camaron: Hamelia (CR)

Palo carey: Zanthoxylum (C)

Palo de cera: Astronium (C)

Palo de cerdo: Tetragastris (C)

Palo de chancho: Hieronyma (P); Vochysia (CR)

Palo de chucha: Siparuna (C)

Palo colorado: Octoea (N); Sickingia (P)

Palo criollo: Minquartica (P)

Palo de cruz: Brownea (C,P); Casearia (P); Plumeria (P)

Palo cuadrado: Cornutia (P); Macrocnemum (CR,P)

Palo de danta(o): Cornutia (CR)

Palo de fierro: Tabebuia (CR)

Palo de guaco: Crateva (P)

Palo guitarro: Citharexylum (C)

Palo hueso: Tecoma (C)

Palo de lagarto: Sciadodendron (N); Zanthoxylum (CR)

Palo de leche: Brosimum (P); Sapium (CR)

Palo lechero: Euphorbia (C)

Paloma: Citharexylum (P); Dendropanax (P); Lafoensia (CR)

Palo machete: Erythrina (N)

Palo malin: Vochysia (P)

Palo de marfil: Amyris (C)

Palo de Maria: Casearia (CR); Ixora (CR)

Palo de marrano: Bursera (C)

Palo de mayo: Vochysia (CR,P)

Palo de miel: Satyria (CR)

Palomita: Asclepias (C); Gonolobus (C)

Palomita morada: Securidaca (N)

Palo negro: Hybanthus (N); Miconia (P)

Palo ortiga: Urera (P)

Palo papa: Calatola (CR); Panopsis (CR)

Palo paraiso: Couroupita (P)

Palo de piedra: Minquartia (CR)

Palo prieto: Terminalia (C)

Palo quadrado: Macrocnemum (CR)

Palo de requeson: Triplaris (C)

Palo de rosa: Brownea (C)

Palo sabre: Erythrina (P)

Palo de sal: Avicennia (CR); Ficus (CR); Laguncularia (CR); Pelliceria (P)

Palo de sangre: Brosimum (C); Lonchocarpus (C); Virola (N)

Palo de sano: Bulnesia (C)

Palo de santamaria: Trixis (P); Triplaris (C)

Palo santo: Cedrela (C); Eriodendron (C); Erythrina (P); Triplaris (P)

Palo de seca: Andira (C)

Palo de soldado: Waltheria (P)

Palo de tigre: Guarea (C)

Palo de vaca: Brosimum (S)

Palo de velas: Parmentiera (P,C)

Palto: Persea (C)

Palu: Allium (Cu)

Pambil: Iriartea (C)

Pambotano: Calliandra (C)

Pamo: Perebea (C)

Pamplemusa: Citrus (C)

Pana: Artocarpus (C)

Panal: Buddleja (CR)

Panama: Jatropha (C); Sterculia (S); Wercklea (CR)

Panama berry: Muntingia (E)

Panama redwood: Platymiscium (E)

Panama tree: Sterculia (E)

Panamena: Jatropha (C); Nephrolepis (C); Tredescantia (C)

Panchuchapa: Hamelia (Cu)

Panchuismas: Hamelia (Cu)

Pany cacao: Trophis (C)

PANDANUS spp.: Screw pine (E); Palma de Tornillo (C). Screw pines are rarely cultivated in Panama. Ripe fruits may be eaten raw, or cooked for storage and later use. Uncooked fruits are quite tasty; to extract the juice and pulp from the tough fibers is difficult (!). Boiled fruits are a squash-like vegetable often mixed with grated coconut meat. Pandanus flour and paste enveloped with Pandanus leaf-rolls may be stored for years. Fruits to be made into paste are cooked for a long time in an earth oven (12-48 hours) and then scraped. The pulp is collected on leaves, dried to a sticky consistency, and then rolled into the leaves. To make flour, fruits are cooked for only one hour, pounded, sun dried, and further dried over heated rocks. The resulting dry cakes are pounded to a coarse consistency. The flour has more fibers and more calories than the paste. Calcium oxalate crystals present in some varieties are destroyed by cooking. Apical meristems of tender white developing leaves are edible, like the stems and leaves, when white and tender. Green leaves are used to wrap fish to be cooked. Root tips have sustained fiber for temporary cordage, as do leafe strips. During World War II, American Armed Forces in the Gilbert Islands used Pandanus trunks, split down the middle for temporary construction. All parts of Pandanus are combustible when dry, but the apical ends of discarded drupes provide a very hot and relatively smokeless fuel, like coconut shells. A substitute for cigarette paper is provided by the thin eipdermis of the leaves. Male inflorescences are used to scent coconut oil.

Pan del norte: Artocarpus (C)

Panecito: Malvaviscus (C)

Panel: Leucaena (C); Senegalia (C)

Pangana: Raphia (C)

Pangola: Digitaria (E)

Panic grass: Panicum (E)

PANICUM spp.: Panic grass (E) (Fig. 223). Many species of Panicum may serve as grain sources. Their greatest importance in Panama is for forage, guinea grass and para grass being most important. Smutty looking grains may be poisonous due to a fungus.

Panika: Ceiba (N)

Panque romero: Senecio abietinus (C)

Pantano: Hieronyma (P)

Pantriba: Artocarpus (Ch)

Panya: Ceiba (N)

Papa: Panopsis (S); Solanum (S)

Papa china: Colocasia (C)

Papa del aire: Dioscorea (CR)

Papa dulce: Ipomoea (S)

Papa guasca: Bomarea (C)

Papa miel: Combretum (C); Hamelia (N); Solandra (CR)

Papamo: Vismia (C)

Papaturro: Coccoloba (C,CR); Solandra (CR)

Papaturro agrio: Bellucia (CR)

Papaturro blanca: Coccoloba (P)

Papaturro de media luna: Passiflora (N)

Papa de venado: Bomarea (CR)

Papaya: Carica (S); Jacaratia (P)

Papayelo: Xanthosoma (P)

Papayero: Capparis (C)

Papayilla(o): Jacaratia (CR); Jatropha (P)

Papayillo: Solanum (CR)

Papayillo de venado: Carica (CR); Jacaratia (CR)

Papayo: Sciadophyllum (CR); Terminalia (CR)

Papayo calentano: Carica (C)

Papayo del monte (montana): Jacaratia (CR)

Papayote: Cochlospermum (C)

Papayueldo: Jacaratia (C); Jatropha (C)

Papelillo: Miconia (P); Senecio (CR)

Papelillo macho: Hieracium (CR)

Papito de monte: Malvaviscus (P)

Papo: Hibiscus (P)

Papo de la reina: Hibiscus (P)

Papo de zamba: Lonchocarpus (C)

Papunga: Bidens pilosa (C)

Papunga falsa: Aspilia tenella (C)

Papyrus: Cyperus (E)

Para: Panicum (CR)

Para grass: Panicum (E)

Paraguay: Scoparia (C)

Paraguita china: Hibiscus (P)

Paraguita de sapo: Hydrocotyle (C)

Paraiso: Melia (C)

Paralejo: Curatella (C)

Paraman: Moronobea (C); Symphonia (C)

Paran: Spondias (CR)

Parapara: Sapindus (S)

Para palo: Frittonia (C)

Para rubber tree: Hevea (E)

Parasita: Odontoglossum (C)

Parasitos: Tillandsia (S)

Paratodo: Aristolochia (C)

Parcha: Passiflora (C)

Pardillo: Cordia (C)

PARIANA LUNATA Nees: Canutillo (C). Leaves are used in wrapping gold or platinum dust.

Parimonton: Cupania (C); Hasseltia (D)

PARMENTIERA STENOCARPA Dug. & L.B.Smith: Arbol de la jujias (P); Candletree (E); Palo vela (C). The pulp of the fruits and the seeds are eaten and used to prepare beverages. P. cerifera serves as a fodder.

Parque: Acalypha (C)

Parra: Vitis (S)

Parra rosa: Entada (CR)

Parsisagoa: Inga (Cu)

Parsley: Petroselinum (E)

Parsu: Erythrina (Cu)

Partridge-pea: Cassia (E)

Paru: Davilla (C)

Pasacarne: Marathrum (CR,P)

Pasarin: Lantana (P); Wedelia (P)

Pascua: Euphorbia (P)

Pascualito: Garcia (C)

Pashcuana: Calea (CA)

Pasionaria: Passiflora (CR)

Pasita: Brosimum (C); Hirtella (C); Muntingia (P)

Pasito: Muntingia (C)

Pasmo: Monstera (P); Siparuna (P)

Pasmo de sol: Tetracera (P)

Pasmo tetano: Siparuna (P)

Pasorin: Asclepias (P)

PASPALUM spp.: Paspalum (E); Cabezona (D). Many species serve as emergency food sources and as forage plants.

PASSIFLORA QUADRANGULARIS L.: Giant granadilla (E); Badea (C); Granadilla (C,P); Nutsulet (Cu); Sirsirsijo (Ch) (Fig. 224). Ripe fruits of this and other species are edible; green fruits are cooked as a vegetable. The roots are said to be edible after baking or roasting. Most species of this genus have edible fruits, but the seeds should not be consumed. Seeds of several species are considered insecticidal.

PASSIFLORA SEEMANNII Griseb.: Guate-Guate (P). The fruits, edible raw, are sometimes mixed with milk to make a fresco.

PASSIFLORA VITIFLORA H.B.K.: Kusep (Cu) (Fig. 225). The fruits are edible.

Passionflower: Passiflora (E)

Paste: Luffa (CR,P)

Pastelillo: Coccoloba (C)

Pastelilla: Coccoloba (C)

Pastilla: Styrax (C)

Pasto argentina: Cynodon (C)

Pasto azul: Dactylis (C)

Pasto bahia: Paspalum

Pasto elefante: Pennisetum

Pasto gallina: Agrostis (C)

Pasto gordora: Melinis (C)

Pasto mexicana: Ixophorus (C)

Pasto micay: Axonopus (C)

Pasto de olor: Anthoxanthum (C)

Pastora: Euphorbia (N)

Pata: Musa (Ch)

Pataba: Jessenia (C)

Pataco: Phaseolus (C)

Pata de chulo: Mediola (C)

Patacon: Cissampelos (C); Phyllanthus (C)

Pata de conejo: Paspalum (C)

Pata de gallina: Cordia (C); Eleusine (C)

Pata de gallo: Jacobina (CR)

Patahua: Jessenia (C)C

Pataiste, Pataste, Patashte: Theobroma (CR)

Patata: Solanum (C)

Pataua: Jessenia (C)

Pata de vaca: Bauhinia (C); Pithecellobium (C); Trichilia (C)

Pate: Chamissoa (N)

Pategallina: Didymopanax (C); Oreopanax (C); Schefflera (C)

Paterno: Inga (P); Swartzia (P)

Patilla: Citrullua (C)

Patillo: Crotalaria (CR)

Patinegra: Eupatorium acuminatum (C)

PATINOA ALMIRAJO Cuatr.: Almirajo (Ch). the fruit is described as delicious. In Panama, the tree is cultivated at Manene, but it is commonly cultivated along the Atrato in Colombia.

Patriota: Musa (P)

Patudo: Coussapoa (C); Liabum vulcanicum (C)

Patza: Piper (Cu); Pothomorphe (Cu)

Pauche: Polymnia (C)

Pauji: Anacardium (C)

PAULLINIA FUSCESCENS H.B.K.: Hierba de alacran (P). Although the white aril is said to be edible, seeds should be avoided. The plant serves as a fish poison and alleviates bug bites. The stems substitute for rope. Darienitas believe that animals and birds who eat the fruits have bitter meat.

PAULLINIA PINNATA L.: Apgi (Cu); Barbasco (P). The powdery pulp of the fruits is sometimes eaten by Africans. The plant can be used as a fish poison; the seeds are poisonous. the stems are used as cordage. The roots are chewed for coughs. Crushed leaves are used as a cataplasm in Latin America. Powdered roots are added to leaves and rice to cure sterility in Ghana women.

Pava(o): Didymopanax (CR,P)

Pavillo: Cornutia (CR); Didymopanax (CR); Lonchocarpus (CR)

Pavito: Jacaranda (C)

Pavon: Jacobinia (CR)

Pavon amarillo: Jaconbinia (CR)

Pavoncillo: Centropogon (CR); Cestrum (CR); Jacobinia (CR)

Pavoncillo rojo: Scutellaria (CR)

PAVONIA FRUTICOSA (Mill.) Fawcett & Rendle: Pegapega (D); Tabadillato (Ch). The roots are used in Choco cough medicines (!).

Paxte: Luffa (CR)

Payanca: Pontederia (C)

Payama: Bejaria (C)

Payande: Pithecellobium (C)

Payva: Hyptis

Pe: Zea (Ch)

Pea: Pisum (E)

Peach Palm: Guilielma (E)

Pea, congo: Cajanus (E)

Peanut: Arachis (E)

Pebetera: Vernonia (C)

Pecosa: Bomarea (C)

PECTIS spp.: Hierba de limon de China (D); Hierba te (P). this aromatic plant is cultivated by the Choco aloong Rio Pirre, for making teas. In Venezuela, mashed leaves and flowers are used instead of the spice comino.

PECTIS ELONGATA H.B.K.: Comino silvestre (C)

PECTORAL: Pertaining to or alleviating conditions of the chest. Acacia, Achyranthes, Allium, Annona, Argemone, Bambusa, Bidens, Calophyllum, Calotropis, Carica, Cecropia, Cedrela, Chiococca, Chrysophyllum, Clusia, Cochlospermum, Cocos, Commelina, Coriandrum, Crescentia, Eclipta, Enallagma, Erythrina, Gossypium, Guazuma, Hibiscus, Hippocratea, Lantana, Lepidium, Linum, Mangifera, Melochia, Moringa, Myroxylon, Ocimum, Pedilanthus, Plumeria, Psychorita, Sesamum, Sterculia, Terminalia, Turnea, Zizyphus.

PEDILANTHUS TITHYMALODIES (L.) Poit.: Grosella (P); Pie de nino (P). the caustic emetic milky sap is used for umbilical hernias among the Chepigana Negroes. The plant is also regarded as an emmenagogue.

Pedro Hernandez: Spondias (C); Toxicodendron (C)

Pedronoche: Datura (C)

Pegadera: Desmodium (S)

Pega mosco: Befaria (C)

Pega-pega: Aeschynomene (P); Cenchrus (P); Desmodium (P); Pharus (P); Triumfetta (P); Pisonia (C); Priva (D)

Pegle: Vochysia (P)

Pegojo: Tabernaemontana (N)

Pegosa: Befaria (C)

Peinecillo: Apeiba (P)

Peine de mico: Apeiba (CR,P); Pithecellobium (CR)

Peine de mono: Apeiba (C)

Peineton: Monstera (C)

Peipute: Casearia (C)

Peji: Banisteriopsis (C)

Pejibaye: Astrocaryum (CR); Guilielma (CR)

Pejibayito: Chimarrhis (CR)

Pela: Acacia (C)

Pelamanos: Daphne (C)

Pelican flower: Aristolochia (E)

Pelicano: Cycnoches (C); Delphinium (C); Stanhopea (C)

Peligalo: Aphelandra (C)

Pelo de angel: Calliandra (C)

Pelo de Indio: Hirtella (N)

Pelolica: Phyllanthus (C)

Pelo de paton: Bulbostylis (CR)

Pelotillo: Weinmannia (C)

Peloto: Andira (C); Casearia (C)

PELTOGYNE PURPUREA Pittier: Purple heart (E); Morado (P); Nazareno (P) (Fig. 226). The very attractive wood is a favorite for Choco carvings, and for fine furniture construction.

Peluda: Clidemia (C); Miconia (C)

Peluso: Sloanea (D)

Pena blanca: Coccoloba (S)

Penca: Guzmania (C)

Pendaga: Costus (C)

Penda morada: Securidaca (C)

Pendare: Mimusops (C)

PENNISETUM spp.: Elephant grass (E); Hierba elefante (P). The grains may serve as food. Around Singapore, this forage, cut once a month, yields an annual forage crop of 225 tons of fresh grass per hectare.

Pensamiento: Duranta (N); Viola (CR)

Pensamiento de pobre: Browallia (C)

PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA Benth.: Gallinazo (D). The seeds, used to poison fish and arrows and eaten with red ants to induce abortion, are edible after careful processing. Expressed oil is used for candle making, cooking and soap. Ashes of the pods are used as salt. The anthelmintic bark is pounded and applied to leprosy sores.

PENTAGONIA BRACHYOTIS (Standl.) Sandl.: Biruchichiho (Ch); Cumtulo (Cu); Murcielago (C) (Fig. 227). The fruits have a scanty, edible (barely edible) pulp (!). Choco take the leaves and fruits in a tea as a blood purifier (!).

Peona: Castilleja (C)

Peonia negra: Lantana (C)

Peonia: Abrus (S)

Pepa de cruz: Thevetia (C)

Pepa de culbra: Rauvolfia (C)

Pepa del oro: Zizyphus (C)

Pepa de sabalo: Crateva (C)

Pepe guara: Grias (C)

Pepenance: Ximenia (CR)

PEPEROMIA GLAIOIDES H.B.K.: Cuyanguilla (C); Quereme (C). This aromatic herb is a famous love charm in Colombia.

PEPEROMIA PELLUCIDA (L.) H.B.K.: Hierba de Sapo (P). The plant is reputed to be an ashtma cure.

PEPEROMIA QUADRIFOLIA (L.) H.B.K.: Retono (S). The plant is said to be eaten raw or cooked.

PEPEROMIA VIRIDISPICA var. PERJIL Trel.: Perejil (C,P). A Panama song is based on this spice, "A la lora hay quedarle perejil." The leaves, eaten like a salad, are a constituten of recado verde, and taken as a tea for stomach upsets.

Pepinillo: Cyphomandra (CR); Momordica (CR, CR/ROC)

Pepino: Cucumis (S); Cyclanthera (CR); Solanum (C)

Pepino crespo: Cyclanthera (C)

Pepino diablito: Cyclanthera (C)

Pepino lloron: Solanum (C)

Pepino mango: Solanum (C)

Pepino morado: Solanum (C)

Pepo: Sapindus (C)

Pepo de cruz: Thevetia (C)

Pera: Couma (C)

Peralejo: Byrsonima (C); Curatella (C)

Peraman: Symphonia (C)

PEREBEA sp.: Pacuru (Ch). Most probably a component of an important arrow poison for the Colombian Choco.

Perefuetano: Parnarium (C)

Perejil: Carum (C); Peperomia (P); Petroselinum (CR)

PERESKIA ACULEATA Mill.: Bladeapple (E); Barbados Gooseberry (J); Bledo (C); Guamacho (C); Naca (C); Naju de espinas (P). The fruit is eaten raw or preserved, or cooked in soil. The leaves serve for potherbs and salads.

PERSKIA BLEO (H.B.K.) DC.: Clarol (C); Naju de culebra (P); Naju de espinas (P); Pipchuelo (C) (Fig. 228). The red flowers of this armed leafy cactus are followed by yellow edible fruit (!). The leaves may be eaten raw with no bad effects (!). In Colombia, the cactus is used for living fences.

PERFUME: An aromatic substance, pleasing or attractive to ones associates. Abelmoschus, Acacia, Cyperus, Myroxylon, Petiveria, P:rotium, Renealmia, Sicana, Tetragastris, Warszewiczia.

Pergamela: Clerodendrum (C)

Perico: Amphilophium (N)

Perilejo: Myrcia (C)

Perillo: Brosimum (C); Couma (C)

Perillo blanco: Himatanthus (C)

Periquito: Muntingia (D); Trema (D)

Perita: Alibertia (C); Eugenia (C)

Pernilla de casa: Erythrina (P)

Pernilla de monte: Ormosia (P)

Pero: Couma (C)

Peron: Passiflora (C)

Peronil: Clitoria (P)

Peronilla: Erythrina (C); Ormosia (C); Pithecellobium (C); Rhynchosia (C); Vitex (C)

Perquetano: Moquilea (C)

Perrero: Aiphanes (C)

Perrito: Tribulus (C)

PERSEA AMERICANA Mill.: Avocado (E); Aguacate (S); Ashue (Cu); Bego (Ch) (Fig. 229). Avocados are eaten with rice, in salads, and in soups. The avocado has vitamin and oil-rich fruits relished by man, all domestic, and most wild animals, including carnivores. It may be eaten right off the tree and contains more protein than any other fruit. Some Latins regard the fruit as aphrodisiac. Lactating Saliqui Choco are supposed to abstain from avocado. The seed has a sap used for marking clothing indelibly. Many medicinal virtues are attributed to the seeds. Powdered, they may be used with cheese or tallow to poison mice and other noxious animals. The oil is sometimes used for grooming the hair. In Los Santos, the roots and leaves, made into a decoction, are drunk as te de aguacate, to lower the blood pressure (!). Te de aguacate is drunk instead of water by Chepigana Negroes with liver ailments. Breakfast in Puerto Obaldia frequently consists of a tea of avocado leaves sweetened with cane juice.

Persian lilac: Melia (B)

Pesacarne: Marathrum (P)

Pestano de mula: Heliocarpus (C,N)

PESTICIDE: A substance used for killing pests, e.g., mice. Combretum, Coriaria, Dieffenbachia, Drepanocarpus, Gliricidia, Hura, Jatropha, Persea, Rourea.

Petipoa: Cajanus (CR)

PETIVERIA ALLIACEA L.: Ajillo (CR/ROC); Anamo (Ch); Anamu (C,P); Jasmincillo (C); Mapurito (C); Raiz de congo (C); Raiz de pipi (C); Urgat (Cu); Zorrillo (CR/ROC) (Fig. 230). The roots are chewed to alleviatge toothache, and sniffed to relieve headache. In the Choco a leaf infusion is used for parturition in women and in cattle. It is used also as a febrifuge, and aerial parts are used to cure pulmonary ailments. It is elsewhere placed among woolens to protect them from insects. It is administered to induce menstruation and by some is considered aphrodisiac and ecbolic. Sabana Choco and La Nueva Negroes use it as a vampire repellant (!). Salaqui Choco, however, wear it as a perfume (!). Mixed with lemon, anamu is used by La Nueva Negrows as a snakebite remedy.

PHASEOLUS: Beans (E). Several types of beans are cultivated for food and fodder in Panama. Beans are known to the Cuna as inua, but Choco call them frijol. The most important for food are the lima bean or haba (guaracaro), Phaseolus lunatus, the mung bean, Phaseolus aureus, the black bean or frijol, Phaseolus vulgaris (chancharo), and the hyacinth bean or chicharro (Dolichos lablab). Among the Mayas, three kinds of beans are eaten, native black beans being most commonly boiled in salt water and eaten with tortillas. Lima beans are eaten similarly but less frequently. A smaller white bean is cooked with squash seeds which have been toasted and mixed with chopped oniion leaves. Indians rarely use the unripe fruits of beans or corn for vegetables, as does white man. Black beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, are second only to corn in Central American diet, but about the Canal Zone, they are little used. Medicinally, beans are regarded as emmenagogue, used for dysentery, tenesmus, sore eyes, hiccups, and as a poultice on burns.

PHASEOLUS ADENANTHUS G.Meyer: Habichuela cimarrona (S). The tuberous roots have served as food.

PHASEOLUS LUNATUS L.: Lima bean (E); Cachas (C); Habas (S); Huevo de piche (C); Pallars (C); Zaragosa (C) (Fig. 231). Lima beans are well-known vegetables, but the purple seeds should be avoided. The leaves and young shoots contain about 7.5% protein.

PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.: Common bean (E); Habichuela (S); Inua (Cu) (Fig. 232). The seeds are edible cooked.

PHILOXERUS VERMICULARIS (L.) Nutt.: Beach carpet (E); Hierba de sal (S). Tender parts serve as a presalted potherb.

PHOEBE MEXICANA Meissn.: The depressant leaves are used for heart ailments.

PHRAGMITES COMMUNIS (L.) Trin.: Common reed (E); Cana de Indio (S). The young shoots sserve as a potherb. The seeds are edible cooked. Rhizomes may be eaten raw or ground into flour. Heating this flour oftne yields a taffy-like food-stuff. A sweet edible gum oozes from punctures caused by insects. The stems are used for thatching.

PHYLLANTHUS ACIDUS (L.) Skeels: Star gooseberry (E); Grosella (C); Murusol (Cu) (Fig. 233). The fruits are used for preserves, and are also eaten raw or pickled.

PHYLLANTHUS ACUMINATUS Vahl: Chirrinchao (C). Used by the Choco as a fish poison.

PHYSALIS spp.: Ground cherry (E); Topeton (P); Uchuva (C); Uvilla (C) (Fig. 234). The fruits are eaten raw or cooked, especially as an additive to stews. They are sometimes made into preserves by cooking in palm syrup. the leaves are cooked as a potherb in parts of Africa.

Physic nut: Jatropha (E)

PHYTELEPHAS SEEMANNII Cook: Ivory palm (E); Allagua (C); Anta (Ch); Cabeza de Negra (C,P); Palma de marfil (C,P); Sagu (Cu); Tagua (C,P). The young nuts have a potable jelly-like liquid (!). This gradually hardens into vegetable ivory used for making buttons and other ornaments. A thin crust around the ivory is occasionally brought into the market in San Blas as a food (!). The leaves are occasionally used for thatch in Colombia (!).

PHYTOLACCA RIVINOIDES Kunth & Bouche: Pokeberry (E); Atusara (C); (Col de monte (C); Jaboncillo (S). Leaves and new shoots serve as a potherb. The inedible root is used as a soap substitute.

Piasaba: Leopoldinia (C)

Picamano: Cissampelos (N)

Picante: Polygonum (C)

Picantillo: Polygonum (C)

Picapica: Mucuna (S)

Picep: Ocimum (Cu)

Pichana: Scoparia (C)

Pichicango: Scleria (C)

Pichichinchivo: Solanum (CR)

Pichichio: Solanum (CR, CR/ROC)

Pichiguao: Guilielma (C)

Pichinche: Machaerium (C)

Pichinde: Pithecellobium (C,P); Pseudoraupea (C)

Pichipang: Colubrina (P)

Pickerel weed: Pontederia (E)

PICKLES: Plant parts used as food after preserving in vinegar or brine. Abelmoschus, Capparis, Capsicum, Crescentia, Cucumis, Genipa, Hibiscus, Moringa, Phyllanthus, Solanum, Spondias.

Pico de caspe: Anibe (C)

Pico de flamenco: Sesbania (S)

Pico de loro: Machaerium (C)

Pico de pajaro: Cassia (CR)

Pico de pato: Amphilophium (N); Xanthosoma (CR)

PICRAMNIA LATIFOLIA Tul.: Corajillo (CR). Leaves and bark of the honey tree are febrifugal.

Pida: Allium (Ch)

Pidua: Pithecellobium (Ch)

Pie de nino: Pedilanthus (P)

Pie de paloma: Axonopus (CR)

Pie de venado: Rinorea (C)

Pigeon pea: Cajanus (E)

Pigeon plum: Hirtella (E)

Piginio: Byrsonima (C); Sickingia (C)

Piginio amarillo: Genipa (C)

Pigweed: Amaranthus (E)

Pijibay: Guilielma (N)

Pilapisep: Salvia (Cu)

Pilde: Banisteriopsis (C)

PILEA INVOLUCRATA (Sims) Urban: Carianabo (C). Among the Sibundoy, wounds are healed with the mashed and salted leaves. Mixed with Brownea, it is used to cure floja, a menstrual ailment. It also finds a way into inflammation and tuberculosis treatments.

Pilon: Andira (P); Hieronyma (CR,P)

Pimientilla: Cyperus (P)

Pimiento: Capsicum (E); Myrcia (P); Schinus (C,CR)

Pimiento oloroso: Pimenta (N)

Pilota: Paphliopedilum (C)

Pilpe: Angelonia (C)

Pimpa: Iriartella (C)

Pimpi: Iriartella (C)

Pimpin: Rivina (C)

Pina: Cyperus (Cu)

Pina: Ananas (S)

Pina anona: Monstera (CR,C)

Pina blanca: Podocarpus (P)

Pinanona: Monstera (P)

Pinapina: Astrocaryum (P)

Pina de playon: Ananas (C)

Pindoba: Orbignya (C)

Pineapple: Ananas (E)

Pine, Australian: Casuarina (E)

Pinecone palm: Raphia (E)

Pingwing: Ananas (P)

Pinico: Sapium (C)

Pinnuwala: Anacardium (Cu)

Pino: Laetia (C); Podocarpus (P)

Pino: Pinus (CR,C)

Pino amarillo: Lafoensia (P)

Pino blanco: Podocarpus (P)

Pino bobo: Pithecellobium (C)

Pino chaquiro: Podocarpus (C)

Pino hayuelo: Podocarpus (C)

Pinon: Albizia (C); Enterolobium (C); Gyrocarpus (C); Jatropha (P); Sterculia (C)

Pinon amoroso: Gliricidia (C)

Pinon de oreja: Enterolobium (C)

Pino de pacho: Podocarpus (C)

Pino romeron: Podocarpus (C)

Pinpurekwat: Costus (Cu)

Pintadilla: Clibadium surinamense (C)

Pintamora: Solanum (P)

Pintamora de monte: Capsicum (P); Cestrum (P)

Pinta mozo: Vismia (P)

Pinta pava: Randia (C)

Pintapinta: Rivina (C)

Pinturero: Phyllanthus (C)

Pinu: Anacardium (Cu)

Pinuelo: Pelliceria (C)

Pinupuruiwat: Costus (Cu)

Pinuela: Ananas (P)

Piojo: Acaena (C)

Pipa: Cocos (S)

Piper: Piper (B)

PIPER ADUNCUM L.: Wild pepper (E); Gusanillo (S) (Fig. 235). The peppery fruits are used to season food; it is sometimes eaten as a potherb.

PIPER AURITUM H.B.K.: Cowfoot (E); Cordoncillo (S); Anisillo (CR); Hoja de ajan (CR); Hoja de Santamaria (CR); Hoja de anis (CR); Hoja de la estrella (CR); Hierba santa (CR); Santamaria (CR); Santilla de comer (CR). The leaves, with the aroma of sarsaparilla, are used to flavor tamales.

PIPER DARIENENSE C.DC.: Duermeboca (P); Kana (Cu). The fruits are very effective toothache cures (!). Choco use the plant as a fish poison (!). Cuna use it as a bath, for snakebites and colds (!).

PIPER sp.: Pachar (Cu); Patza (Cu). the roots are used to facilitate bleeding from contusion, perhaps anticoagulant. Cooked roots are used as an expectorant in Ailigandi.

Pipewort: Aristolochia (E)

Pipi: Petiveria (C)

Pipian: Maranta (C)

Pipichuelo: Pereskia (C)

Pipilacha: Ruprectia (N)

Pipilongo: Piper (C)

Pipire: Guilielma (C)

PIPTADENIA PEREGRINA (L.) Benth.: Niopo (C); Yoco (C) (Fig. 236). Toasted seeds are used as a narcotic snuff (Cojoba) by Colombian Indians; Choco witch doctors use them to induce comas. The snuff is taken nasally and anally.

Piraju: Bromelia (Ch)

Piria: Cassia (Cu)

Pirijao: Guilielma (C)

Piripucho: Phaseolus (C)

Piriquitera: Doliocarpos (C)

Piriquitoya: Canna (CR)

Piro: Bromelia (CR,P)

Pisabed: Cassia (CR)

Pisamo: Erythrina (C)

Pisano: Erythrina (C)

Pisba: Guilielma (D)

PISCICIDE: A substance (barbasco) to kill or stupefy fish. Anacardium, Andira, Annona, Aspidosperma, Byrsonima, Cassia, Centrosema, Cissampelos, Citharexylum, Cleome, Clibadium, Crysophila, Dioscorea, Diospyros, Dodonaea, Dntada, Erythrina, Euphorbia, Furcraea, Hippomane, Hura, Jacquinia, Jatropha, Lonchocarpus, Mammea, Melia, Muellera, Pachyrhizus, Paullinia, Pentaclethra, Phyllanthus, Piper, Piscidia, Randia, Saccharum, Salmea, Sapindus, Selenipedium, Serjania, Smilax, Tephrosia, Tephrosia, Thevetia, Vismia.

PISCIDIA PISCIPULA (L.) Sarg.: Fish poison tree (E); Matapez (C) (Fig. 237). the branches are used to poison fish. the alkaloid pisciden is poisonous or narcotic to man, but in small doses is sedative and suporific.

Pisep: Ocimum (Cu)

Pisquin: Albizia (C)

Pistachero: Pistacia (C)

PISTIA STRATIOTES L. Water lettuce (E); Buchona (C); Hodropica (C); Lechuga de agua (S); Sirena (C) (Fig. 238). The leaves are mixed with soups but they should be parboiled to remove oxalate crystals. They are used to combat colds, dysentery. The ashes may be used as salt. Crushed leaves serve to dress abscesses, hemorrhoids, and ulcers. The roots are laxative and emollient, and used in cures for asthma, diabetes, dysnetery, and tuberculosis.

Pissi: Hamelia (CR)

PISUM SATIVA L.: Pea (E); Alverja (C); Arveja (C); Guisante (C) (Fig. 239). Peas, edible cooked, are rarely, if ever grown, grown in lowland Panama.

Pit: Enterolobium

Pita, Pita floja: Aechmea (C); Ananas (P); Carludovica (CR); Viburnum (C)

Pitahaya: Acanthocereus (C); Cereus (CR)

Pitanga: Eugenia (C)

PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE (Roxb.) Benth.: Chininango (D); Dinde (C); Gallinero (C); Mochiguiste (CR); Tiraco (C) (Fig. 240). The pulp around the seeds is edible and also made into a beverage (!).

PITHECELLOBIUM RUFESCENS (Benth.) Pitt.: Coralillo (P); Flor de Indio (P); Harino (P); Inapisu (Cu); Jarino (P). Bayano Cuna Indians use the bark in medicine baths for female troubles.

PITHECELLOBIUM UNGUIS-CATI (L.) Benth.: Black bean (E); Pidua (Ch); Una de gato (S) (Fig. 241). The fruits are sometimes consumed as food.

Pitilla: Sporobolus (CR)

Pito: Erythrina (P)

Pito gigante: Erythrina (C)

Pito de peronilla: Erythrina (C)

Pivijay: Ficus (C)

Pizzara: Persea (CR,P)

PLANTAGO MAJOR L.: Plantain (E); Llanten (CR/ROC)

Plantain: Musa (E); Plantago (CR/ROC)

Plantain, wild: Heliconia (E)

planta del soldado: Hedyosmum (C)

Platanaria: Sparganium (C)

Plantanillo: Calathea (P); Canna (P); Helilconia (P); Nasturtium (CR); Renealmia (C); Scutellaria (CR)

Plantanillo de monte: Epiphyllum (CR)

Plantanito: Adipera (C); Cassia (C); Chamaefistula (C); Oxalis (C); Tabernaemontana (C)

Plantano: Chimarrhia (P); Hieronyma (CR); Minquartia (N); Musa (S)

Plateado: Croton (C)

PLATYMISCIUM PINNATUM (Jacq.) Dugand: Cachimbo (CR); Cristobal (CR); Quira (P); Sangrillo (P); Trebol (C) (Fig. 242). Roasting corn meal in the leaves is supposed to impart a good flavor. The timber is durable and highly suitable for cabinet work.

Plegadera: Alchemilla (C)

Plomillo: Caryocar (CR)

Plomo: Belotia (CR); Mollinedia (C); Tachigalia (CR)

PLUCHEA PURPURASCENS (Sw.) DC.: Tabaco cimarron.

Plum: Spondias (B)

Pluma de Indio: Codiaeum (D)

Pluma de la reina: Buddleja (CR); Petrea (C)

Plumaria: Iresine (C)

Pluma venus: Rhoeo (S)

PLUMBAGO SCANDENS L.: Hierba del pajaro (S); Umbela (S). Leaves are applied externally for "itch" and leprosy, internally as an emetic or purgative.

PLUMBAGO ACUTIFOLIA Poir.: Frangipani (E); Amancayo (C); Canchu (Cu); Caracucha (P) (Fig. 243). The sap yields rubber, or is used to coagulate rubber, and is used to treat venereal diseases. the flowers are considered pectoral. Jamaicans belileve that just applying the latex to the nevel serves as a purgative. Principles thought useful in the control of pathogenic fungi and tuberculosis has been extracted from species of Plumeria.

Plumilla: Iresine (C)

Plumito: Petrea (C)

Poaja: Cephaelis (C)

Pochote: Bombacopsis (CR); Ceiba (S); Pseudobombax (CR)

Pococa: Passiflora (CR); Ocotea (CR)

PODOCARUPS MACROSTACHYA Parl.: Pino blanco (P); Romeron (C). Pericarps of the fruits are edible.

Pogo: Dioscorea (C)

Poinciana: Delonix (E)

Poinsettia: Euphorbia (E)

Poison: Hyptis (P)

Poison dogwood: Clusia (B)

Pokeberry: Phytolacca (E)

Pokeweed: Phytolacca (E)

Polak: Ochroma (N)

Poleo: Peperomia (P); Satureia (C)

POLLALESTA COLOMBIANA Aristeguieta: Cenizo (C)

Polvillo: Tabebuia (C)

Polvo de monte: Malvaviscus (S)

Polvotutu: Cestrum (Cu)

POLYGALA sp.: Sarpoleta (C). Aromatic roots are used as a febrifuge.

POLYMNIA PYRAMIDALIS Tr.: Arboloco bogotano (C); Arboloco hueco (C)

POLYMNIA RIPARIA H.B.K.: Pauche cumana (C); Jiquimilla (C)

POLYPODIUM AUREUM L. The rhizomes are edible.

Pomarrosa: Eugenia (P)

Pamarossa de Malaca: Eugenia (C)

Pomegranate: Punics (E)

Pome: Eugenia (C)

Pompolluda: Coleus (P)

Ponatotu: Brownea (Ch)

Pond apple: Annona (E)

PONTEDERIA CORDATA L.: Pickerel weed (E). The seeds are edible raw, dried, or boiled, and can be made into flour.

Popa: Couma (C); Lacmellia (C)

Popo: Bambusa (C)

Poponjoche: Huberodendron (CR)

Poro: Erythrina (CR)

Poro colorado: Erythrina (CR)

Poro espinas: Erythrina (CR)

POROPHYLLUM MACROCEPHALUM DC.: Yerba de chulo, PUrranga, Chipaca (C)

POROPHYLLUM RUDERALE (Jacq.) Cass.: Venadillo (C); Ruda de gallina (C); Chucha (C); Gallenaza (C)

Poroporo: Cochlospermum (CR,N,P); Passiflora (C); Gallenaza (C)

Poroto: Erythrina (C); Phaseolus (P)

Poro trinidad: Erythrina (CR)

Porterweed: Stachytarpheta (E)

Portia tree: Thespesia (E)

Porto Bello: Angelonia (N)

Porotorico: Carludovica (P); Cyclanthus (P)

Portulaca: Portulaca (C)

PORTULACA OLERACEA L.: Purslane (E); Verdolaga (S). The leaves are edible raw or cooked. The seeds serve as a grain. The plant is regarded as diuretic, cataplasmic, galactogogic, and vermifuge. The seeds, said to be anthelmintic, antidysenteric, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, and vermifugal, are used in dysuria, harmaturia, haemoptysis, and strangury. They are also applied to burns.

Portulaca de playa: Talinum (C)

POSOQUERIA LATIFOLIA (Rudge) Roem. & Schult.: Monkey apple (E,J); Wild coffee (E,J); Boca vieja (P); Borojo (P); Churumbelo (C); Fruta de mono (CR); Fruta de murcielago (P); Guavito de mico (CR); Huevo de mono (P). The fruits are edible (!).

Posui: Oenocarpus (C)

POTHERB: A plant part (other than the root, fruit or seed) edible after cooking. Achyranthes, Acrostichum, Adansonia, Amaranthus, Anredera, Bambusa, Basella, Batis, Bidens, Boerhaavia, Bromelia, Calathea, Calonyction, Cardiospermum, Carludovica, Cassia, Cecropia, Ceiba, Celosia, Centella, Ceratopteris, Chamaedorea, Chenopodium, Cocos, Colocasia, Commelina, Corchorus, Cosmos, Crescentia, Crotalaria, Cucurbita, Cyathea, Desmodium, Eichhornia, Elaeis, Elaterium, Eleusine, Emilia, Erechtites, Eryngium,

Erythrina, Fagopyrum, Gliricidia, Guadua, Hibiscus, Hydrocotyle, Hydrolea, Ipomoea, Jatropha, Kallstroemia, Lagenaria, Lepidium, Leucaena, Limnocharis, Manihot, Marathrum, Marsilea, Mirabilis, Mollugo, Momordica, Morinda, Moringa, Musa, Nasturtium, Neptunia, Oxalis, Pachira, Peperomia, Pereskia, Philoxerus, Phragmites, Physalis, Phytolacca, Piper, Pistia, Portulaca, Psophocarpus, Pteridium, Quisqualis, Raphanus, Rumex, Sechium, Sesbania, Sesuvium, Solanum, Sonchus, Spathiphyllum, Spilanthes, Spondias, Struchium, Talinum, Tamarindus, Thespesia, Triumfetta, Typha, Ullucus, Vernonia, Vitis, Xanthosoma, Ximenia, Yucca.

POTHOMORPHE PELTATA (L.) Miq.: Inojo (D); Patza (Cu); Santa Maria (P) (Fig. 244). The leaves are rubbed on the body as a tick repellent or, among the Bayano Cuna, to kill lice (!). Those of P. umbellata are eaten and used for toothache. The Bayano Cuna use Pothomorphe stems as a cold cure. The leaves of P. peltata are cooked with zapallo leaves in salt water and poulticed overnight on erysipelas and leishmanniasis sores (!). The following day the wound is dried with heat, washed with the decoction, and then a Pothomorphe leaf, dried over a flame, is pasted on with cacao butter (!). For pain, a tea of the leaves is drunk or mixed with alcohol for a massage. Los Tablas witch doctors claim the leaves are an effective external sudorific (!). Species of Pothomorphe are also used to treat venereal disease, and in Darien as an aromatic toilet paper substitute (!) and to facilitate parturition.

Potra: Cassia (C)

Potrico: Astronium (C)

POULSENIA ARMATA (Miq.) Standl.: Cocua (P); Damajagua (C); Matagua (P); Mastate (C); Namagua (C) (Fig. 245). This was a primary source of bark cloth among the Choco. The fruits and buds are edible.

POUROUMA ASPERA Trecul.: Mangabe (P); Uva (C); Viranjo (Ch). The fruits are eaten by Indians, those of other species are used to make wine. Hollow petioles are used to make popguns.

POUTERIA MAMMOSA (L.) Cron.: Mamey sapote (E). The fruits are edible.

POUTERIA MULTIFL ORA (A.DC.) Eyma: Jacana (S) (Fig. 246). Thr fruits taste like dry persimmons (!).

Powder puff: Pseudobombax (E)

Poxot: Ceiba (N)

Pozolillo: Cupania (CR)

Prickly ash: Zanthoxylum (B)

Prickly chaff flower: Achranthes (E)

Prickly holly: Zanthoxylum (B)

Prickly palm: Acrocomia (E)

Prickly pear: Opuntia (E)

Prickly poppy: Argemone (E)

Pride of Barbados: Caesalpinia (E)

Prieto: Lonchocarpus (E)

Primavera: Acalypha (N)

Primrose malanga: Xanthosoma (E)

Princesa: Vinca (C)

Pringamosca: Loasa (CR)

Pringamoa: Jatropha (P); Loassa (CR); Urera (C); Wigandia (C)

PRIORIA COPAIFERA Griseb.: Spanish walnut (E); Amansa mujer (C,P); Camibar (CR); Canime (C); Cativo (C,P); Copachu (C); Trementina (C) (Fig. 247). Some Panamanians apply the gum to maggots. Gum from the trunk is used by Choco to caulk piraguas. This is a favorite veneer lumber, the Atrato River belching forth about 1,000,000 bd ft per month.

PRIVA LAPPULACEA (L.) Pers. Cadillo (P); Pega pega (D) (Fig. 248). The plant is used in Choco cough medicine (!).

Probado: Didymopanax (CR)

Pronto alivio: Lantana (C)

Prontolivin: Guarea (N)

PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (Sw.) DC.: Mesquite (E); Aroma (P); Manca-caballo (C,P); Trupilla (C) (Fig. 249). Elsewhere, Indians grind the pods into a flour used for baking and gruels. The fruits are eaten by cattle, and the flowers are attractive to bees. The bark is used for roofing in Guajira.

PROTIUM sp.: Carana hediondo (S); Carano (P); Chutra (P); Ruda (C). The aril of the seeds is eaten by most frugivores, including man (!). One of Panama's most valued suppuratives, the gum from the tree is used in two ways. When you will not be getting wet for a while, you heat and apply to screw worms. It apparently suffocates them and when the carano gum is pulled off, out come the dead worms. Cool, it is applied to torsalo, and to spine-induced wounds to prevent infections (!). Also it is applied externally for headaches. The plant is also used to cure asthma. The heartwood kindles easily.

Provision tree: Pachira (E)

PSEUDELEPHANTOPUS SPICATUS (Juss.) Rohr.: Canasacanga (Cu); Candeabsurguit (Cu); Chicoria (P); Escobillo blanco (P); Suelda con suelda (C). In Panama, it is used to make a febrifugal cough syrup; in San Blas, it is used for stomach aches. Elsewhere, the plant serves for venereal diseases. Ailigrandi Cuna take it believing it is vitamin-rich (!).

PSEUDOBOMBAX SEPTENATUM (Jacq.) Dugand: Bottle tree (E); Square tree (E); Barrigon (P); Cartageno (C); Ceiba de majagua (C); Ceibo barrigon (C); Majagua (C); Urtuwala (Cu) (Fig. 250). The cotton around the seeds is used to stuff pillows and mattresses. Formerly the bark furnished cordage.

PSEUDOGYNOXYS BOGOTENSIS (Spreng.) Cuatr.: Amapola del camino (C)

PSEUDOLMEDIA SPURIA (Sw.) Griseb.: Bloodwood (E); Cacique (P); Cucua (P); Ojoche (CR) (Fig. 251). The bark is used tomake cloth. The fruits are edible. the branches are sometimes cut for oxen forage in Costa Rica. The latex is occasionally used to adulterate chicle. In Western Panama, the bloodwood is esteemed by the Indians, with both medicinal and supernatural properties. A small chip placed over a wound is said to relieve the pain and stop the bleeding. If placed behind the ears and secured by a cord, it is said to stop headaches. Chips or shavings are placed in rum for a malaria treatment.

PSIDIUM GUJAVA L.: Guava (E); Guayaba (C,P); Nulu (Cu); Purijo (Ch) (Fig. 252). The edible fruit, often laden with maggots, is said to make the eater smell like a bedbug. It is used to make wines and jellies. The roots are eaten in soup. The leaves are chewed to relieve toothache and are used as a cataplasm, astringent, anticholeric, antidiarrhetic, and anticatarrhic. Wild fruits are supposed to expel phlegm, cut cholera, and improve jaundice. It is one ingredient for respiratory ailments among Choco children (!). It is also used to fatten pigs.

PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGONOLOBUS (L.) DC.: Goa bean (E) (Fig. 253). Green pods are eaten like string beans; roasted ripe seeds are also eaten with rice. the leaves and young sprouts, containing about 5% protein, are used in soups; A fungus in certain parts of the world causes swelling or galls which are eaten after steaming.

PSORIASIS: A chronic skin disease in which red scaly patches develop. Treated with Anacardium, Carica, Cassia, Thespesia.

PSYCHOTRIA COOPERI Standl.: Amarga (C). Used as a decoction in the Choco for rheumatism.

PSYCHOTRIA EMETICA L.f.: False ipecac (E); Raicilla (S). The roots, gathered as an emetic and purgative (!), are probably used as an adulterant of ipecac.

PTERIDIUM AQUILINUM (L.) Kuhn: Bracken fern (E); Helecho (S); Helecho de aguilo (C) (Fig. 254). Rootstocks and very young plants are edible after cooking to remove a toxic principle abundant in older plants. they are used to destroy tapeworm. Underground stems contain mucilage and starch, which by washing and pounding, yields a dough for making breadstuffs. The fern may cause stomach cancer of organisms, including Japanese, who ingest it. Cows who ingest it may pass on the carcinogen in their milk.

PTEROCARPUS OFFICINALIS Jacq.: Bloodwood (E); Dragon blood tree (E); Eterreva (Ch); Huevo de gato (P); Kanirabe (Cu); Sabroso (C); Sangre drago (S) (Fig. 255). Seeds and flowers of some Asian species are eaten. The wood has served as floats for fishnets. The resin is considered astringent and hemostatic.

PTEROCAULON ALOPECUROIDES (Lam.) DC.: Venadillo grande (C)

Pu: Conostgegia (CR)

Pudreoreja: Ipomoea (CR)

Pudreoreja de playa: Ipomoea (CR)

Puero: Ochroma (P)

Puesilde: Quassia (P)

Puipute: Casearia (CR); Forestiera (CR); Xylosma (CR)

Pujaguito: Cornutia (N)

Pujamo: Aiphanes (C)

Pulatar: Pereskia (Cu)

Pulguera: Dalea (CR)

Pulisa: Eupatorium (C)

Pulque: Agave (S)

Pumbo: Satureja (CA)

Pumpkin: Cucurbita (E)

Pumpum(n) juche: Pachira (N)

Punch berry: Myrcia (E)

PUNICA GRANATUM L.: Pomegranmate (E); Granada (S) (Fig. 256). The fruit, edible and easily fermented, is good for stopping bleeding. The seeds are astringent, refrigerant, and stomachic. The bark, esepcially of the root, is good for expelling tapeworm.

Punta de lanza: Vismia (C)

Punta de sarvia: Miconia (C)

Punte candado: Pouteria (C)

Punte cascarillo: Minquartia (C)

Puntero: Andropogon (C); Haparrhenia (C)

Punua: Dioscorea (Cu)

Punula: Quararibea (D)

Punur: Stromanthe (Cu)

Puppur: Montrichardia (Cu)

Pupuchiru: Vitex (P)

Pupuna: Guilielma (C)

Pupuna brava: Bactris (C)

Pupuna silvestre: Syagrus (C)

Purca: Polymnia (CR)

Purga: Andira (C)

Purgacion: Lonchocarpus (C)

Purga de huane: Jatropha (C)

Purga Perro: Hyptis (P)

Purijo: Psidium (Ch)

PURGATIVE: A substance to relieve constipation. Aleurites, Allamanda, Aloe, Ananas, Andira, Annona, Argemone, Artemisia, Asclepias, Bocconia, Caesalpinia, Carapa, Cassia, Chlorophora, Clematis, Clitoria, Clusia, Costus, Crescentia, Davilla, Drepanocarpus, Eclipta, Eugenia, Euphorbia, Fevillea, Genipa, Hernandia, Hippomane, Ipomoea, Isotoma, Jatropha, Luffa, Melia, Mimosa, Mirabilis, Moringa, Ophioglossum, Pedilanthus, Phyllanthus, Plumbago, Psychotria, Ricinus, Rumex, Solanum, Spigelia, Tamarindus, Thevetia, Trichilia, Zamia.

Purple heart: Peltogyne (E)

Purple mombin: Spondias (E)

Purple nutsedge: Cyperus (E)

Purple wreath: Petrea (E)

Purra: Clidemia (CR)

Purre: Conostegia (CR)

Purslane: Portulaca (E)

Purua: Cyperus (Cu)

Pusley: Portulaca (E)

Pusui: Oenocarpus (C)

Putalar: Pereskia (Cu)

Putarra: Smilax (CR)

Puta vieja: Mimosa (CR)

Puyon: Xylosma (C)

PYRENOGLYPHIS MAJOR (Jacq.) Karst.: Black palm (E); Chonta (C,D); Lata (P); Palma Brava (P). the acidulous fruits are occasionally eaten. The leaflets are used for making hats on the Azuero Peninsula.

- Q -

Quano: Ficus (C)

QUARARIBEA sp.: Guayabillo (P); Punula (P) (Fig. 257). The flowers are used to flavor cacao. Fruits of some species are eaten by most frugivores, including man.

Quaruba: Vochysia (trade name)

QUASSIA AMARA L.: Quassia (E); Bitter wood (E); Crucete (P); Guavito Amargo (P); Guavo (D); Hombre Grande (P, CR/ROC); Hombron (CR); Puesilde (P). An infusion of the wood in alcohol is used in Panama as a febrifuge and in liver and snakebite remedies (!). Some Negroes believe that drinking the bitter tea will prevent snakebite.

Quebracho: Astronium (C)

Quebracho blanco: Hasseltia (CR)

Quebro ollo: Bucquetia (C)

Quelites: Cassia (CR); Jatropha (C)

Quemacho: Xylosma (C)

Quemadera: Spilanthes (C)

Quemasusu: Canavalia (Ch)

Quende: Diospyros (C)

Quera: Schradera (C)

Querabare: Arrabidea (C)

Queravangue: Conostegia (P)

QUERCUS spp.: Oak (E); Roble (C,P). Oaks are high altitude species in Latin America. Acorns are a favorite with most frugivores, but they can be harmful to sheep. Elsewhere the yield of acorn from a good oak tree is said to produce 100 lbs. pork in pigs grazing the acorns.

Querebere: Coupeia (C)

Quereme: Peperomia (C); Cavendishia (C); Rodriguezia (C); Thibaudia (C)

Quereme de monte: Polygala (C)

Querendo: Helicostylis (P)

Quesito: Malvaviscus (C,CR)

Quesillo: Malvaviscus (N)

Quica: Cercidium (C)

Quiche: Guzmania (C)

Quick-stick: Gliricidia (J)

Quidive: Morinda (C); Schradera (C)

Quiebrabarriga: Trichanthera (C)

Quiebrahacha: Astronium (C); Godoya (C); Lysiloma (CR); Senecio (CR); Tabebuia (D)

Quiebra muelas: Drimys (CR)

Quiebraojo: Asclepias (C)

Quiebraolla: Meriana (C)

Quiebra piedras: Cuphea (CR)

Quiebra plato: Crotalaria (CR)

Quieravangue: Conostegia (P)

Quimbolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Quimbolites: Phaseolus (P)

Quina: Anacardium (CR); Cinchona (C); Ladenbergia (CR); Macrocnemum (C); Nectandra (CR); Remijia (C); Rondeletia (CR)

Quina amarga: Croton (CR)

Quina de Brasiol: Esenbeckia (C)

Quinbolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Quino: Cinchona (C); Caccoloba (C)

Quinon: Drimys (C)

Quinua: Chenopodium (C)

Quipara: Genipa (Ch); Phytelephas (C)

Quipo: Cavanillesia (P)

Quiquicirri: Styrax (CR)

Quira: Andira (P); Platymiscium (CR,P)

Quiriguillo: Pachira (CR)

Quisig (h)uillo: Pachira (CR)

Quisjoche: Beureria (CR)

Quisqual: Quisqualis (P)

QUISQUALIS INDICA L.: Rangoon creeper (E) (Fig. 258). Rarely cultivated in Paname, the young shoots are cooked as a potherb. The coconut-flavored ripe seeds are eaten in limited quantities. Young seeds and roots are vermifugal.

Quita manteca: Conostegia (P)

Quitameriendas: Colchicum (C)

Quitasol: Mauritiella (C); Gunnera (C)

Quitirri: Vernonia (CR); Zexmenia (CR)

Qutegato: Cassia (CR)

Quiteria: Spigelia (C)

Quitirri chico: Eupatorium (CR)

Quitosol: Licania (C)

Quiura: Terminalia (CR)

Quizarra: Aiouea (CR); Bellotia (CR); Hufelandia (CR); Misanteca (CR); Mollinedia (CR); Nectandra (CR); Ocotea (CR)

Quizarra copalchi: Croton (CR)

Quizarra quina: Nectandra (CR)

Quizarra zopilote: Nectandra (CR)

- R -

Rabano: Raphanus (S)

Rabano de canarios: Brassica (C)

Rabiatadera: Cyclanthus (C)

Rabo ahorcado: Asterogyne (P); Geonoma (P)

Rabo de caiman: Epiphyllum (C)

Rabo de chancho: Achyranthes (CR); Solanum (CR)

Rabo de chucha: Trichomanes (C)

Rabo de gallo: Carpotroche (W); Geonoma (C); Heliconia (C)

Rabo de gato: Acalypha (CR); Achyranthes (CR)

Rabo de iguana: Byttneria (P); Epiphyllum (C); Piptadenia (C)

Rabo de mico: Cyathea (CR); Morisonia (C)

Rabo de mono: Gouania (N); Hippocratea (C); Setaria (P)

Rabo de puerco: Helicteres (CR)

Rabo raton: Casearia (CR); Parosela (CR)

Rabo de venado: Andropogon (P)

Rabo de zorro: Andropogon (C); Valerianoides (C)

Radish: Raphanus (E)

Rafia: Raphia (C)

RAFTING: Lightweight logs used in making rafts. Cavanillesia, Cocos, Ochroma.

Ragweed: Ambrosia (E)

Raicilla: Cephaelis (P); Psychotria (P)

Raichilla macho: Psychotria (P)

Raigra: Lolium (CR)

Raijon: Eugenia (C)

Rain tree: Pithecellobium (E); Samanea (E)

Raiz: Chayota (CR)

Raiza: Iriartea (C); Socratea (C)

Raiz de chino: Smilax (CR/ROC)

Raiz de color: Escobedia (C)

Raiz de congo: Petiveria (C)

Raiz de pipi: Petiveria (C)

Raiz de resfrio: Scleria (C)

Raiz de resfriado: Dorstenia (C)

Raiz de toro: Melochia (CR)

Rajate bien: Vitex (trade name)

Rala de gallina: Capparis (CR)

Rama blanca: Gynoxys parvifolia (C)

Ramio: Boehmeria (C)

Ramon: Trophis (N,P)

Ramoncillo: Myrospermum (C)

Ramoon: Trophis (P)

Rampacho: Clusia (C)

Rampira: Carludovica (C)

RANDIA ACULEATA L.: Box-briar (E); Corallero (C); Cruceto (C); Inkberry (J); Maiz tostado (C); Maria angola (C); Palo de Cruz (C); Tintero (C) (Fig. 259). The fruits, though medicinal, are edible and are used to make a crude ink. One of many snakebite remedies in Colombia.

RANDIA ARMATA (Sw.) DC.: Crucillo (CR); Limoncillo (CR); Mostrenco (CR); Rosetillo (P). The fruits are edible, also used as a barbasco.

Rangay: Byttneria (P)

Rangayo: Uncaria (CR)

Rangoon creeper: Quisqualis (E)

Rapabalo: Clusia (C)

Rapabarbo: Crysochalamys (C); Tovomita (C)

Rapadura: Chrysochlamys (S); Tovomitopsis (P)

Rapebaibo: Tovomito (C)

Raque: Vallea (C)

RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.: Radish (E); Rabano (S) (Fig. 260). The roots, edible raw, are taken with water and sugar for boils (!). Young seed pods are added to soups. The leaves are used as a potherb (!). The seeds are considered diuretic, demulcent, emmenagogic, laxative, and lilthontriptic. Around Medellin, syrups made from radishes are used for respiratory ailments. The leaves are used as cataplasms for bruises, and in infusions for liver ailments.

RAPHIA TAEDIGERA Mart.: Pinecone palm (E); Palma real (CR); Pangana (C); Rafia (C); Yolillo (CR). This plant often forms pure palm swamps near the coast which could be, but are not, tapped for palm wine and sugar. In Antioquia, the fruits are said to be used for making pipes and the leaf rachises for making bows (!). The fronds are used as sails in the Atrato River (!). Around La Nueva, the rachises are used for fish spears.

Raque: Vallea (C)

Rasca: Licania (P); Manilkara (P)

Rascadera: Xanthosoma (C)

Rasga: Senegalia (C)

Rasgarrasga: Acacia (C)

Raspa: Licania (P); Tetracera (CR)

Raspador: Trema (C)

Raspa guacal: Curatella (CR); Petrea (CR); Tetracera (CR)

Raspa lengua: Casearia (P); Conostegia (P); Hasseltia (P)

Raspberry: Rubus (E)

Raton: Rapanea (CR); Roupala (CR)

Ratoncillo blanco: Rapanea (CR)

Raton rojo: Wimmeria (P)

Rat poison: Gliricidia (E)

Rattlebox: Crotalaria (E)

RAVENALA MADAGASCARIENSIS Sonn.: Traveler's palm (E); Arbol de viajero (C). Water in the stems serve as emergency drinking water.

Raya: Serjania (C)

Rayado: Calliandra (C); Inga (C); Xylopia (P)

Rayo: Parkia (C)

Realidad: Briza (C)

Rebanca: Brassica (C)

Recadito: Hamelia (C)

Red berry: Hamelia (E)

Red head: Adenanthera (E)

Red mangrove: Rhizophora (E)

Red manwood: Calocarpum (B)

Redondita de agua: Hydrocotyle (C)

Red pepper: Capsicum (E)

Red taro: Colocasia (E)

Red wood: Platymiscium (E)

Reed: Phragmites (E)

REFRIGERANT: A substance which relieves thirst and reduces fever. Ananas, Basella, Clitoria, Cocos, Commelina, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Cynodon, Paspalum, Portulaca, Punica, Scoparia, Spondias, Tamarindus.

Reina del baile: Epiphyllum (CR)

Reina de cagueta: Coryanthes (C)

Reina del Dagua: Miltonia (C)

Reina de la noche: Datura (CR)

Rejal: Solanum (C)

Rejalgar: Solanum (C)

Rejillo: Cuscuta (C)

Rejo: Sweetia (C)

Rejoncito: Ranunculus (C)

Remo: Quararibea (C)

Remolacha: Beta (S)

RENEALMIA AROMATICA (Aubl.) Griseb. The fruit pulp is used for flavoring stews. Inland Cuna use it regularly as a foodstuff. The leaves are applied to reduce inflammation. The seeds are emmenagogic. the juice is used to treat hemorrhoids. The aromatic leaves are used by Choco Indians as an underarm deodorant (!).

REPELLENT (BAT): A substance supposed to keep bats away. Allium, Petiveria.

REPELLENT (SNAKE): A substance supposed to keep snakes away. Allium, Genipa, Nicotiana, Quassia, Simaba.

REPELLENT (TICK): A substance supposed to keep ticks away. Neurolaena, Pothomorphe.

Repollas: Brassica (C)

Repollo: Brassica (S)

Repollo de agua: Pistia (P)

Requeson: Alchornea (C); Cupania (C); Ladenbergia (C)

Resbala mono: Bursera (C)

Reseco: TAchigalia (CR)

Reseda: Reseda (E); Alyssum (C); Lawsonia (CR)

Resina: Oenocarpus (C); Styrax (CR)

Resino: Miconia (CR)

Resuscitado: Hibiscus (C)

Retama: Parkinsonia (S); Spartina (C); Trichilia (N)

Retamo cimarron: Dieffenbachia (C)

Retamo calentano: Parkinsonia (C)

Retentina: Ageratum (C)

Reventadera: Bromus (C); Coriaria (C); Tanaecium (C)

RHABDADENIA BIFLORA (Jacq.) Muell.-Arg.: Mangrove vine (E); Clavelito (S) (Fig. 261). The lates is reputedly vesicant.

RHEEDIA EDULIS Triana & Planch.: Cero (P); Chaparron (S); Jorco (CR); Sastra (P) (Fig. 262). The fruit is edible.

RHEEDIA MADRUNO (H.B.K.) Planch. & Triana: Cero (P); Fruta mono (P); Jorco (CR); Machari (P); Madrona (C). The fruits are edible, and are supposed to be good for cholera and ictericia. The yellow sap is used for treating ulcers and sores.

RHEUM OFFICINALE Baill.: Rhubarb (E); Ruibarbo (C). Not cultivated in lowland Panama, it is sold in Panama to make a tea for the liver.

RHIZOPHORA MANGLE L.: Red mangrove (E); Ailikinnut (Cu); Mangle colorado (S) (Fig. 263). the roots (probably the inner part of thye hypocotyls) have served as famine food. The leaves make a tea. Dried fruits can be smoked like citgars. Dried leaves are also smoked in pipes. The wood is reported to burn green. Boiled bark yields furniture stain. This species is a honey plant. The bark is febrifugal, expectorant, and antihemorrhagic and enters a folk cure for leprosy. Brown branches are used by Mulatupu Cuna to make fish lines. In the Choco, the mangrove is being exploited for the pulp industry. Elsewhere, it is an important tannin and charcoal source. In Panama, it is being considered for telephone poles.

Rhubarb: Rheum (E)

Rice: Oryza (E)

RICINUS COMMUNIS L.: Castor bean (E); Higuerillo (S); Palmachristi (C); Relajar (C); Ricino (P) (Fig. 264). The oil expressed from the seed is a dangerous purgative, used occasionally as a lubricant. Colombian curanderos may poultice the leaves over oil of corozo to treat stomach inflammation and leprosy.

Ridiculo: Calceolaria (C)

Ringworm: Cassia (E)

Rinon: Brunellila (C)

Rinon de oreja: Jacaranda (C)

RIVEA CORYMBOSA (L.) Hall.: Batatilla (S). The seeds are used elsewhere as a narcotic. The sap is used to coagulate rubber.

Riverwood: Pithecellobium (E)

Robanchab: Vochysia

Roble: Cybistax (C); Dialyanthera (P); Quercus (S); Tabebuia (S); Terminalia (C)

Roble amarillo: Citharexylum (N); Tecoma (S)

Roble blanco: Licania (CR)

Roblecito: Panopus (P)

Roble de monte: Quercus (P)

Roble rosada: Cinchona (C)

Roble de sabana: Tabebuia (CR,P)

Rocio: Mesembryanthemum (C)

Rockrope: Cissus (E)

Rock sweetwood: Nectandra (B)

Rocoto: Capsicum (C)

Rodamonte: Escallonia (C)

Rodilla de pollo: Boerhaavia (C)

Rojo: Hibiscus (C)

Rodantes: Helipterum manglesii (C)

ROLANDRA FRUTICOSA (L.) Kuntze: Niagurgin (Cu). The Cuna take this to improve their mola-making ability (!).

ROLLINIA JIMENEZII Safford: Anona (P); Anonilla (CR); Torete (P); Tusip (Cu). The fruits have a scanty edible pulp. The bark is used for cordage (!).

Romadizo: Siparuna (C)

Romerillo: Hedyotis (C); Hypericum (C)

Romaza: Rumex (C)

Romero: Rosmarinus (CR); Diplostephium (C); Senecio (C)

Romeron: Astronium (S)

Romperropa: Cordia (C)

Ronron: Astronium (CA)

ROOT EDIBLE-COOKED: Plants whose roots or underground parts are edible after cooking or processing. Allium, Anredera, Arracacia, Beta, Calathea, Canna, Chayota, Colocasia, Dioscorea, Ipomoea, Jatropha, Manihot, Moranta, Moringa, Musa, Nymphaea, Pacchyrhizus, Phaseolus, Psidium, Pteridium, Sagittaria, Sechium, Sonchus, Thalia, Typha, Ullucus, Xanthosoma, Zamia.

ROOT EDIBLE-RAW: Plants whose underground parts are edible unprocessed. Allium, Antigonon, Beta, Cyperus, Phragmites, Raphanus.

Rosa de agua: Nymphaea (C)

Roaslilna: Amaraboya (C); Meriania (C)

Rosa laurel: Nerium (C)

Rosa monte: Brownea (P)

Rosary pea: Abrus (E)

Rosa vieja: Lippia (C)

Rose: Rosa (E)

Roselle: Hibiscus (E)

Rose apple: Eugenia (E)

Rosetillo: Randia (P)

Roseto: Xylosma (P)

Rosewood: Dahlbergia (E)

Roso: Brownea (C); Vallea (C)

ROUREA GLABRA H.B.K.: Mata Negro (S). The seeds are used to poison rats and humans. Salvadoran birds called chachas, after eating the seeds are said to be poisonous to man. The stems are used for cordage.

Rower palm: Astrocaryum (B)

Royal palm: Roystonea (E)

Royal poinciana: Delonix (E)

ROYSTONEA spp.: Royal palm (E); Palma real (P); Waa (Cu). Cabbages and fruits are consumed by aborigines.

Ruba: Ullucus (C)

RUBBER SOURCES: Plants whose latices serve to make crude rubber. Castilla, Clusia, Hevea, Plumeria.

Rubber tree: Castilla (E)

RUBEFACIENT: A substance producing redness of the skin. Abrus, Allium, Anacardium, Caesalpinia, Capsicum, Cardiospermum, Clematis, Cocos, Colocasia, Cymbopogon, Drymaria, Echinodorus, Jatropha, Lepidium, Moringa, Plumbago, Ploygonum.

Ruchica: Psoralea (C)

Ruda: Ruta (C, CR/ROC); Zanthoxylum (P)

Ruda macho: Protium (C)

Rudillo: Tagetes (CR)

Rubibarbillo: Rumex (C)

Ruibarbo: Jatropha (P); Rheum (C)

Rue: Ruta (CR/ROC)

RUMEX ACETOSELLA L.: Sangre de toro (C); Vinagrillo (S) (Fig. 265). The leaves are eaten as a potherb.

RUMEX CRISPUS L.: Curly doc (E); Vinagrillo (S) (Fig. 266). The leaves serve as a potherb. The seeds may be tried sparingly as a grain.

Ruira: Petrea (C)

Runkra: Cedrela (CR)

Ruri: Mammea (N)

Rustica: Mammea (C)

Rutabaga: Brassica (E)


Rye: Secale (E)

- S -

Saba: Sarapa (P); Dialyanthera (P); Inga (P); Pachira (N)

SABAL ALLENII Bailey: Guagara (D); Soso (Cu) (Fig. 267). The Bayano Cuna use young leaf stalks as a medicine for female troubles (!). Inland Cuna bridges usually consist of three poles of guagara, Darien's most valued thatch palm (!).

SABICEA HIRSUTA H.B.K.: Uva (C). The fruits afe eaten and the leaves are used in a tea to treat venereal diseases in the Choco (!).

Sabila: Aloe (C)

Saborero: Phyllostylon (C)

Sabroso: Pterocarpus (C)

Sabto: Cordia (P)

Sabuga: Chrysophyllum (Cu)

Saca manteca: Solanum (P)

Saca ojo: Palicourea (C)

Sacatinta: Jacobina (CR); Justicia (CR/ROC)

SACHARUM OFFICINALE L.: Sugarcane (E); Cai (Cu); Cana de Azucar (S); Cha (Ch); Kaya (Cu) (Fig. 268). Sugarcane may be eaten out of hand or converted into molasses, syrup, soft drinks, rum, or distilled alcohol. Those who tire of these may find the seeds a source of food, although under plantation circumstances, the cane rarely sets seeds. Molasses and rum are often used to flavor tobacco. To make sugar in the bush, crush the canes, neutralize with crushed sea shells, strain, and boil down, skimming off the scum on top occasionally. Among the Bayano Cuna, cane (cai) is squeezed in a press (calleguredi) and the juice consumed daily. These and the lowland Cuna probably have a higher cacne consumption than other ethnic groups. Along the Rio Sabana, above Sante Fe, it is illegal to make guarapo fuerte without permission from La Palma, but many Choco and Cuna houses have their own cane mills (trapiches). From the expressed juices they make a host of beverages. Choco sometimes feed the grist to the hogs. Around Ocu, it is used as a fish poison. Cune sometimes use it for fuel. The root is considered demulcent and diuretic. Sugar has been successfully used as an antidote in case of poisoning by arsenic, copper, or corrosive sublimate. Fibers obtained from the plant have been used to lash logs together and the grass itself is used as a thatching material.

Sacuanjoche: Plumeria (N,CR)

Saffron: Crocus (E)

Sage: Salvia (E)

Sage, white: Lantana (C)

SAGITTARIA sp.: Arrowleaf (E); Saetea de agua (S) (Fig. 269). The tubers can be cooked, dried, and ground to form a starch. Young leaves and flower stalks may be tried as an emergency ration. Bruised leaves are applied as a poultice to infected sores, chronic itch, and snake and insect bites.

Sagu: Maranta (CR,P); Phytelephas (Cu)

Sahinillo: Dieffenbachia (P); Freziera (P)

Sahumerio: Styrax (P)

Saint John's bread: Entada (E)

Saivo: Erythrina (C)

Sajaldagua: Carludovica (C)

Sajanillito: Eurya (P)

Sajanillo: Cleyera (P)

Sajino blanco: Goupia (C)

Cajo: Campnosperma (C)

Saladero: Pachira (C)

Salado: Clibadium (C); Vochysia (C)

Salamo: Calycophyllum (CR,N,P)

Salero: Pachira (C)


SALMEA SCANDENS (L.) DC.: Barbasco (C); Duerme boca (C,S); Salta-afuera (C); Verbesina (C). this plant is chewed to alleviate toothache; it is also used as a fish poison.

Salta-afuera: Salmea (C)

SALT SOURCE: A plant that may be converted into a salt substitute. Achyranthes, Adansonia, Avicennia, Ceiba, Heliconia, Heliotropium, Jatropha, Musa, Pentaclethra, Pistia.

Salton: Marina (C)

Saltwort: Batis (E)

Salvadero: Hura (C)

Salvia: Buddleja (CR); Eupatorium (C); Hyptis (P); Lippia (CR); Vernonia (P)

Salvia amarga: Eupatorium (C)

Salvia blanca: Buddleja (C)

Salvia gavilana: Neurolaena lobata (C)

Salvia de monte: Acalypha (C)

Salvia de la playa: Croton (C)

SALVIA OCCIDENTALIS Sw.: Cansa perro (P); Corrimiento (P); Inaosi (Cu) (Fig. 270). the leaves are used by the Cuna to treat back pains; other natives used the plants to cure toothache.

Salvia santa: Buddleia (C)

Salvia virgen: Buddleia (CR/ROC)

Salvilla cimarrona: Cordia (CR)

Salvio: Cordia (C)

Samaguare: Pithecellobium (CR,P); Samanea (C)

Saman: Enterolobium (C); Pithecellobium (CR,C); Samanea (C)

SAMANEA SAMAN (Jacq.) Merrill: Rain tree (E); Campano (C); Genizaro (C); Saman (C); Samaguare (C) (Fig. 271). The pods of this honey tree serve as cattle fodder. There is a sweetish pulp (!) about the poisonous seeds. A decoction of the bark is reputed to be good for intestinal colds.

Samaque: Corozo (Cu)

Sambogum: Clusia (P); Symphonia (CR,J,P)

SAMBUCUS MEXICANA Presl.: Elder (CR/ROC, E); Sauco (CR/ROC, S). The flowers may be tried cooked in batter. The fruits are edible.

Sanalego: Vernonia (P)

Sanalotodo: Arcytophyllum (C); Baccharis (C)

Sanatonia: Calycophyllum (C)

Sancho-arana: Bravaisia (C)

Sanci: Coriaria (C)

Sandal: Cassia (E)?

Sandalo: Cassia (CR); Myroxylon (CR)

Sandalwood: Santalum (E)

Sandbox tree: Hura (E)

Sandbur: Cenchrus (E)

Sande: Brosimum (C)

Sandia: Citrullus (S); Elaterium (P)

Sandia cimarron: Passiflora (CR)

Sandillita: Melothria (P); Pittiera (CR)

Sandolo: Cassia (CR)

Sandpaper tree: Curatella (E)

Sangre: Croton (D); Licania (P); Pterocarpus (C); Virolia (N)

Sangre blanco: Nectandra (CR,N,P)

Sangre de drago: Gliricidia (CR,P); Pterocarpus (D)

Sangregao: Pterocarpus (C)

Sangre de gallina: Vismia (C)

Sangregallo: Croton (C); Pterocarpus (D)

Sangre de perro: Vismia (P)

Sangre de toro: Chrysochalmys (C); Dialyanthera (C); Rumex (C); Virola (C)

Sangregado: Pterocarpus (CR,N,P)

Sangregado falso: Pentaclethra (N)

Sangrillo: Croton (P); Platymiscium (P); Pterocarpus (CR); Vismia (P)

Sangrillo negro: Dialium (P); Paramachaerium (P)

Sangrito: Vismia (C)

Sangro: Vismia (C)

Sanguinaria: Alternanthera (S); Oxalis (C); Lantana (C)

Sandigual: Achimenes (C)

San Joaquim: Hibiscus (C)

San Jose: Celosia (S)

San Juan: Turnea (N)

San Juanillo: Heliconia (P); Hyptis (P)

San Juanito: Renealmia (C); Vallea (C)

San Matias: Protium (C)

San Miguel: Blakea (CR)

San Miguel blanco: Blakea (CR)

San Pedro: Allophylus (C)

San Rafael: Senecio (CR); Zinnia (CR)

San Rafaelito: Lantana (P)

Sansapote: Licania (CR)

SANSEVIERIA GUINEENSIS (Jacq.) Willd.: Snake plant (E); Mapana (C); Sanseviera (C) (Fig. 272). The snake plant is cultivated, as in Las Perlas, where it is regarded as a snakebite cure (!).

Santa Clara: Solanum (P)

Santa Lucia: Ageratum (CR); Alomia (CR); Eupatorium (CR); Petrea (P); Turnera (C)

Santa Maria: Baccharis (P); Calophyllum (CR); Liabum (C); Miconia (CR); Piper (CR); Pothomorphe (P)

Santa negrito: Lantana (CR)

Santa Rosa: Triplaris (N)

Santo Domingo: Baccharis (CR)

Santuria: Eupatorium amygdalinum (C)

Sapa: Metasocratea (C)

Sapan: Bowdichia (C); Diplotropis (C)

Saparon: Theobroma (CR)

Sapayo: Cucurbita (CR)

Sape: Catostigma (C)

SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L.: Soapberry (E); Chocho (C); Chumbimbo (C); Jaboncillo (S); Limoncillo (P); Michu (C); Morkowekuak (Cu); Pepo (C) (Fig. 273). This honey tree is a fish poison. The seeds are used for buttons and necklaces. They are powdered and used as an insecticide. The fruits are used as a soap substitute (!). Decoctions of the roots are astringent and tonic. A leaf infusion is used to treat snake bites and sting ray wounds.

Sapino: Goupia (C)

Sapo: Clavija (P); Euphorbia (N); Grias (P); Torrubia (C)

Sapodilla: Achras (E); Manilkara (E)

Sapote: Calocarpum (CR,S); Pouteria (CR); Tetrathylacium (CR)

Sapote macho: Lucuma (C)

Sapote de monte: Matisia (C)

Sapotillo: Leonia (C); Licania (CR); Quararibea (C)

Sapotolongo: Pachira (C)

Saptur: Genipa (Cu)

Saptutu: Borreria (Cu)

Sapucaia nut: Lecythis (E)

Sapuyo: Cucurbita (P)

Saquisaqui: Ceiba (C)

Sara: Copernicia (C)

Saracacha: Arracacia (C)

Saracontil: Chaemasenna (S)

Saragundi(n): Cassia (CR, CR/ROC)

Sarsparilla: Smilax (E)

Saray: Syagrus (C)

Sarcillejo: Bocconia (C)

Sardinillo: Tecoma (N)

Sardino: Xylopia (CR)

Saril: Hibiscus (P)

Sarniselo: Jacquinia (C)

Sarno: Bocconia (C); Mauria (C)

Sarpoleta: Polygala (C)

Sarrapia: Coumarouna (C)

Sarro: Cyathea (C)

Sarsaparilla: Smilax (E)

Sartalillo: Picramnia (CR)

Sasafras: Bursera (C)

Sastra: Rheedia (CR,P)

Satteula: Triplaris (Cu)

SATYRIA WARSZEWICZII Klozsch: Muela (CR). The juicy fruits are edible.

Sauce: Casuarina (N);Oliganthes discolor (C); Parkinsonia (C); Salix (C); Tessaria (C)

Sauce blanco: Tessaria (C)

Sauce colorado: Salix (C)

Sauce de playa: Tessaria integrifolia (C)

Sauce playero: Tessaria (C)

Sauco: Cestrum (C); Sambucus (CR/ROC, S); Solanum (P); Viburnum (C)

Sauco blanco: Cestrum (C)

Sauco macho: Protium (D); Solanum (C)

Sauco de monte: Aegiphila (C); Viburnum (C)

Sauco negro: Cestrum (C)

Sauga: Carludovica (Cu)

SAURAUIA SCABRA H.B.K.: Dulumoco (C); Lulumoco (C); Moquillo (C). The fruits are edible.

Sausagetree: Kigelia (E)

Sauza: Salix (C)

Savi: Inga (CR)

Savila: Aloe (CR)

Sawgrass: Mariscus (E)

SCABIES: An itching disease of the skin caused bya burrowing mite. Treated with Mangifera, Terminalia, Thespesia.

Scarlet bush: Hamelia (E)

Scarvo: Theobroma (CR)

SCHEELIA BUTYRACEA (Mutis) Karst.: Corozo (C); Corozo de puerco (C); Cuesco (C); Curumuta (C); Palma real (C); Palma de vino (C). The cabbage is eaten cooked. this good wine palm has a good oil seed. The seed is eaten in the Cauca Valley but usually mashed and mixed with roast green plantain, forming a dish called sango.

SCHEELIA ZONENSIS Bailey: Corozo (P); Manaca (P); Palma real (S); Palma de vino (D). The seeds are rich in oil. A palm wine is made from the sap. The leaves are used for thatch.

SCHULTESIA LISIANTHOIDES (Griseb.) Benth. & Hook.: Sulfatillo (S). In Salvador this species is used as a remedy for malaria.

SCIADODENDRON EXCELSUM Griseb.: Jobo de Largarto (P). In Panama, the petioles are used for making bird cages.

SCOPARIA DULCIS L.: Escoba dulce (P); Escobilla amaraga (P); Sweet broom (J) (Fig. 274). This is a common weed. Jamaicans claim that putting branches in drinking water keeps it cool. Cataplasms with salt are used to treat the swelling of snakebite in Colombia (!). The plant is also used for venereal disease.

Scotch ebo: Hieronyma (Trade)

Screwpine: Pandanus (E)

SCREWWORMS: Larvae or maggots of certain flies that burrow in the living body. Treated with Annona, Asclepias, Chenopodium, Dracontium, Funastrum, Moringa, Nicotiana, Oxalis, Prioria, Protium, Theobroma.

Sea almond: Terminalia (E)

Sea bean: Caesalpinia (E); Canavalia (E); Entada (E)

Sea grape: Coccoloba (E)

Sea oats: Uniola (E)

Sea purslane: Sesuvium (E)

Search-my-heart: Miconia (C)

Sebillo: Dialyanthera (D); Osteophloem (C); Virola (C)

Sebo: Compsoneura (C); Dialyanthera (CR)

Sebo-capsi: Osteophloem (C)

SECALE CEREALE L.: Rye (E); Centeno (C). Rye is an important grain source for food, beer, and alcohol, especially in the temperate zones. It is not evident along the routes.

SECHIUM EDULE (Jacq.) Sw.: Chayote (E,P); Alchoncha (C); Cidrapapa (C); Cidrayote (C); Huisquila (C) (Fig. 275). Leaves and young shoots contain about 4% protein. The seeds are also eaten.

Secua: Fevillea (C)

Secuadro: Protium (D)

SECURIDACA DIVERSIFOLIA (L.) Blake: Bejuco amarrar (P); Bejuco mulato (S). The vine is used for cordage to treat venereal diseases.

Seda: Asclepias (C); Calotropis (C)

SEDATIVE: A substance used to quiet a person or put him to sleep. Achyranthes, Bocconia, Cannabis, Cissampelos, Citrus, Cochlospermum, Coriandrum, Datura, Erythrina, Gossypium, Hydrocotyle, Lactuca, Mimosa, Papaver, Passiflora, Piscidia, Sica, Solanum.

Sedativo: Argemone (C)

Seduatenet: Mirabilis (Cu)

SEEDS EDIBLE-COOKED: Plants whose seeds are edible after cooking or processing. Aleurites, Amaranthus, Anacardium, Arachis, Avena, Chenopodium, Cicer, Coix, Crescentia, Cucurbita, Digitaria, Dipteryx, Entada, Enterolobium, Eugenia, Fagopyrum, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Hordeum, Kigelia, Lecythis, mangifera, Meliococcus, Moringa, Nymphaea, Oryza, Oxalis, Pachira, Parmentiera, Phaseolus, Pisum, Polygonum, Pontederia, Portulaca, Psophocarpus, Rumex, Scheelia, Secale, Sechium, Sesamum, Setaria, Sorghum, Spondias, Sporobolus, Sterculia, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Triticum, Typha, Uniola, Urena, Vicia, Victoria, Ximenia, Zea, Zizyphus.

SEEDS EDIBLE-RAW: Plants whose seeds are edible without processing. Adansonia, Aiphanes, Arachis, Attaea, Avena, Bambusa, Bertholletia, Bixa, Cajanus, Calonyction, Carica, Caryodendron, Canvanillesia, Ceiba, Cenchrus, Chrysobalanus, Commelina, Couroupita, Cucumis, Dactyloctenium, Dipterys, Eleusine, Guilielma, Hippocratea, Hirtella, Lecythis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, QAuisqualis, Sterculia, Terminalia, Zea.

SEEDS POISONOUS: Plant whose seeds are toxic. Abrus*, Adenanthera*, Andira, Avicennia, Canavalia*, Carapa, Cassia, Cleome, Datura, Erythrina*, Cliricidia, Gossypium, Hura*, Jatropha, Leucaena*, Mammea, Melia, Melothria, MIrabilis, Momordica*, Ormosia, Pachyrhizus, Paullinia, Plumeria, Rhynchosia*, Ricinus, Rourea, Spigelia, Strychnos, Thevetia. *Used in necklaces.

Segun: Allamanda (Cu)

Seje: Jessenia (C)

Seibo: Erythrina (C)

SELAGINELLA sp.: Helecho (Sp); Naibe Ugigwi (Cu). the plant is used by the Cuna for female sickness and by the Choco for snakebite.

SELENIPEDIUM CHICA Reichenb. f.: Vanilla (E); Chica (P). The vanilla-scented capsules are used like vanilla.

Selerwala: Oenocarpus (Cu)

Semba: Xylopia (C)

SENECIO ABIETINUS Wedd.: Panque romero (C); Romero chiquito (C)

SENECIO FORMOSUS H.B.K.: Arnica, Arnica de Bogota (C); Arnica de paramo (C)



SENECIO LEHMANNII Hieron.: Remero de monte (C)


SENECIO MICROCHAETE Wedd.: Romero de monte (C)

SENECIO NIVEO-AUREUS Cuatr.: Arnica Ceniza (C)

SENECIO PULCHELLUS (H.B.K.) DC.: Romero (C); Chiquilla nudosa (C)

SENECIO RUFESCENS DC.: Frailejon blanco (C)

SENECIO VACCINIOIDES (H.B.K.) Sch. Bip.: Guasguin (C)

Sen de palillo: Chamaefistula (CR)

Senna: Cassia (E)

Sensitiva: Mimosa (C)

Sensitive plant: Mimosa (E)

Sequarra: Eugenia (P)

Sensitiva agua: Neptunia (C)

Sere: Clusia (CR)

Seren-gro: Hirtella (CR)

SERJANIA MEXICANA (L.) Willd.: Barbasco (S). the plant, chewed as a toothache remedy, is used as a fish poison.

Serpe: Coussapoa (C); Pourouma (C)

Serraja, Serrajilla: Sonchus (CR)

Serren Serren: Alchornea (C)

Seruru: Guazuma (CR)

Sesame: Sesamum (E)

SESAMUM INDICUM L.: Sesame (E); Ajonjoli (S) (Fig. 276). The seeds, made into sweetmeats (e.g., in Turbo, where mixed with honey (!), are toasted and ground into meal. Expressed oil is used for salads, liniments, cooking, and illumination. The seeds are considered aperient, aphrodisiac, cataplasmic, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogic, lactogogic, laxative, tonic, and unguent. Sesame is being investigated as a potential oil source on the Azuero Peninsula (!).

SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA (L.) Pers.: Agati sesbania (S); Gallito (S) (Fig. 277). The flowers, green pods, and young leaves may be eaten fried or in soups. The bark is aperient, antidysenteric, emetic, and febrifugal. The leaves are diuretic and laxative, and said to contain about 8.5% protein.

Seskalo: Solanum (Cu)

Seso vegetal: Blighia (S)

SESUVIUM PORTULACASTRUM L.: Sea purslane (E); Verdolago rosado (CR). The seeds have served as a famine food. The leaves are eaten raw or pickled or as a presalted potherb.

SETARIA spp.: Foxtail grass (E). The seeds make good grain substitutes.

Sevi: Inga (CR)

Shame face: Mimosa (E)

Shame weed: Mimosa (E)

Shellflower: Alpinia (E)

Shru: Mammea (CR)

Shumgin: Guazuma (CR)

Sia: Canavalia (Cu)

Siakwa: Theobroma (Cu)

Sibato: Hedyosmum (C)

Sibicogen: Momordica (C)

Sibricojen: Momordica (C)

SICANA ODORIFERA (Vell.) Naud.: Casabanana (E); Chila (P) (Fig. 278). The fruits, edible raw, cooked, or preserved, are used to scent clothing and are hung in bohios as a perfume.

Sicche: Zanthoxylum (C)

SICKINGIA MAXONII Standl.: Guaytil (P); Guaytil colorado (P); Jagua de montana (P); Wytil (P). The bark is a febrifuge and purgative.

SIDA ACUTA Burm.: Escobilla (P); Kwala (Cu). This plant, eaten to some extent by stock, yields cordage.

SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L.: Escobilla (P); Hierba de puerco (P). The leaves, used to treat stomach disorders, are regarded as diuretic and sedative. In Mexico, the leaves are used as a substitute for Chinese tea. As a vegetable they contain about 7.4% protein. The seeds are demulcent and emollient.

SIDEROXYLON sp.: Mastic (E); Tortugo amarillo (S). The fruits are edible.

Sidseed: Paspalum (E)

Siempreviva: Echeveria (CR); Gomphrena (P); Helichrysum bracteaum (C); Helipterum manglesii (C); Jacquinia (CR); Peperomia (C).


Sierra: Rapanea (CR)

Sietecamisas: Ipomoea

Siete cascas: Machaerium (C)

Siete colores: Lantana (C)

Siete cueros: Lonchocarpus (CR,P); Machaerium (C); Meriana (C); Tibouchina (C)

Sigin: Ficus (CR)

Sigua: Citharexylum (P); Nectandra (CR); Phoebe (CR)

Sigua amarillo: Nectandra (CR); Ocotea (P)

Sigua blanca(o): Nectandra (CR,P) Phoebe (P)

Sigua canela(o): Nectandra (P); Ocotea (CR,P)

Sigua negro: Nectandra (P)

Siguaton: Licaria (P)

Sikra: Byrsonima (CR)

Sikro: Diphysa (CR)

Silbadero: Geoffroea (CR)

Silbo-silbo: Hedyosmum (C)

Silencio: Buddleja (CR)

Silion: Lucuma (N)

Silk cotton tree: Ceiba (E)

Silk oak: Grevillea (E)

Sillo: Torrubia (C)

Silva-silva: Hedyosmum (C)

SILYBUM MARIANUM Gaertner: Cardo espinoso (C); Cardo santo (C); Cardodn morado (C)

SIMABA CEDRON Planch.: Cedron (C). The seeds are regarded as a fever and snakebite cure (!). They were formerly exported from Costa Rica. In colombia, the fruits are used in colic and malaria cures (!). Although bitter, the fruit is eaten by some frugivores (!). Cuna powder the fruits or maike a tea of the leaves roots to protect against snakes or other enemies.

SIMAROUBA GLAUCA DC.: Aceituno (CR, CR/ROC, P, S); Olivo (CR); Simaruba (C). The wood burns green, and the bark is antimalarial. The oil-rich fruits are edible and attract many birds, e.g., chachalachas, flycatchers, motmots, and thrushes. The oil is used for cooking and soap.

Simaruba: Simarouba (C)

Sindarure: Euphorbia (C)

Singra: Diphysa (CR)

Sinkra: Platymiscium (CR)

Sinomas: Musa (Cu)

Sinta: Calyptrogyne (N)

SIPARUNA GUIANENSIS Aubl.: Hierba de pasmo (P); Urcugalabili (Cu). This species, a remedy for colic, kills vermin on fowl. The San Blas use it for snakebite and colds (!). Colombian curanderos use it for headache, often mashed in alcohol and placed over the forehead (!). La Nueva Negroes drink a leaf infusion for rheumatic pains.

SIPARUNA NICARAGUENSIS Heml.: Wild coffee (E); Limoncillo (P) (Fig. 279). Crushed leaves make an aromatic tea used to treat colds and rheumatism. The leaves are placed over headaches.

SIPARUNA PAUCIFLORA (Beurl.) A.DC.: Pasmo (P); Pasmo tetano (P). This is used by the Choco to cure chills in women and by the Cuna for fever. Western Panamanians in Darien use the leaves in a tea or bath to treat intermittent fever, grip and probably malarial chills.

Sipia: Cassia (CR)

Sirena: Pistia (C)

Sirin: Miconia (CR)

Siringa: Hevea (C)

Sirpe: Pourouma (C)

Sirsisijo: Passiflora (Ch)

Sirvulaca: Bidens (P); Melampodium (P); Melanthera (P); Simsia (P); Spilanthes (P)

Sisin: Ceiba (N)

Siuta: Calyptrogyne (CR)

Skirko: Byrsonima (CR)

Skuarbon: Bellucia (CR)

Skullcap: Scutellaria (E)

Slipper plant: Pedilanthus (E)

SLOANEA spp.: Casaco (P); Terciopelo (CR); Zopilote (CR) (Fig. 280). Nuts of certain species are edible though sometimes surrounded by stinging hairs. The wood of some species burns when green.

Smartwood: Polygonum (E)

SMILAX MOLLIS H.&B.: Greenbrier (E); Pate (S). The yam-like roots are used as a fish poison. Other species find their way into home remedies for syphilis, leprosy, etc.

SMILAX sp.: China (C); Chinese root (CR/ROC); Raiz de Chino (CR/ROC) . Said to be a remedy for sterility in barren women.

SNAKEBITE CURES: Plants used in treatment of snakebite. Achyranthes, Aristolochia, Cassia, Chiococca, Cissampelos, Clavija, Doxantha, Mikania, Moringa, Musa, Opuntia, Petiveria, Philodendron, Quassia, Sagittaria, Sansevieria, Sapindus, Scoparia, Simaba, Siparuna, Tussacia.

Snake root: Aristolochia (E)

Snowbush: Phyllanthus (E)

So: Bixa (P)

Soapberry: Sapindus (E)

SOAP PLANTS: Cleansing plants used to produce a lather of saponin. Adenanthera, Argemone, Aristolochia, Avicennia, Batis, Calopogonium, Carapa, Costus, Dipterys, Entada, Enterolobium, Gouania, Hampea, Jatropha, Momordica, Pentaclethra, Phytolacca, Sapindus, Simarouba, Spondias, Urena, Virola, Zea.

Socorrocloso: Crataeva (C)

SOCRATEA DURISSIMA (Oerst.) Wendl.: Stilt palm (E); Jira (P); Maquenque (CR). The cabbage is edible. The spiny stilt roots are used to grate coconut. the outer wood is used to make the resilient floors of Choco houses; these floors are more like a combination mattress-floor and are softer than many Darien beds (!).

Soila: Prioria (Cu)

Sokarjo: Jessenia (Ch)

Solacra: Mouriri (P)

SOLANUM ALLOPHYLLUM (Miers) Standl.: Bleo de galero (C); Hierba de gallinazo (P); Hierba gallota (P). The leaves are used in salads and meat dishes in Colombia.

SOLANUM DIVERSIFOLIUM Schlecht.: Friega plato (P); Huevo de gato (P); Sunsumba (J). The young green fruits are eaten with salt. The leaves are used to wash dishes and as a leprosy cure.

SOLANUM JAMAICENSE Mill.: Friega plato (P); Huevo de gato (P). The plant is used as a leprosy cure.

SOLANUM MAMMOSUM L.: Friega plato (C); Pichichio (CR, CR/ROC); Rejalgar (C); Tapaculo (C); Tetilla (D). The fruits of this diuretic plant are used by the Choco to poison cockroaches. Elsewhere, the seeds are employed in cold treatments and leaf decoctions in kidney and bladder diseases.

SOLANUM MELONGENA L.: Eggplant (E); Berenjena (S) (Fig. 281). Sold in Panama markets, the ripe fruits are cooked; young ones are pickled.

SOLANUM NIGRUM L.: Black nightshade (E); Hierba mora (P); Kaburgia (Cu); Pintamora (P) (Fig. 282). The berries are reputed to be both poisonous and edible (!). The leaves and tender shoots, boiled like spinach, contain about 5% protein. The juice is regarded as alterative, cathartic, diuretic, and hydragogic, and is used for bladder and kidney pains and in viruloent gonorrhea and leprosy. The leaf is chewed to cure ulcers of the mouth and tongue. The plant is also used for baths for pregnant women. In the Choco, it is used for diseases of the spleen and liver, also to wash wounds.

SOLANUM PARCEBARBATUM Bitter: Hoja hedionda (P); Sauco (P). This species is used as a remedy for fever and colds. Among the Tupisa Choco, the leaves are used for liver ailments.

SOLANUM QUITOENSE Lam.: Lulo (C,D) (Fig. 283). Cultivated by Choco, the fruit is eaten raw, but may also be mixed with cane juice to make an unfermented chicha.

SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.: Potato (E); Guata (C); Mergikulalu (Cu); Papa (S); Patata (C); Turma (C). The tubers are edible cooked, but the plant does not grow in the lowlands.

Solera: Cordia (C); Guatteria (C)

Solitario: Muehlenbeckia (C)

Sombrerillo: Hydrocotyle (CR)

Sombrerito: Aristolochia (C); Hydrocotyle (CR)

Sombrerito del diablo: Cephaelis (C)

Sombrero chino: Holmskioldia (CR)

Somnas: Solanum (Cu)

SONCHUM OLERACEUS L.: Sow thistle (E); Cerraja (C); Serraja (C); Serraja lechosa (C); Cerraja grande (C); Diente de leon lechoso (C). The young shoots serve as a potherb. The roots of some species are eaten after cooking.

Soncoya: Annona (CR)

Songuo: Bixa (P)

Sonora: Lantana (C)

Sonora roja: Lantana (C)

Sontol: Cymbopogon (CR)

Sonzapote: Licania (CR)

SOPORIFIC: A substance producing sleep. Achras, Allium, Capparis, Erythrina, Gliricidia, Lucuma, Passiflora, Phytolacca, Piscidia, Turnera.

Soquete: Iryanthera (C)

Sorbetano: Monnina (C)

SORE THROAT: A pain or itch in the throat. Abrus, Adenanthera, Anacardium, Brickellia, Caesalpinia, Cocos, Pedilanthus, Petiveria, Punica, Rhizophora, Sechium, Spondias, Tamarindus.

SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) Moench.: Kafir corn (E); Maiz millo (C). The seeds are a good grain, sometimes cultivated in Panama, where the stems are used in making brooms.

Sornia: Biechum (CR); Dicliptera (CR)

Soro: Castilla (CR); Enterolobium (CR); Theobroma (CR)

Sorocontil: Cassia (CR/ROC)

Soroga: Vochysia (C)

Soroncontil: Cassia (N)

Sorosi: Momordica (CR, CR/ROC, J)

Sorrocloco: Crateva (C)

Sortija: Eugenia (P)

Sosita: Carludovica (Cu)

Soskia: Xiphidium (Cu)

Soso: Carludovica (Cu); Sabal (Cu)

Sotacaballo: Ardisia (CR); Guarea (C); Inga (CR); Pithecellobium (CR)

Soterre: Lantana (CR)

Soto: Virola (C)

Sotobosque: Calathea (C)

Souca: Trichilia (P)

Sour grass: Oxalis (E)

Sour orange: Citrus (E)

Soursop: Annona (E)

Sow thistle: Sonchus (E)

Soy: Glycine (E)

Soya: Glycine (C)

Spanish bayonet: Yucca (E)

Spanish cedar: Cedrela (E)

Spanish dagger: Yucca (E)

Spanish elm: Colubrina (E)

Spanish lime: Melicoccus (E)

Spanish moss: Tillandsia (E)

Spanish needles: Bidens (E)

SPATHIPHYLLUM PHRYNIIFOLIUM Schott: Huisnay (CR); Lirio (P). the tender young spikes are cooked with eggs as a vegetable, and have been eaten raw with no bad effects (!). Leaves and young shoots contain 6.5% protein.

SPATHODEA CAMPANULATA P.Beauv.: Tulip tree (E); Tulipan (S) (Fig. 284). The winged seeds are said to be more or less edible, yet animals are said to die from a decoction of the core of the fruit. The flower buds contain a sweet, watery liquid that is considered tonic. The bark is used for dysentery and ulcers, and as a stomachic. An infusion is used as an enema for backache. A leaf infusion is used for urethal inflammation.

SPICE: A substance used to add flavor to food, beverage, or tobacco. Allium, Bixa, Calocarpum, Capparis, Capsicum, Cinnamomum, Citrus, Coriandrum, Curatella, Curcuma, Cymbopogon, Momordica, Myristica, Myroxylon, Ocimum, Peperomia, Piper, Quararibea, Renealmia, Selenipedium, Sesamum, Theobroma, Virola, Zingiber.

Spiderlily: Hymenocallis (E)

Spiderwort: Tradescantia (E)

SPIGELIA ANTHELMIA L.: Wormgrass (E); Caricia (C); Guambia (C); Inanusu (Cu); Lombricera (C); Quiteria (C) (Fig. 285). The leaves repel cockroaches and flies. The seeds are poisonous to cattle and man. The roots are poisonous, but are used in small doses as a vermifuge. Cuna claim to use the root for executing criminals (!). In light doses, they use them for stomach aches. Choco use the plant as a purgative (!), and Negroes from the Choco us it as a cure for worms in children.

Spikerush: Eleocharis (E)

SPILANTHES AMERICANA (Mutis) Hieron.: Botoncillo (S); Chisaca (C); Chisaca de cafetal (C); Yuyo quemado (C); Rizaca (C); Boton de oro (C); Chisaca calentano (C); Botonsillo (C); Santa Maria (C). The leaves, edible raw or cooked, are used by Tupisa Choco for liver ailments.

SPILANTHES OCYMIFOLIA (Lam.) A.H.Moore: Sirvulaca (D) (Fig. 286). The roots are chewed as a toothache remedy.

Spinach, Ceylon: Basella (E)

Spinach, Chinese: Ipomoea (E)

Spiny cedar: Bombacopsis (E)

Spiritweed: Eryngium (E)

SPONDIAS PURPUREA L. and SPONDIAS MOMBIN L.: Purple mombin (E); Ciruelo (S); Yellow mombin (E); Canajo (Ch); Jobo (S); Jocote (S); Sua (Cu). S. mombin, known in English as the yellow mombin or hogplum, and in Panamanian as jobo, is very common in cultivation and in second growth in Darien and Choco. It is often planted as a shade tree or living fence post. The purple mombin, known also as Spanish plum in English, and as ciurela and jocote in Panamanian, is also common in second growth forests. Fruits of both are relilshed by cattle and man alike, but the yellow mombin is smaller and inferior in taste. The flavor is improved by cooking or fermenting. Many conquistadores survived on jobos alone for days at a time. The purple mombin is eaten green or ripe, raw or cooked. A beverage prepared from the fruit lasts a year or more. Green fruits are pickled in Colombia with vinegar. The acid leaves are edible, and the sour shoots may be eaten raw or cooked. They contain about 5.5% protein. Some say the seeds are also edible. Flower clusters of other species have served as a vegetable or salad. Buds are eaten as a vegetable in Trinidad. When fresh water was unavailable, conquistadores drank water from the roots of S. mombin. Its ashes have been used in making soap. The trunks are occasionally used for dugouts. The roots are regarded as febrifugal, and leaf decoctions are used for colds, fevers, and gonorrhea, and to clean wounds. A decoction of the bark is considered antiseptic.

Spongegourd: Luffa (E)

SPOROBOLUS spp.: Dropseed (E). The seeds serve as a famine food.

Spurge: Euphorbia (E)

Square tree: Pseudobombax (E)

Squash: Cucurbita (E)

STACHYTARPHETA JAMAICENSIS Gardn.: Brazilian tea (E); Porterweed (E,J); Cola de millo (P); Simbunugit (Cu); Verbena (P) (Fig. 289). The plant is used to make a tea and as an adulterant. In Puerto Rico, it is used to prevent baldness. In Darien, mixed with leaves of Pothomorphe and Hyptis, it is boiled in water, mixed with alcohol, brought to room temperature, and used as a bath for children's fever. The plant is believed to be an emmenagogue.

Stacuogro: Adipera (CR)

Star apple: Chrysophyllum (E)

Star gooseberry: Phyllanthus (E)

Star plum: Chrysophyllum (E)

STEIRACTINIA ASPERA Cuatr.: Chilca (C); Clavellinito (C)


STEMODIA PARVIFLORA Ait.: Hierba santa (CR). The plant is employed as a toothache remedy in Costa Rica.

STERCULIA APETALA (Jacq.) Karst.: Panama tree (E); Camajonduro (C); Kupu (Cu); Panama (P); Pinon (C) (Fig. 290). The seeds of this honey plant are edible roasted (!). These were a standby with the conquistadores during hard times in the early days of Panama. They are a favored pig food. Ground seeds are mixed with water to form a beverage. The hairs inside the fruit are very irritating. The bark is used in a home remedy for malaria, and the leaves are said to prevent falling hair. A beverage prepared from the bark is said to be similar to the morure used by the natives around Iquitos.

STIMULANT: A substance that increases the function of an organ. Aleurites, Alternanthera, Allilum, Ananas, Annona, Artemisia, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Cardiospermum, Chrysophyllum, Coffea, Colocasia, Cordia, Dodonaea, Dorstenia, Drimys, Drymaria, Eichhornia, Elephantopus, Epiphyllum, Eryngium, Hibiscus, Hyptis, Indigofera, Lantana, Lippia, Lepidium, Mammea, Moringa, Ocimum, Paullinia, Pectis, Pluchea, Punica, Quassia, Sapindus, Sesamum, Simaba, Tamarindus, Tecoma, Theobroma, Turnera, Xylopia, Zanthoxylum, Zingiber.

Stinking-toe: Cassia (E)

STOMACHIC: A gastric stimulant. Allium, Carica, Cassia, Cordia, Entada, Hymenaea, Indigofera, Mangifera, Myroxylon, Punica, Spathodea, Symphonia.

Strangler fig: Ficus (E)

Strawberry: Fragaria (E)

Strongback: Desmodium (E)

Strongbark: Desmodium (E)

STRUCHIUM SPARGANOPHORUM (L.) Kuntze: Hierba de faja (S). This species is used in soups in Africa.

STRYCHNOS TOXIFERA Benth.: Urari (S). This species provides an important arrowpoison ingredient, rarely if ever used in Panama.

STYPTIC: A substance that curbs bleeding (see also ASTRINGENT): Abrus, Bidens, Colocasia, Conocarpus, Cyathea, Cyathula, Jatropha, Musa, Typha, Vernonia.

Su: Ficus (Cu)

Suane: Spondias (Cu)

Subicoje: Momordica (C)

Sucuanjoche: Plumeria (N)

Sudangrass: Sorghum (E)

SUDORIFIC: A substance that induces sweating. Aleurites, Aristolochia, Cissampelos, Guazuma, Mangifera, Pothomorphe.

Suela: Pterocarpus (C)

Suelda con suelda: Pseudelephantopus (C); Tradescanhtia (C); Elephantopus mollis (C)

Suganquinit: Codiaeum (Cu)

Sueldo: Ficus (C)

Sugar apple: Annona (E)

Sugarberry: Celtis (E)

Sugarcane: Saccharum (E)

Sugwinet: Codiaeum (Cu)

Suita: Calyptrogyne (N)

Suiti: Annona (Cu); Psidium (Cu)

Sunflower: Helianthus (E)

Sungro: Phoebe (CR)

SUNSTROKE: A stroke due to excessive exposure to the sun. Treated with Mangifera, Tamarindus.

Sunsumba: Solanum (P)

Sunza: Licania (CA)

Supa: Guilielma (N)

SUPPOSITORY: A solid medication to insert in any cavity other than the mouth. Theobroma.

SUPPURATIVE: A substance supposed to bring infections to a head (producing pus). Abrus, Adenanthera, Annona, Argemone, Artocarpus, Bursera, Carica, Cassia, Cochlospermum, Gossypium, Kallstroemia, Mirabilis, Moringa, Protium, Ricinus, Solanum, Tamarindus.

Sura: Terminalia (CR); Viburnum (CR)

Surcy: Momordica (P)

Sure: Psididum (CR)

Sur espino: Ormosia (B)

Suribio: Pithecellobium (C)

Surinam cherry: Eugenia (E)

Surinam purslane: Talinum (E)

Surix kra: Hymenaea (CR)

Surra: Calycophyllum (CR); Terminaliaa (CR)

Surrumbo: Trema (C)

Surtuba: Geonoma (CR)

Surubre: Astrocaryum (CR)

Suspiro de monte: Hyptis (P)

Susucan: Heliconia (Cu)

Susumba: Solanum (P)

Suu: Ficus (Cu)

Suza: Gynerium (C)

Swamp lily: Thalia (E)

SWATZIA PANAMENSIS Benth.: Carboncillo (CR); Comenegro (CR); Cutamo (D); Guayacan (CR); Malvecino (P). The durable heartwood is used for the upright beams in Choco houses.

Sweet acacia: Acacia (E)

Sweet basil: Ocimum (E)

Sweet broom: Scoparia (E)

Sweet calabash: Passiflora (E)

SWEETIA PANAMENSIS Benth.: Carboncillo (CR); Cuayacan (CR); Malvecino (P). The strong durable wood is used locally in construction. The bark is used to treat diabetes and fevers.

Sweet lime: Citrus (E)

Sweet orange: Citrus (E)

Sweet potato: Ipomoea (E)

Sweet wood: Inga (E); Nectandra (B); Ocotea (B); Pithecellobium (E)

SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA King: Mahogany (E); Caoba (S); Saoba de Jurado (C); Cedro carmesi (C); Cedro cebollo (C); Cedro espinoso (C); Granadillo (C) (Fig. 291). The Choco, at its borders with Darien, is a potential mahogany reserve.

SYMPHONIA GLOBULIFERA L.f.: Barillo (P); Bogum (J); Botoncillo (CR); Cerillo (P); Cero (P); Paraman (C); Peraman (C); Sambogum (J). the fruit is edible. The latex is used for candles, torches, and caulking, and in treating ulcers. The bark is stomachic. The lumber is not high quality. Orinoco Indians use the plant to cure headache.

- T -

Tabaca: Pithecellobium (C); Pseudosamanea (C)

Tabachin: Caesalpinia (CR)

Tabaco: Grias (CR); Nicotiana (S); Triplaris (CR)

Tabaco burro: Capparis (C); Morisonia (C)

Tabaco cimarron: Pluchea purpurascens (C)

Tabaco de monte: Buddleja (C); Triplaris (CR)

Tabaco de la sierra: Espeletia glossophylla (C)

Tabacon: Anthurium (CR); Grias (CR); Triplaris (CR)

Tabadillato: Pavonia (Ch)

Tabaquillo: Aegiphila (CR); Bocconia (CR); Buddleja (P); Miconia (C); Polygonum (C); Urera (CR); Vernonia (CR)

Tabardillo: Dorstenia (C)

Tabari: Couratari (C)

TABEBUIA PENTAPHYLLA (L.) Hemsl.: Ocobo (C); Roble (P); Roble de la sabana (CR,P). This species, regarded as analgesic, antisyphilitic, and antipyretic, is a good timber tree, and the bark is said to be rich in tannins.

Tabegua: Virola (P)

Tabena: Dioscorea (C)

Tablero: Aster (C)

Tablis: Chomelia (CR)

Tablon: Banara (C); Luehea (C)

Tabonuco: Senegalia (C)

Tacaco: Polakowskia (CR)

Taca: Caryodendron (C)

Tacalon: Ardisia (C); Coccoloba (C)

Tacamajace: Protium (C)

Tacamocha: Protium (C)

Tacaquillo: Echinocystis (CR)

Tacasco: Siparuna (C)

Tacay: Caryodendron (C)

Tache: Myroxylon (C)

Tachuelo: Berberis (C); Fagara (C); Lacmellea (C); Machaerium (C); Solanum (C)

Tachushiash: Erechtites valerianifolia (C)

Tacote: Calea (CR)

Tafura, tafurita: Euphorbia (C)

TAGETES APETALA Posada: Ruda gallinoza (C); Ruda silvestre de clavito (C)

TAGETES ERECTA L.: Terciopelo amarillo (C); Flor de mujerto (C)

TAGETES PATULA L.: Chinchimali (C); Terciopelo (C); Flor de muerto (C); Amapola (C)




Tagua: Phytelephas (C,P); Psittacanthus (C)

Tajalagua: Carludovica (C)

Take: Jatropha (Cu)

Talalate: Gyrocarpus (N)

Talcacao: Kallstroemia (CR)

Tali: Cedrela (CR)

TALINUM TRIANGULARE (Jacq.) Willd.: Surinam purslane (E); Verdolaga chivatera (P); Verdolaguilla (S) (Fig. 292). The tender shoots are used as a potherb (!). The plant is used as a collyrium.

TALISIA NERVOSA Radlk.: Cotupli (C); Mamon de monte (P) (Fig. 293). The fruit is edible.

Tallowwood: Ximenia (E)

Tamaca: Acrocomia (C)

Tamarind: Pentaclethra (B); Tamarindus (E)

Tamarindillo: Oxalis (CA)

Tamarindo: Dialium (P,C); Pithecellobium (CR); Tamarindus (S)

Tamarindo de monte: Calliandra (C)

Tamarindo montero o prieto: Dialium (N)

TAMARINDUS INDICA L.: Tamarind (E); Tamarindo (S) (Fig. 294). The tamarind, widespread in the tropics, tends to become naturalized in xeric habitats, such as Panamanian thorn forests. Acid gummy pulp around the seed is eaten, and regarded as a good glood purifier and hangover cure in Darien (!). It is used to make curries, or, with water, to make beveragews. The dried pulp keeps well as a gummy candy. In western Panama it is mixed with honey to make a sweetmeat (!). The seeds may be eaten boiled or fried, after they have been roasted, soaked, and carefully peeled. The cotyledons have a bland, mucilaginous taste. They are made into flour by drying and grinding. A strong wood cement is made by boiling this flour in water. An amber-colored oil, odorless and sweet to the taste, may be expressed from the seeds. It is used for illulmination and probably for cooking. Green pods are cooked with meat as a seasoning or as a vegetable. The seedling, when about a foot high, is eaten as a vegetable. During times of scarcity, the leaves are used to make curries. The flowers, attractive to bees, may be eaten, cooked. The yellow dye was formerly extracted from the tree. The bark is used as a tonic and for asthma. The leaves are used as a collyrium, suppurative, and vermifuge, and in some jaundice treatments. The antihemorrhagic roots are used for liver ailments in Cuba. The flowers are used as a poultice in conjunctivitis. Expressed juice of the flowers is given internally for bleeding piles. The fruit pulp is considered alexeritic, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, aperient, cardiac, carminative, digestive, febrifugal, and refrigerant. It is used for apoplexy and sunstroke (applied in cold water to the shaved head) and is gargled with water for sore throat. The seeds are considered antidysenteric, depurative, and suppurative.

Tambor: Cordia (CR); Schizolobium (C)

Tamequia: Geonoma (C)

Tampacho: Clusia (C)

Tanane: Diospyros (C)

Tananeo: Peltogyne (C)

Tanbark: Rhiophora (E)

TANBARK: A plant whose bark produces much tannin or is used in tanning. Albizia, Aspidosperma, Avicennia, Bucida, Byrsonima, Cassia, Conocarpus, Laguncularia, Prosopis, Psidium, Rhizophora, Terminalia.

Tangare: Carapa (P)

Tangerine: Citrus (E)

Tango: Pyrostegia (C)

Tao: Crescentia (Ch)

Taonabo: Ternstroemia (C)

Tapachicha: Muntingia (C)

Tapacula de monte: Pentagonia (C)

Tapacu: Carica (C)

Tapaculo: Carica (CR); Genipa (N); Solanum (C)

Tapaliso: Alsesi (D)

Taparera: Capparis (C)

Taparin: Attalea (C)

Taparo: Attalea (C); Orbignya (C)

Taparo calimeno: Attalea (C)

Taparo grande: Orbignya (C)

Tapate: Datura (CR); Jatropha (CR)

Tapioca: Manihot (E,S)

Tapo: Hibiscus (P)

Taque: Caryodendron (C)

TARAXACUM OFFICINALE Weber: Diente de leon (CR/ROC); Serraja (C); Dandelion (E) (Fig. 295).

Taray: Astronium (C)

Targua: Croton (CR)

Targuacillo: Croton (CR)

Tar gum: Clusia (E)

Tarkwa: Colocasia (Cu); Xanthosoma (Cu)

Taro: Colocasia (E,S)

Tarrali: Posadaea (C)

Tarriago: Ravenala (C)

Tartayo emetico: Jatropha (C)

Taruya: Eichhornia (C)

Tasi: Alsophila (C)

Tasselflower: Emilia (E)

Tatamaco: Bursera (C)

Tauso: Passiflora (C)

Tauta: Unidentified Choco medicine for eye irritation. (See Yuquillo) The plant is grated and squeezed and the exudate used as a collyrium.

Te: Corchorus (P); Symplocos (C)

Te de Mutis: Symplocos (C)

Te de Quindio: Alonsoa (C)

TEA PLANT: A plant that is boiled to make a beverage. Achillea, Annona, Bursera, Citrus, Coffea, Coix, Coleus, Corchorus, Cymbopogon, Hedyosmum, Lantana, Lippia, Pectis, Persea, Rhizophora, Sida, Siparuna, Turnera.

Teak: Tectona (E)

Teatino: Hybanthus (C)

Terberinto: Moringa (S)

Teca: Tecona (S)

TECOMA STANS (L.) H.B.K.: Yellow elder (E); Copete (P); Fresnillo (P) (Fig. 296). The roots, used to make a beer, are a tonic and diuretic, and used for stomach pain. This is a honey plant.

Teel oil: Sesamum (E)

Telecate blanco: Montanoa (N)

Telegrafo: Maurandya (CR)

Tema: Hymenaea (CR)

Tempate: Jatropha (CR)

Tempisque: Dipholis (CR); Sideroxylon (CR)

Templeflower: Plumeria (E)

Tenga: Guilielma (C)

Tenidor: Miconia (C)

Teocinte: Euchlaena (C)

Teologia: Euphorbia (C)

Tepalon: Leersia (CR); Panicum (CR)

Tepeaguacate: Nectandra (N)

TEPHROSIA spp.: Barbasco (P); Duio (Ch); Naa (Cu); Tefrosia (S) (Fig. 297). These are often cultivated as fish-poison plants.

Terciopelo: Celosia (CR,P); Centrosema (C); Sloanea (CR,P)

Terciopelo amarillo: Tagetes erecta (C)

Terciopelo de Santa Maria: Miconia (CR)

Teresa: Rondeletia (CR)

Teresita: Browallia (C)

TERMINALIA CATAPPA L.: Indian almond (E); Almendro (S) (Fig. 298). The nut of the tropical almond here discussed is quite edible raw, while that of the temperate almond, Amygdalus communis L., may be poisonous raw. The kernel, difficult to remove from the woody husk, resembles an almond in flavor and may be eaten raw or roasted (!). Statements that the husk is edible seem doubtful on account of the woody nature of the mature husk. However, it is eaten among some Orinoco tribes. The seedlings should be a source of food. An edible oil has been expressed from the nut and is not so likely to become rancid as true almond oil. It is used in cooking. After a sufficient quantity of nuts have been gathered, dry in the sun for a few days to facilitate opening. Once enough nuts have been extracted, the oil may be expressed by maceration and subsequent flotation in boiling water. Tannin and a black dye can be obtained from the bark, foliage and fruits. Young leaves are taken internally for colic. The astringent bark, leaves and fruits are used to treat diarrhea and as a febrifuge. A decoction of the leaves or fruits is used for haemoptysis. The juice of young leaves is taken internally for headache and externally for scabies. Bathing in water with macerated leaves is supposed to be good for the itch and external ulcers. One La Palma antive claimed that her almond tree was killed by an enemy who had placed a snake's fang in the tree. The timber is little used.

TERMINALIA LUCIDA Hoffm.: Guayabillo (D). This favorite firewood of the Choco keeps the spark overnight. The wood is used in local construction.

Terneritos: Bryophyllum (CR)

Terre: Croton (CR)

Terriago: Phenakospermum (C)

TESSARIA INTEGRIFOLIA R.&P.: Aliso (C); Cenizo (C); Sauce de playa (C); Sauce playero (C); Olivo (C)

Teta negra: Theobroma (CR)

Tetera: Ischnosiphon (C); Stromanthe (C)

Tetona: Bomarea (C)

TETRACERA spp.: Bejuco de agua (C); Bejuco agraz (C); Bejuco guara (C); Bejuco tome (C); Chumico (P); Pasmo del sol (P) (Fig. 299). Potable water may be obtained from most Dilleniaceae vines. The water is diuretic and the bark is considered astringent and febrifugal. Many fruits in the family are feared as poisonous.

Teu-kra: Ximenia (CR)

Teuro: Citharexylum (C)

THALIA GENICULATA L.: Swamp lily (E); Platanillo (S). The inner part of the boiled root is edible.

THATCH PLANT: A plant used for making shelter. Acrocomia, Acrostichum, Asterogyne, Attalea, Cryosophila, Geonoma, Gynerium, Heliconia, Manicaria, Musa, Pandanus, Phragmites, Phytelephas, Pyrenglyphis, Sabal, SAccharum, Scheelia.

THEOBROMA BICOLOR H.B.K.: Bacao (C,D); Culuhu (Ch); Pataste (P). The pulp is eaten, and the seeds are used like cacao yieldilng an inferior chocolate, but good cocoa butter. The hard shells are used for crude utensils.

THEOBROMA CACAO L.: Cacao (E,S); Cacau (Ch); Chocolate (E,Ch); Sia (Cu); Zukurate (Ch) (Fig. 300). Cacao originated in Central and South American rain forests, but is now grown throughout the humid tropics. The seeds have served to make beverages for ages among the Indians of Panama and elsewhere. The pulp around the seeds is edible like that of most of the wild species found in Panama. Also, the pulp is used for alcoholic beverages and vinegar. Several other plants are often used to flavor the beverage, e.g., the flowers of Quararibea. The seeds were first brought to the attention of Europeans shortly before 1525, when the Spanish invaders of America reported that they were used as money in the New World, although they were not used by the natives for making chocolate. The dried seeds are roasted and ground to form cocoa. chocolate is prepared by grinding even finer, flavoring with something like vanilla, and moulding into shape while hot. The Cuna have a great variety of beverages based on chocolate, and probably consume more cacao than other ethnic groups. Among these are chucula, which is made of corn meal, ripe plantain, and ground cacao (lately coffee is sometimes added), and cuatirre, which is made of rice flour and cocoa. Ochi, a chocolate and cornmeal beverage, is a frequent breakfast beverage. CAcao butter, extracted by compressing the heated seeds, is used for pessaries and suppositories, and for treating burns. Mourning San Blas widows often burn cacao beans over the grave of the deceased (!). In female puberty rites, burning beans are placed on the floor for the participant to inhale the smoke. Pregnant San Blas Indians take decoctions of treen cacao pulp in the belief that it facilitates parturition. Young leaves are applied to wounds as an antiseptic and the flowers are used by the Ailigandi Cuna to treat screwworm of the eye.

THEOBROMA PURPUREUM Pitt.: Wild cocoa (E); CAcao cimarron (P); Chocolatillo (P) (Fig. 301). The pod, covered with stinging hairs, has an edible pulp.

THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) Soland.: Portia tree (E); Tulip tree (E); Algondon de monte (C); Clemon (C); Emajaguilla (S) (Fig. 302). The leaf and flower buds are said to be edible raw or cooked. The seeds are applied to scabies and other skin diseases, and are rubbed on swollen joints. The yellowish juice extracted from young fruits is used to treat insect bites, gonorrhea, ringworm, and migraine headache (for which it is applied to the forehgead), and is also used for fistula, psoriasis, scabies, sprains, and wart removal.

THEVETIA PERUVIANA (Pers.) Merr.: Trumpet flower (E); Amancay (P); Cabalonga (C); Campanilla (P); Castaneto (C) (Fig. 303). The black pulp of the fruit is said to be eaten in Ghana. The poisonous seeds are used in necklaces. If chewed they tend to act as an anesthetic. The wood is used as a fish poison. Cotton soaked in the latex is used to aid toothache. The bark is emetic, febrifugal, and purgative. Thevetia nitida, Colombia's tomate del diablo, is also said to have an edible fruit. This may be the campanillo used as a narcotic by the Choco.

Thsep: Mammea (CR)

Thyme: Thymus (E)

THYMUS VULGARIS L.: Tomillo (CR/ROC); Thyme (E)

Tibar: Escallonia (C)

Tibet tree: Albizia (E)

Tibigaro: Astronium (C)

Tick clover: Desmodium (E)

Tidep: Videx (Cu)

Tierizo: Serjania (CR)

Tiger flower: Tigridia (E)

Tigre: Guarea (C); Platypodium (P)

Tigrillo: Astronium (P)

Tiguilote: Cordia (CR)

Tikagan: Panicum (Cu)

Tilo: Justicia (CR/ROC)

Timber sweetwood: Nectandra (B)

Timbolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Timolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Tinaki: Cuphea (Cu); Phyllanthus (Cu)

Tinajita: Pentagonia (P)

TINDER: A plant with parts that are incendiary. Bixa, Cecropia, Ceiba, Corozo, Elaeis, Hibiscus, Protium.

Tinta: Phytolacca (CR,P)

Tinte: Croton (C)

Tintillo: Miconia (C); Monnina (C)

Tinto: Capparis (C); Cestrum (C); Genipa (C); Hamelia (C); Monnina (C)

Tinto macho: Monnina (C)

Tiquisque: Xanthosoma (CR)

Tiquissaro: Ocotea (CR)

Tira agua: Blakea (C)

Tira buzon: Codiaeum (C)

Tiraco: Pithecellobium (C)

Tiricia: Tournefortia (N)

Tiriguro: Averrhoa (CR)

Tiri Kru: Cedrela (CR)

Tirra: Chaetoptelea (CR); Platymiscium (CR); Viburnum (CR)

Tis: Trema (Cu)

Tispa: Clusia (CR)

Tito: Cleyera (CR)

Tiurugakwit: Drymaria (Cu)

Tivoli vine: Operculina (E)

Tlacaco: Polakowskia (CR)

Tobacco: Nicotiana (E); Pentagonia (B)

TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES: Plants which are smoked like tobacco. Achillea, Cannabis, Cecropia, Nicotiana, Rhizophora, Zea.

Tobusi: Vernonia (CR)

Tocoon: Clibadium (Ch)

Tocoro: Grias (C)

Toldillo: Senegalia (C)

Toltolquelite: Lantana (N)

Tolu: Bombacopsis (C); Myroxylon (C)

Tomama: Mammea (Cu)

Tomate: Lycopersicon (S)

Tomate de arbol: Cyphomandra (CR)

Tomate cimarron: Cyphomandra (CR); Thevetia (C)

Tomatillo: Lycianthes (CR); Lycopersicon (S); Thevetia (C)

Tomato: Lycopersicon (E)

Tomatoquina: Acnistus (C)

Tom Brown: Tamarindus (E)

Tome de orilla: Schlegelia (C)

Tometo: Copaifera (C0

Tomillo: Thymus (C, CR/ROC)

Tominejo: Masdevalia (C)

Tonga: Datura (D); Dipteryx (C)

Tonka bean: Dipteryx (E)

Toonaquirita: Montanoa (CR)

TOOTHACHE PLANTS: Plants used to cure aching teeth. Acacia, Adansonia, Allium, Anacardium, Asclepias, Bocconia, Caesalpinia, Calotropis, Casuarina, Cecropia, Cedrela, Chlorophora, Citrus, Cocos, Cucurbita, Dodonaea, Drimys, Euphorbia, Guaiacum, Isotoma, Jatropha, Mnagifera, Mimosa, Moringa, Murraya, Pedilanthus, Petiveria, Philodendron, Piper, Piscidia, Plumbago, Plumeria, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Ricinus, Salmea, Salvia, Serjania, Spilanthes, Stemodia, Thevetia, Ximenia, Xylopia, Zanthoxylum.

TOOTH EXTRACTION PLANTS: Plants used to facilitate the removal of teeth. Asclepias, Anacardium, Chlorophora, Hura.

Toparejo: Inga (P)

Topeton: Ipomoea (P); Physalis (P)

Topetope: Solanum (Ch)

Topetorope: Physalis (C)

Topochero: Heliconia (C)

Topocho: Heliconia (C)

Toquilla: Carludovica (P)

Tora: Montanoa (CR); Morisonia (C); Podachaenium (CR); Polymnia (CR); Verbesina (CR)

Tora blanca: Podachaenium (CR)

Torchwood: Amyris (E)

TORCHWOOD: Plants whose wood catches and retains fire easily. Amyris, Dodonaea, Symphonia.

Torcidillo: Helicteres (P)

Torete(o): Annona; Rollinia (P)

Torilla: Verbesina (CR)

Torito: Plumeria (CR); Stanhopea (C)

Torito quetua: Calathea (Ch)

Tornasol: Gynura (CR); Tabernaemontana (C)

Tornillo: Cyclanthus (CR)

Toro: Morisonia (C)

Toronja: Citrus (S); Solanum (C)

Toronjil: Ocimum (P)

Tortolillo: Aralia (C)

Tostao: Cupania (C)

Toston: Cissampelos (C)

Totes: Dichronema (C)

Totuma(o), Totumbo: Crescentia (P); Eschweilera (C)

Totumito: Capparis (C); Eschweilera (C)

Totumo de monte: Solandra (C)

TOURNEFORTIA HIRSUTISSIMA L. (Fig. 304). The fruits are edible, but one must be aware of the stinging hairs on the plant.

Tovar: Aegiphila (C)

TRAPA NATANS L.: Water chestnut (E); Nuez de agua (C) (Fig. 305). The fruit is edible.

Trapichero: Manilkara (C)

Traveler's palm: Ravenala (E)

Trebo: Homalium (C); Platymiscium (C)

Trebol: Enallagma (P); Oxalis (CR); Platymiscium (C); Trifolium (CR)

Trebol blanco: Trifolium (CR)

Tree fern: Cyathea (E)

Tree tomato: Cyphomandra (E)

Trementino: Cynometra (C); Prioria (C)

Trementino azucarero: Tetragastris (C)

Trescolores: Lantana (C)

Tres dedos: Dactyloctenium (C); Philodendron (C)

Tres de la tarde: Hibiscus (CR)

TRICHANTHERA sp.: Cajeto (C); Nacedero (C,D). Said to be used for living fence posts in Colombia. In Darien, it is used medicinally for smallpox.

TRICHILLIA ACUTANTHERA C.DC.: Cedrillo (CR); Conejo colorado (P); Huesito (P); Souca (P). The seeds are reportedly used to kill head lice in Nicaragua and Honduaras.

TRICHILIA TUBERCULATA (Triana & Planch) C.DC.: Alfaje (P); Alfajillo (P); Camin (CR,P); Fosforito (P). The wood is supposed to burn when green. The name alfajillo is said to be used for plants (the bark?) used to tie bundles of rice together (!).

TRICHOMANES ELEGANS Rich.: Lorito (C). Used as a snakebite remedy in the Choco.

TRICHOMANES PINNATUM Hedw.: Lengua de tigre (C); Rabo de chucha (C). Used to treat bushmaster bites.


TRIDAX RADIALIS (L.) Kuntze: Arnica de monte (C)

Trigo: Triticum (C,CR)

Triguillo: Bromus (CR,C)

Trinitaria: Bouganvillea (C)

Tripa de gallo: Cissus (C)

Tripa de pato: Myriocarpa (C)

Tripa de perro: Philodendron (C)

TRIPLARIS spp.: Long John (E); Arrapau (Ch); Satteuala (Cu); Vara santa (D) (Fig. 306). This is the worst ant tree in Panama (!).

Triquetraque: Pyrostegia (CR)

TRITICUM spp.: Wheat (E); Trigo (S) (Fig. 307). This common grain is not so important in Panama as rice and corn.

TRIUMFETTA LAPPULA L.: Abrojo (P); Cadillo (P); Cepa de caballo (P) (Fig. 308). Related species have served as an emergency potherb. The stems contain a tough fiber and an astringent mucilage that is used to clarify syrup and as a cold remedy. In Western Panama, crushed leaves and twigs are mixed with cinnamon water and honey as a diarrhea cure.

TRIXIS RADIALIS (L.) Urban: Chiriqui (P); Chucha (C). The plant is reportedly used as a vulnerary.

Trokro: Hibiscus (CR)

Trompa de chancho: Hypoxis (CR)

Trompete: Bocconia (C); Guarea (C); Monnina (C)

Trompetilla: Siegesbeckia cordifolia (C)

Trompeto: Catoblastus (C); Iriartea (C)

Trompito: Alibertia (P)

TROPHIS RACEMOSA (L.) Urban: Breadnut (E); Gallote (P); Lechosa (CR); Morillo (P); Ojoche macho (P); Ramon (S) (Fig. 309). The fruits are edible. The leaves make good fodder.

Trompillo: Alibertia (CR); Guarea (C)

Trompo: Alibertia (P)

Tronador: Hura (P)

Trumpet flower: Thevetia (E)

Trumpet tree: Cecropia (E)

Truntago: Vitex (C)

Trupa: Corozo (C,P); Elaeis (C,P); Jessenia (C,P)

Trupi: Acacia (C)

Trupillo: Prosopis (C)

Tsukarate: Theobroma (Ch)

Tsukra: Chlorophora (CR)

Tua-Tua: Jatropha (C)

Tuave: Eschweilera (D)

Tuba: Unidentified plant used by the Bayano Cuna to make rope.

TUBERCULOSIS: An infectious disease of the lungs. Treated with Acacia, Allium, Dialyanthera, Jessenia, Pistia, Rhizophora, Solanum.

Tuberose: Polianthes (E)

Tuburus: Enterolobium (N)

Tubus: Styrax (S)

Tucuico: Ardisia (CR)

Tucuiquillo: Parathesis (C)

Tucuma: Astrocaryum (C)

Tucumo: Ochroma (C)

Tucuno: Ochroma (C)

Tucuso: Carludovica (CR)

Tuetajo: Inga (Ch)

Tuete: Vernonia (CR)

Tuete blanco: Vernonia (CR)

Tugua: Ficus (Ch)

Tula de mate: Lagenaria (P)

Tule balsa: Typha (CR)

Tulipan: Datura (CR); Lilium (C); Meria a (C); Spathodea (S); Tigridia (C)

Tulip tree: Spathodea (E); Thespesia (E)

Tul-tule: Eleocharis (CR)

Tumbo: Passiflora (C)

Tumu: Poulsenia (N)

Tuna: Carludovica (CR); Castilla (N); Epiphyllum (CR); Nopalea (S); Opuntia (P)

Tunica del Nazareno: Gynura (CR)

Tunilla: Cereus (CR)

Tunito: Capparis (C)

Tuno: Miconia (C)

Tunoso: Zanthoxylum (C)

Tuonculape: Cornutia (C)

Tupu: Gustavia (Cu)

Tuqueso: Licania (P)

Tubara: Paspalum (CR)

Turizo: Serjania (CR)

Turma: Solanum (C)

Turma de perro: Tabernaemontana (C)

Turmeric: Curcuma (E)

Turmero: Colocasia (C)

TURNERA DIFFUSA Willd.: Escobilla (S). Dried leaves, substituted for Chinese tea, are regarded as anticatarrhic, antivenereal, aphrodisiac, laxative, and stimulant.

Turnip: Brassica (E)

Turro: Myrcia (C)

Turru, Turrui: Eugenia (CR); Myrcia (CR)

Turu: Eugenia (CR)

Turuara: Paspalum (CR)

Turubuk: Guarea (CR)

Turul: Manicaria (C)

Turumato: Morenia (C)

Tusip: Rollinia (Cu)

TUSSACIA FREDRICHSTHALIANA Hanst.: Desbaratador (Ch); Wilkwa (Cu). This plant is highly regarded by both Choco and Cuna Indians as a snakebite remedy. Among the Guaymi Indians, the tuber of a related species is regarded as a cure for throat cancer (!). Choco use it also for diarrhea (!). This could be the herb so effectively used in snakebite on dogs.

Tusipone: Enterolobium (Ch)

Tuskra: Corozo (CR)

Tutmillo-mito: Enallagma (P)

Tuu: Ficus (Cu)

TYPHA LATIFOLIA L.: Cattail (E); Anea (S); Enea (C); Espadaxa (C); Junco (C); Junco de estera (C); Junco de Pasion (C) (Fig. 310). Young roots serve as a vegetable; older roots may be ground to a flour. Stem bases are edible boiled or roasted. The cores of young shoots are edible raw. The pollen is used as flour. The pollen, mixed with water and salt, or ashes, is baked. The cores of flower spikes are edible raw or cooked. The seeds are edible roasted. The rhizomes are a favorite food of rodents. The interior pithy part may be eaten raw or boiled and may be ground up to form a flour. The leaves are used for floor mats, basketry, and caulking. The down from the female spikes is used for stuffing pillows, and the hairs on the seeds are an effective styptic.

TYPHOID: An infectious fever. Treated with Coffea, Costus.

TYPHUS: An infectious disease spread by lice. Treated with Capsicum, Dortenia.

- U -

Uachi: Manicaria (C)

Uagup: Dioscorea (Cu)

Uaibinu: Anacardium (Cu)

Uaipinnu: Anacardium (Cu)

Uala: Nicotiana (Cu)

Uari: Dioscorea (Cu)

Uasup: Dioscorea (Cu)

Ubi: Manicaria (C)

Ubim: Bactis (C); Geonoma (C)

Ubimuasu: Manicaria (C)

Ubre de vaca: Cordia (C)

Uchuba: Physalis (C)

Udu: Pithecellobium (Cu)

Udutpulu: Quassia (Cu)

Ugro: Lindackeria (CR)

Uichira: Maximiliana (C)

Uichup: Chrysobalanus (Cu)

Ukuruala: Ochroma (Cu)

Ulanda: Amyris (C)

Ule: Castilla (P,S); Perebea (P)

Ulluco: Ullucus (C)

ULLUCUS TUBEROSUS Lozano: Olloco (C); Ruba (C); Ulluco (C). The tubers are edible. The leaves are eaten as a potherb in parts of Ecuador.

Uluk: Cedrela (CR)

Umbela: Plumbago (P)

Umbrella tree: Melia (E)

Unamo: Jessenia (C)

Una de aguila: Zanthoxylum (C)

Una de caballo: Piper (C)

Una de cabra: Acacia (C)

Una de gato: Acacia (CR); Byttneria (CR); Lantana (C); Pisonia (C); Pithecellobium (S); Smilax (C); Solanum (C); Zanthoxylum (C)

Una de lobo: Machaerium (C)

Unama: Jessenia (C)

Una de perro: Zanthoxylum (C)

Una de tigre: Mucuna (CR); Pisonia (CR); Pithecellobium (C)

UNGUENT: An ointment for burns. Abrus, Acalypha, Bixa, Cocos, Cucurbita, Gouania, Guazuma, Jatropha, Mangifera, Musa, Ophioglossum, Oryza, Phaseolus, Portulaca, Pothomorphe, Sesamum, Solanum, Theobroma, Typha, Urera.

UNIOLA VIRGATA (Poir.) Griseb.: Sea oats (E). The seeds are a grain source.

Upacon: Montanoa (C)

Upsana: Gossypium (Cu)

Upsensapi: Dorstenia (Cu)

Ur: Minquartia (B)

Urapan: Fraxinus (C)

Urari: Minquartia (P); Strychnos (S)

Urcugalabili: Siparuna (Cu)

URENA LOBATA L.: Aramina fibre (E); Congo jute (E); Cadillo (S) (Fig. 311). The mucilaginous seeds are said to be used to make cereals and soaps. The stems are a fibre source in Brazil.

URERA sp.: Nettle (E); Pringamoza (C); Take (Cu) (Fig. 312). La Nueva natives use the flowers in a colic remedy. Cuna Indians use this and other nettles as urticating switches to punish petty criminals and as a treatment for rheumatism (!). For a stomachache, they beat the back with the nettle, for a headache, they beat the feet.

Urgat: Petiveria (Cu)

Urodibe: Minquartia (CR,P)

Urrapia: Bauhinia (C)

Urruca: Trichilia (CR)

Urrucay: Protium (C)

Urtuwala: Pseudobombax (Cu)

Uruala: Cedrela (Cu)

Uruca: Ardisia (CR); Trichilia (C,CR)

Urucuri: Scheelea (C)

Uruk: Cedrela (CR)

Uruta: Corozo (Ch); Elaeis (Ch)

Usami: Colocasia (Ch)

Usi suiti: Annona (Cu)

Usan: Gossypium (Cu)

Ushup: Luehea (Cu)

Usiburnu puruiwat: Gonzalagunia (Cu)

Uva: Ardisia (C); Ficus (C); Pourouma (C); Sabicea (C); Vitis (P)

Uva de anis: Cavendishia (C)

Uva camarona: Gaultheria (C)

Uva cimarrona: Cissus (P); Gaultheria (C); Thibaudia (C)

Uva de castilla: Physalis (C); Vitis (C)

Uva de la playa: Coccoloba (S)

Uva de perro: Physalis (C)

Uvero: Coccoloba (S); Cordia (P); Hamelia (P); Triplaris (C)

Uvero de lata: Bactris (C)

Uvilla: Cestrum (C); Cordia (P); Physalis (C)

Uvita de lata: Bactris (C)

Uvito: Ardisia (N,P); Bactris (P); Cordia (C)

Uvito macho: Bourreria (C)

Uvito mocoso: Cordia (C)

Uvito de monte: Cavendishia (C)

Uvito moscoso: Cordia (C)

Uvo: Pourouma (C)

Uvre: Lindackeria (P)

- V -

Vaco: Brosimum (C); Magnolia (P)

Vagamani: Tapriria (P)

Vaina: Phragmotheca (C)

Vainica: Inga (CR)

Vainilla: Cassia (CR); Tecoma (CR); Vanil (P)

Vainilla enarbol: Selenipedium (P)

Vainilla chica: Selenipedium (P)

Vainillo: Cassia (C,N)

Vainillon: Vanilla (CR)

Vanamani: Tapriria (P)

Valdivia: Picramnia (C)

Vanilla: Vanilla (E)

VANILLA FRAGRANS L.: Vanilla (E); Bejucillo (C); Vainilla (S). Cultivated as a perfume by the Choco (Fig. 313).

Vaquero: Dendropanax (P)

Vara de alcalde: Elleanthus (C)

Vara blanca: Casearia (C); Hedyosmum (CR); Protium (C); Senecio (CR); Sorocea (C); Trema (C,CR)

Vara lazo: Lippia (C)

Vara de leon: Laplacea (C)

Vara de piedra: Casearia (C); Pseudolmedia (C)

Vara real: Eugenia (C)

Vara de sanjose: Agave (P)

Vara santa: Triplaris (P)

Varejon de caballo: Eupatorium (C); Vernonia (C)

Varela: Vernonia (C)

Varilazo: Cupania (P)

Varilla negra: Cordia (CR)

Varita de San Jose: Duranta (P); Tabernaemontana (P)

Varsovia: Watsonia (C)

Vegigon: Calotropis (C)

Vela: Parmentiera (P)

Velero: Cassia (C)

Velillo: Cassia (C)

Velita: Lippia (C)

Velo de novia: Asparagus (CA); Solanum (C)

Velvet bean: Mucuna (E)

Velvetleaf: Limnocharis (E)

Venaco: Trema (C)

Venadero: Cissampelos (CR)

Venadillo: Conyza bonariensis (C); Erechtites valerianifolia (C); Porophyllum ruderale (C)

Venadillo grande: Ptgerocaulon alopecuroides (C)

Veneillo: Rauwolfia (C); Stemmadenia (P); Tabernaemontana (P)

Veneito: Calatola (C)

Veneno: Rauwolfia (P)

Venicula: Platymiscium (S)

Ventanilla: Monstera (CR)

Venturosa: Lantana (C); Melanthera (C)

Veraco: Trema (C)

Veranero: Bouganvillea (S); Leucaena (C)

Verbena: Buddleja (CR); Clerodendron (CR); Stachytarpheta (P); Verbena (CR/ROC)


Verbena rosada: Valerianoides (N)

Verbesina: Salmea (C)

VERBESINA CRASSIRAMA Blake: Camargo chico (C); Camargo (C); Tabaquillo (C)


VERBESINA TURBACENSIS H.B.K.: Cerbatana (C); Manito de Dios (C)

Verdolaga: Commelina (P); Portulaca (S) Verduguillo: Geonoma (C)

Vergozosa: Mimosa (C)

VERMIFUGE: A substance for expelling worms. Allium, Aloe, Andira, Annona, Artemisia, Asclepias, Bocconia, Calotropis, Carapa, Carica, Cassia, Cedrela, Chenopodium, Cocos, Couma, Cucurbita, Dialyanthera, Ficus, Hippomane, Hura, Lagenaria, Lantana, Lippia, Luffa, Mammea, Mangifera, Melia, Mirabilis, Momordica, Mucuna, Panicum, Persea, Petiveria, Philodendron, Philoxerus, Phytolacca, Pteridium, Punica, Quisqualis, Spigelia, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Urena, Vernonia.

VERNONIA BRACTEATA Benth.: Tabaquillo (C)

VERNONIA BRASILILANA (L.) Druce: Vara de caballo (C)


VERNONIA CINEREA Less.: The leaves serve as an emergency potherb. The seeds are alexipharmic and antihelminthic.

VERNONIA PATENS H.B.K.: Boton de pega-pega (P); Indio viejo (C); Lengua de buey (o vaca) (P); Palo blanco (P); Salvia (P); Sanalego (P); Tuete (CR); Varejon blanco (C). In Costa Rica the leaves are thrust up the nostril to stop nosebleed.

VERNONIA SCABRA Pers.: Pebetera (C); Barejon (C); Barejon de caballo (C)

Verraco: Roupala (C)

Vervain: Verbena (CR/ROC)

VESICANT: A plant which produces blistering. Allium, Anacardium, Apeiba, Caesalpinia, Carica, Cercropia, Cissus, Clematis, Crateva, Croton, Dalechampia, Didymopanax, Dioscorea, Euphorbia, Fleurya, Gurania, Hippomane, Hura, Jatropha, Loasa, Malachara, Mangifera, Moringa, Mucuna, Pedilanthus, Rhabdabenia, Sapium, Sloanea, Sterculia, Theobroma, Tragia, Urera.

Veza: Vicia (C)

Vibora: Tradescantia (C)

Viboran: Asclepias (CR)

Viborilla: Rauwolfia (N)

Viborrana: Asclepias (CR); Clavija (CR)

VICIA FABA L.: Broad bead (E); Haba (S); Veza (C) (Fig. 314). Green pods of this honey plant are cooked like stringbeans. The seeds, edible roasted, are made into flour.

VICTORIA REGIA Lindl.: Maiz de agua (C). Juice from the flowers is regarded as refrigerant and aphrodisiac. The seeds are edible.

Vidira mia: Dalechampia (C)

Viernesanto: Phyllanthus (C)

VIGNA UNGUICULATA L.: Cherry bean (E); Cow-pea (E); Horse gram (E); Blackeyed pea (E) (Fig. 315). The pods are eaten like stringbeans. Leaves and young shoots, said to be eidble, contain 4-5% protein.

Viguare: Campomanesia (C)

Viguaro: Mouriri (C)

Vijaguilla: Muntingia (C)

Vinagrillo: Oxalis (S); Rumex (S)

Vinuela: Hibiscus (P)

Violet: Viola (E)

Violeta: Viola (Cr)

Violeta blanca: Nierembergia (C)

Violeta de los Alpes: Cyclamen (C)

Viranjo: Pourouma (Ch)

Viravira: Eupatorium stoechadifolium (C); Gnaphalium elegans (C); Stevia lucida (C)

Virgusa: Cecropia (C)

VIROLA GUATEMALENSIS (Hemsl.) Warb.: Fruta dorado (CR); Sebo (S). Dry seeds are used for flavoring chocolate. The seed oil is used for making soap and candles. Whorled twigs are used like eggbeaters.

VIROLA SEBIFERA Aubl.: Bogamani (P); Fruta dorado (P) (Fig. 316). The seeds, some with 60% oil, are used as candlenuts and soap by Choco and Cuna Indians (!).

VISMIA FERRUGINEA H.B.K.: Achiotillo (C); Bloodwood (J); Carate (C); Punta de lanza (C); Sangre de perro (P); Sangrillo, Sangrito (C,P). The orange latex is used by San Blas Indians to treat blanched spots on the skin (!). Other species are used as fish-poisons and fungicides.

VITEX CYMOSA Bert.: Aceituno (C). Thr fruits are sweet but leave a bitter taste in the mouth (!).

VITIS TILIAEFOLIA (H.&B) Roem. & Schult.: Grape (E); Bejuco de agua (P); Uva (P). The sap is potable. The fruits, edible fresh or dried, make a good vinegar. Young shoots are used as a potherb. Medicinally, the plant serves as an emollient.

Vitoria: Gurania (C)

Viuda: Petrea (P)

Viudita: Vinca (C)

Vivaseca: Diphysa (C)

Volador: Gyrocarpus (C); Ruprechtia (C); Spiraea (C)

Volcan: Solanum (CR)

VULNERARY: A substance for healilng wounds and sores. Acacia, Acrostichum, Alternanthera, Argemone, Artocarpus, Baccharis, Basella, Bidens, Bocconia, Bryophyllum, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Cajanus, Calophyllum, Calotropis, Carica, Casearia, Cassia, Chaptalia, Chrysobalanus, Cissampelos, Cissus, Clitoria, Clusia, Cocos, Copaifera, Crescentia, Curatella, Datura, Desmodium, Dolichos, Eclipta, Euphorbia, Ficus, Guazuma, Hymenaea, Jatropha, Kallstroemia, Lens, Licania, Lippia, Mammea, Momordica, Moringa, Mucuna, Musa, Nerium, Ophioglossum, Piper, Polymnia, Pothomorphe, Prioria, Protium, Psidium, Pterocarpus, Punica, Rheedia, Rhizophora, Rivina, Sagittaria, Sapindus, Solanum, Spathodea, Spondias, Symphonia, Terminalila, Thespesia, Urera, Trixis, Zanthoxylum.

- W -

Waa: Roystonea (Cu)

Waipinnu: Anacardium (Cu)

Waitutu: Hibiscus (Cu)

WALTHERIA INDICA L.: Friega plato (P); Hierba de soldado (P); Mala sombra (P); Palo de soldado (P). The roots are used as a chewstick and the leaves for washing dishes. A root decoction, used for eye baths and for children's diarrhea, is said to cause abortion in Ghana. Regularly drinking a decoction is supposed to impart immunity to syphilis. The pulverized plant with hot water is taken morning and night for coughs. The leaves are used against giddiness. It is a favorite remedy for haemoptysis in Panama.

Wandering jew: Commelina (E)

WARSZEWICZIA COCCINEA (Vahl) Klotzsch: Ebecara (Ch); Guna (D); Pastora de montana (CR) (Fig. 317). The anise-odored roots, said to be aphrodisiac, are often worn by the Choco as love charms. They are also used as a general house perfume (!). In Colombia, the bark is said to be hemostatic.

Warwawa: Ricinus (Cu)

Wasika: Cephaelis (Cu)

Waskagat: Alternanthera (Cu)

Water chestnut: Trapa (E)

Watercress: Nasturtium (E)

Water fern: Ceratopteris (E)

Water hyacinth: Eichhornia (E)

Water lettuce: Pistia (E)

Water lily: Nymphaea (E)

Watermelon: Citrullus (E)

Water mimosa: Neptunia (E)

WATER SOURCES: Plants used to quench the thirst. Bambusa, Casuarina, Cavanillesia, Ceiba, Cocos, Coffea, Combretum, Costus, Cymbopogon, Davilla, Desmoncus, Doliocarpus, Heliconia, Raphanus, Ravenala, Spondias, Tetracera, Theobroma, Vitis.

Water vine: Combretum (E); Curatella (E); Doliocarpus (E); Vitis (E)

WEDELIA FRUTICOSA Jacq.: Dos de Oros (C)

West Indian elm: Guazuma (E)

West Indian gooseberry: Phyllanthus (E)

West Indian satinwood: Zanthoxylum (E)

Wheat: Triticum (E)

White broom: Cassia (E)

White buttonwood: Laguncularia (E)

White cacique: Eugenia (B)

White cedar: Dialyanthera (E); Hura (E)

White sage: Lantana (E)

White sapote: Casimiroa (E)

WIGANDIA CARACASANA H.B.K.: Borrajon (P). This stinging plant is regarded as a diaphoretic and antidysenteric.

Wild balsam apple: Momordica (CR/ROC)

Wild banana: Heliconia (E)

Wild bay cedar: Trema (E)

Wild calabash: Enallagma (E); Parmentiera (E)

Wild cashew: Anacardium (E)

Wild cherry: Byrsonima (B); Casearia (E); Citharexylum (B)

Wild cocoa: Herrania (E); Theobroma (E)

Wild coffee: Colubrina (B); Pososqueria (E); Siparuna (E)

Wild cucumber: Carica (B); Melothria (E)

Wild fig: Clusia (B); Ficus (E); Sapium (B)

Wild grape: Pentagonia (B)

Wild guava: Alibertia (E)

Wild jasmine: Aegiphila (B)

Wild licorice: Abrus (E)

Wild lime: Citharexylum (B)

Wild marjoram: Lippia (E)

Wild mint: Lantana (J)

Wild nutmeg: Ocotea (B); Virola (E)

Wild okra: Abelmoschus (J); Hibiscus (E)

Wild olive: Pera (E)

Wild orange: Tabernaemontana (B)

Wild palm: Quararibea (B)

Wild pear: Licania (B)

Wild peppermint: Hedeoma (E)

Wild pigeon plum: Ouratea (B); Duranta (E)

Wild plum: Spondias (E)

Wild sage: Buddleia (CR/ROC) Lantana (J)

Wild sapote: Lucuma (B)

Wild senna: Cassia (E, CR/ROC)

Wild sorrel: Oxalis (E)

Wild tamarind: Pithecellobium (B)

Wilkwa: Tussacia (Cu)

Willow: Salix (E)

Winepalm: Acrocomia (E); Scheelila (E)

WINE SOURCES: Plants used in wine production. Acrocomia, Attalea, Cocos, Elaeis, Raphia, Scheelia, Vitis.

Wispi: Heisteria (Cu)

Woman's tongue: Albizia (E)

Wonderberry: Solanum (E)

Wormgrass: Spigelia (E)

Wormseed: Chenopodium (E)

WULFFIA BACCATA Kuntze: Guasquilla (C)

Wytil: Sickingia (B)

- X -

Xacot: Malpighia


XANTHOSOMA CARACU Koch & Bouche: Yautia (S); Yautia horqueta (S). Young leaves of this and other species are used as a potherb. Tubers of several other species are edible after processing.

XANTHOSOMA VIOLACEUM Schott: Primrose malanga (E); Badu (P); Coco (P); Oto (P); Tarkwa (Cu); Montogoyo (Ch); Rascadera (C). The oto, a favorite Panama vegetable tends to become naturalized. The tuberous roots are edible cooked with the taro and name constituting the bulk of many of the sancochos of Panama gently seasoned with aji and heavily seasoned with culantro. The young leaves, when boiled and chopped, constitute a satisfactory potherb. Cuna Indians are said to reproduce the faces of criminals on the leaves.

XIMENIA AMERICANA L.: Tallowwood (E); Caimito de monte (C); Ciruelo (C); Espino brujo; Limoncillo (C) Manzanilla (P); Pepenance (CR) (Fig. 319). The fruits are edible raw or cooked. They are made into a beer in South America. The seeds are edible roasted but are rather dangerous. They are someticme pulverized and mixed with sago starch to make bread. They are used by some Europeans to make a "sloe gin". Young leaves serve as a potherb. The seed oil is placed on hollow teeth before extraction in Africa. The roots are chewed for toothache and are also used for sleeping sickness, fevers, ringworm, and venereal diseases, and to stop vomiting and diarrhea. In the Antilles, a syrup prepared from the fruits is used for rheumatism and dropsy.

XIPHIDIUM CAERULEUM Aubl.: Palmita (P); Soskia (Cu) (Fig. 320). Bayano Cuna use the plant as a cure for female problems (!).

XYLOPIA FRUTESCENS Aubl.: Malagueto chico (P); Malagueto hembra (P). Panama Negroes are said to use the grains in place of pepper. This was formerly used as a cordage source.

XYLOPIA MACRANTHA Triana & Planch.: Azotacaballo (C); Coroba (P); Malagueto (C); Rayado (P). The fruits are greedily eaten by pigs, and have been mixed with chocolate as a beverage. Medicinally the plant is used for toothaches and stomachaches and as a stimulant. Ground fruits are drunk in wine as a counterpoison.

- Y -

Yabal: Pourouma (N)

Yabo: Andira (C); Cercidium (C); Parkinsonia (C)

Yaca: Artocarpus (C); Byrsonima (C)

Yaco borrachero: Banisteriopsis (C); Byrsonima (C)

Yage: Banisteriopsis (C)

Yagrume: Didymopanax (C)

Yagua: Scheelia (C)

Yague: Banisteriopsis (C)

Yahal: Curatella (CR)

Yahuar: Astrocaryum (C)

Yaje: Banisteriopsis (C)

Yalam: Cedrela (N)

Yam: Dioscorea (E); Ipomoea (E)

Yamata: Bidens (C)

Yam bean: Pachyrhizus (E)

Yamery: Vochysia (P)

Yampi: Dioscorea (S)

Yana muco: Neea (C)

Yao: Licaria (CR); Phyllanthus (C); Trichilia (C)

Yape: Dipteryx (C)

Yapo: Parascheelia (C)

Yara: Leopoldinia (C)

Yaragua gordura: Melinis (C)

Yaragua uribe: Hyparrhenia (C); Melinis (C)

Yaraguasu: Leopoldinia (C)

Yare: Heteropsis (C)

Yarina: Yarina (C)

Yarina: Yarina (C)

Yarrow: Achillea (E)

Yarumba: Cecropia (P)

Yarumo: Cecropia (C); Didymopanax (C); Pourouma (C)

Yas: Persea (CR)

Yasitara: Desmoncus (C)

Yasu: Cissus (CR)

Ya-te-vi: Gurania (C)

Yato: Crescentia (Ch)

Yatuseque: Crescentia (Ch)

Yautia: Xanthosoma (S)

Yaya: Duguetia (C); Ocotea (P); Nectandra (B); Trichilia (C)

Yaya blanca: Trichilia (C); Unonopsis (P)

Yaya cedro: Trichilia (C)

Yaya pino: Duguetia (C)

Yaya sangre: Pterocarpus (C)

Yedi: Cestrum (W)

Yedra de sanjuan: Cattleya

Yellow elder: Tecoma (E)

YELLOW FEVER: An infectious tropical disease. Treated with Bursera, Dendropanax, Fevillea, Lycopersicon, Moringa.

Yellow manwood: Vitex (E)

Yellow oleander: Nerium (E)

Yellow wood: Chlorophora (E)

Yema de huevo: Cassia (C); Chamaefistula (C); Chimarrhis (P); Leonia (C); Morinda (C)

Yemeri: Vochysia (N,P)

Yemeri macho: Vochysia (P)

Yerba: See hierba

Yerba de caballo: Conyza bonariensis (C); Elephantopus mollis (C); Pseudelephantopus spicatus (C)

Yerba de chulo: Porophyllum macrocephalum (C)

Yerba gallinoza: Gnaphalium elegans (C)

Yerba de limón: Cymbopogon (CR/ROC)

Yerba de Santa Maria: Liabum bonplandii (C)

Yerbo de chivo: Eupatorium paezense (C)

Yesca: Miconia (C)

Yesca de Panama: Miconia (C)

Yigualti: Genipa (N)

Yisara: Euterpe (C)

Ylang-ylang: Cananga (S)

Yoco: Piptadenia (C)

Yol: Corozo (C)

Yolillo: Manicaria (CR); Raphia (CR)

Yolombo: Euplassa (C); Panopsis (C)

Yomate: Astronium (C)

Yamato: Astronium (C)

Yopa: Datura (C)

Yopo: Piptandenia (C)

Yoro: Laplacea (CR)

Yos: Sapium (CR)

Youth-and-old-age: Zinnia (E)

Yuca; Bernoullia (P); Manihot (S)

Yucatan: Agave (C)

YUCCA ELEPHANTIPES Regel: Spanish bayonet (E); Espinero (P); Palmito (P) (Fig. 321). The tender flowers are cooked in soups or fried with eggs.

Yuco: Brunellia (C); Byrsonima (C); Cleome (C); Hura (C);Phyllanthus (C)

Yuco rinon: Brunellia (C)

Yupat: Iriartella (C)

Yuque: Ceiba (C)

Yuquillo: Asclepias (P); Lobelia (CR). An unidentified plant, widely used medicinally in Panama and also used as a yellow stain among the Guaymi Indians, probably Curcuma (see Tauta).

Yuquilla: Curcuma

Yuro: Trema (C)

Yute: Corchorus (C)

Yuyo quemado: Spilanthes (C)

Yuyuba: Ziziphus (C)

- Z -

Zabila: Aloe (C)

Zacate amargo: Axonopus (CR)

Zacate de caballo: Paspalum (CR)

Zacate estrella: Cyperus (CR)

Zacate de gorduta: Melinis (CR)

Zacate de guinea: Panicum (CR)

Zacate de Honduras: Ixophorus (CR)

Zacate jacintillo: Cyperus (CR)

Zacate de limon: Cymbopogon (CR, CR/ROC)

Zacate de mula: Setaria (CR)

Zacate de para: Panicum (CR)

Zacate de raton: Oplismenus (CR); Poa (CR)

Zacate de seda: Muhlenbergia (CR); Tricholaena (CR)

Zacatipe: Bouteloua (CR)

Zacaton: Diplasis (CR); Dulichium (CR)

Zahino: Caesalpinia (CR); Goupia (C)

Zalaguena: Clibadium (P)

Zambo: Panopsis (C)

ZAMIA SKINNERI Warscz. in Otto & Dietr.: Cycad (E); Chigua (C); Elkia (Cu) (Fig. 322). Some species are responsible for cattle poisoning, but they are used by both Choco and Cuna Indians as a purgative. Cooked seeds are made into a meal for gruels or breadstuffs, like the roots after careful processing.

Zampo cedro: Guarea (C)

Zanahoria: Daucus (S)

Zancarana: Chrysochalmys (C)

Zanco de arana: Chrysochlamys (C)

Zancona: Catostigma (C); Socratea (C); Syagrus (C)

Zanora: Iriartea (P)

Zancuda: Catostigma

ZANTHOXYLUM MICROCARPUM Griseb.: Arcabu (D); Ikor (Cu). The bark of this honey tree is regarded as analgesic and stimulant. Cuna use the dried up spines to treat sores (!).

Zapaliso: Antirrhoea (P)

Zapallo: Cucurbita (S)

Zapan negro: Diplotrophis (C)

Zapata: Pedilanthus (C)

Zapatero: Hieronyma (CR,P)

Zapatilla: Pedilantus (CR)

Zapatilla del obispo: Crotalaria (P)

Zapatito: Solanum (C)

Zapote: Calocarpum (CR,S); Licania (CR); Matisia (P); Pouteria (CR)

Zapote blanco: Calocarpum (CR)

Zapote borracho: Licania (CR)

Zapote cabello: Licania (CR)

Zapote de mono: Couroupita (P)

Zapote del monte: Pouteria (CR)

Zapotillo: Calocarpum (CR); Couepia (CR); Lantana (C); Lucuma (CR); Plumeria (C); Pouteria (CR)

Zapotillo calenturiente: Calocarpum (S)

Zapoto longo: Pachira (C)

Zapoto de obispo: Cobaea (C)

Zapoto de venus: Cypripedium (C)

Zapoto de la virgin: Clitoria (C)

Zaragoza: Aristolochia (C); Conocarpus (P); Fittonia; Phaseolus (C)

Zarcillejo: Bocconia (C); Mutisia (C); Tibouchina (C)

Zarro: Cyathea (C)

Zarza: Byttneria (P); Lonchocarpus (C); Mimosa (P); Smilax (C,P)

Zarza colorado: Piptadenia (C)

Zarza dormilona: Mimosa (P)

Zarza hueca: Byttneria (C)

Zarzamora: Rubus (S); Lantana (C)

Zarzaparilla: Smilax (C)

Zarza redonda: Senegalia (C)

Zarzon: Smilax (CR)

ZEA MAYS L.: Corn (E); Cha (Cu); Joba (Cu); Maiz (S); Ob (Cu); Oba (Cu); Pe (Ch) (Fig. 323). In Darien lowlands, corn is less common than rice, but it is frequently found in the milpas. Green corn, cob and all, may be eaten after roasting or boiling. The husks have been used in preparing a paper, which, if ground fine enough, is so transparent, as to make a good substitute for glass. Corn oil is bland, pleasant tasting, ans slow to turn rancis. It can be turned into a good-quality soap. Pipes can be fashioned from the cobs, and the silks are cool smoking. Corn furnishes a nurishing astringent, resolvent food, and may be converted into starch for making bread, or fermented to make beer and alcohol. An American, fresh out of a high yielding American corn field, might be aghast to see the huge forest trees that are felled and partially burned to clear off an area for a lean crop of tough corn in Panama, hardly seeming worth the tremendous effort. In northern Central America, nearly all the corn grown is consumed as tortillas, made by treating the maiz with lye, grinding, mixing with water, and cooking briefly. Maya Indians let the corn dry on the stalk and then store it. Several dishes are prepared from it. (1) masa: mixed with lime and waater, boiled a few hours, cooled and washed. This is ground to form a dough, the masa; (2) tortilla: the masa is patted into a cake and baked in ashes; (3) atole: the masa is thinned with boiling water, and salt or sugar or honey is added to make a beverage; (4) pozole: boil the maiz in clear water after boiling in lime water; pour off the water and grind, mix with sugar, honey, or salt, then ball it up and take it to the field. Add water whenever hungry; (5) pinole: toast maiz on a griddle, add cinnamon, anise seed, and pepper, grind and boil in water.

Among the Bayano Cuna, corn (oba) is stored on a special shelf (obala) located directly above the fire site. The kernels are ground, the meal added to water and boiled. After cooling, the gruel (inaniquet) is drunk. It is sometimes mixed with sugarcane juice and ground cocoa (siva) to form a beverage known as cainisolicuagua. Corn and meat are boiled together yielding obsa. Even at the time of the conquest, the Darien Cuevas and the riverine Indians of the Gulf of Uraba called corn hobba. Still among the Cuna, oba (corn) is God of Creation and God of Corn. Indians often throw young corn on the cob in the pot. Ailigandi Cuna make a cornstick, long strings of native cornmeal dough, baked in ashes (!).

The cob, or opkala, is often used to plug up water jugs made of totumo. There are at least 22 ways of using corn in Colombia. Panamanian bushmen preparing for long journeys often take bollos of corn along with them. Catios of the Gulf of Uruba have quite a corn terminology based on pe, the Choco word for corn, peburua-ear of corn; pejansoa-corn cob; pejonumua-corn storage bin. Among the Chame Choco, pechare-dry corn; pesintu-cornplant.

Zebra: Tradescantia (C)

ZEBRINA PENDULA Schnitz: Hoja de milagro (CR/ROC); Cucaracha (CR/ROC)

Zembe: Xylopia (C)

Zic: Capparis (C)

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosco: Ginger (E); Ajenjibre (C); Genegibre (S); (Fig. 324). Cultivated and naturalized in Panama, the rootstocks are edible candied and are used in beverage and liquors. In Darien and the Choco, the tea of the roots id used for pains, and for colic in children (!). The dish Chocao is very dependent on ginger. El Real People usually have the Chocao after breakfast. It is also used as an ingredient in an abortifacient.

ZINNEA ELEGANS Jacq.: Clavelon (C)

ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA Lam.: India (E); Angolit (C); Aprines (S); Manzanita (C); (Fig. 325). The fruits are edible raw, dried or boiled with rice. They may be powdered and made into a meal or dried like a raisin. The seeds are also edible. The dried fruit is mixed with salt and tamarind pulp to make a condiment.

Zoncoya: Annona (CR)

Zontol: Cymbopogon (CR)

Zonzapota: Cyphomandra (CR); Dendropanax (CR); Sloanea (CR)

Zorillo: Aegiphila (CR); Astronium (P); Cestrum (CR); Hamelia (CR); Lippia (C); Petiveria (CR/ROC); Roupala (CR); Solanum (CR); Zanthoxylum (CR)

Zorillo amarillo: Palicourea (CR)

Zorillo blanco: Cestrum (CR)

Zorillo colorado: Hamelia (CR)

Zorillo real: Hamelia (CR)

Zorkakro: Miconia (CR)

Zorra(o): Astronium (P)

Zorrito: Lantana (C)

Zorrocloco: Crateva (C)

Zukarate: Theobroma (Ch)

Zuin: Inga (CR)

Zulia: Browallia (C)

Zumagueso: Calea (C)

Zumague: Coriaria (C)

Zuribio: Pithecellobium (C)

Zurumbo: Trema (C)

Zuza: Gynerium (C)