Tico Ethnobotanical Dictionary


Tabaca: Pithecellobium (C); Pseudosamanea (C)

Tabachin: Caesalpinia (CR)

Tabaco: Grias (CR); Nicotiana (S); Triplaris (CR)

Tabaco burro: Capparis (C); Morisonia (C)

Tabaco cimarron: Pluchea purpurascens (C)

Tabaco de monte: Buddleja (C); Triplaris (CR)

Tabaco de la sierra: Espeletia glossophylla (C)

Tabacon: Anthurium (CR); Grias (CR); Triplaris (CR)

Tabadillato: Pavonia (Ch)

Tabaquillo: Aegiphila (CR); Bocconia (CR); Buddleja (P); Miconia (C); Polygonum (C); Urera (CR); Vernonia (CR)

Tabardillo: Dorstenia (C)

Tabari: Couratari (C)

TABEBUIA PENTAPHYLLA Hemsl.: Ocobo (C); Roble (P); Roble de la sabana (CR,P). This species, regarded as analgesic, antisyphilitic, and antipyretic, is a good timber tree, and the bark is said to be rich in tannins.

Tabegua: Virola (P)

Tabena: Dioscorea (C)

Tablero: Aster (C)

Tablis: Chomelia (CR)

Tablon: Banara (C); Luehea (C)

Tabonuco: Senegalia (C)

Tacaco: Polakowskia (CR)

Taca: Caryodendron (C)

Tacalon: Ardisia (C); Coccoloba (C)

Tacamajace: Protium (C)

Tacamocha: Protium (C)

Tacaquillo: Echinocystis (CR)

Tacasco: Siparuna (C)

Tacay: Caryodendron (C)

Tache: Myroxylon (C)

Tachuelo: Berberis (C); Fagara (C); Lacmellea (C); Machaerium (C); Solanum (C)

Tachushiash: Erechtites valerianifolia (C)

Tacote: Calea (CR)

Tafura, tafurita: Euphorbia (C)

TAGETES APETALA Posada: Ruda gallinoza (C); Ruda silvestre de clavito (C)

TAGETES ERECTA L.: Terciopelo amarillo (C); Flor de mujerto (C)

TAGETES PATULA L.: Chinchimali (C); Terciopelo (C); Flor de muerto (C); Amapola (C)




Tagua: Phytelephas (C,P); Psittacanthus (C)

Tajalagua: Carludovica (C)

Take: Jatropha (Cu)

Talalate: Gyrocarpus (N)

Talcacao: Kallstroemia (CR)

Tali: Cedrela (CR)

TALINUM TRIANGULARE Willd.: Surinam purslane (E); Verdolaga chivatera (P); Verdolaguilla (S) . The tender shoots are used as a potherb (!). The plant is used as a collyrium.

TALISIA NERVOSA Radlk.: Cotupli (C); Mamon de monte (P) . The fruit is edible.

Tallowwood: Ximenia (E)

Tamaca: Acrocomia (C)

Tamarind: Pentaclethra (B); Tamarindus (E)

Tamarindillo: Oxalis (CA)

Tamarindo: Dialium (P,C); Pithecellobium (CR); Tamarindus (S)

Tamarindo de monte: Calliandra (C)

Tamarindo montero o prieto: Dialium (N)

TAMARINDUS INDICA L.: Tamarind (E); Tamarindo (S) . The tamarind, widespread in the tropics, tends to become naturalized in xeric habitats, such as Panamanian thorn forests. Acid gummy pulp around the seed is eaten, and regarded as a good glood purifier and hangover cure in Darien (!). It is used to make curries, or, with water, to make beveragews. The dried pulp keeps well as a gummy candy. In western Panama it is mixed with honey to make a sweetmeat (!). The seeds may be eaten boiled or fried, after they have been roasted, soaked, and carefully peeled. The cotyledons have a bland, mucilaginous taste. They are made into flour by drying and grinding. A strong wood cement is made by boiling this flour in water. An amber-colored oil, odorless and sweet to the taste, may be expressed from the seeds. It is used for illulmination and probably for cooking. Green pods are cooked with meat as a seasoning or as a vegetable. The seedling, when about a foot high, is eaten as a vegetable. During times of scarcity, the leaves are used to make curries. The flowers, attractive to bees, may be eaten, cooked. The yellow dye was formerly extracted from the tree. The bark is used as a tonic and for asthma. The leaves are used as a collyrium, suppurative, and vermifuge, and in some jaundice treatments. The antihemorrhagic roots are used for liver ailments in Cuba. The flowers are used as a poultice in conjunctivitis. Expressed juice of the flowers is given internally for bleeding piles. The fruit pulp is considered alexeritic, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, aperient, cardiac, carminative, digestive, febrifugal, and refrigerant. It is used for apoplexy and sunstroke and is gargled with water for sore throat. The seeds are considered antidysenteric, depurative, and suppurative.

Tambor: Cordia (CR); Schizolobium (C)

Tamequia: Geonoma (C)

Tampacho: Clusia (C)

Tanane: Diospyros (C)

Tananeo: Peltogyne (C)

Tanbark: Rhiophora (E)

TANBARK: A plant whose bark produces much tannin or is used in tanning. Albizia, Aspidosperma, Avicennia, Bucida, Byrsonima, Cassia, Conocarpus, Laguncularia, Prosopis, Psidium, Rhizophora, Terminalia.

Tangare: Carapa (P)

Tangerine: Citrus (E)

Tango: Pyrostegia (C)

Tao: Crescentia (Ch)

Taonabo: Ternstroemia (C)

Tapachicha: Muntingia (C)

Tapacula de monte: Pentagonia (C)

Tapacu: Carica (C)

Tapaculo: Carica (CR); Genipa (N); Solanum (C)

Tapaliso: Alsesi (D)

Taparera: Capparis (C)

Taparin: Attalea (C)

Taparo: Attalea (C); Orbignya (C)

Taparo calimeno: Attalea (C)

Taparo grande: Orbignya (C)

Tapate: Datura (CR); Jatropha (CR)

Tapioca: Manihot (E,S)

Tapo: Hibiscus (P)

Taque: Caryodendron (C)

TARAXACUM OFFICINALE Weber: Diente de leon (CR/ROC); Serraja (C); Dandelion (E) (Fig. 295).

Taray: Astronium (C)

Targua: Croton (CR)

Targuacillo: Croton (CR)

Tar gum: Clusia (E)

Tarkwa: Colocasia (Cu); Xanthosoma (Cu)

Taro: Colocasia (E,S)

Tarrali: Posadaea (C)

Tarriago: Ravenala (C)

Tartayo emetico: Jatropha (C)

Taruya: Eichhornia (C)

Tasi: Alsophila (C)

Tasselflower: Emilia (E)

Tatamaco: Bursera (C)

Tauso: Passiflora (C)

Tauta: Unidentified Choco medicine for eye irritation. The plant is grated and squeezed and the exudate used as a collyrium.

Te: Corchorus (P); Symplocos (C)

Te de Mutis: Symplocos (C)

Te de Quindio: Alonsoa (C)

TEA PLANT: A plant that is boiled to make a beverage. Achillea, Annona, Bursera, Citrus, Coffea, Coix, Coleus, Corchorus, Cymbopogon, Hedyosmum, Lantana, Lippia, Pectis, Persea, Rhizophora, Sida, Siparuna, Turnera.

Teak: Tectona (E)

Teatino: Hybanthus (C)

Terberinto: Moringa (S)

Teca: Tecona (S)

TECOMA STANS H.B.K.: Yellow elder (E); Copete (P); Fresnillo (P) . The roots, used to make a beer, are a tonic and diuretic, and used for stomach pain. This is a honey plant.

Teel oil: Sesamum (E)

Telecate blanco: Montanoa (N)

Telegrafo: Maurandya (CR)

Tema: Hymenaea (CR)

Tempate: Jatropha (CR)

Tempisque: Dipholis (CR); Sideroxylon (CR)

Templeflower: Plumeria (E)

Tenga: Guilielma (C)

Tenidor: Miconia (C)

Teocinte: Euchlaena (C)

Teologia: Euphorbia (C)

Tepalon: Leersia (CR); Panicum (CR)

Tepeaguacate: Nectandra (N)

TEPHROSIA spp.: Barbasco (P); Duio (Ch); Naa (Cu); Tefrosia (S) . These are often cultivated as fish-poison plants.

Terciopelo: Celosia (CR,P); Centrosema (C); Sloanea (CR,P)

Terciopelo amarillo: Tagetes erecta (C)

Terciopelo de Santa Maria: Miconia (CR)

Teresa: Rondeletia (CR)

Teresita: Browallia (C)

TERMINALIA CATAPPA L.: Indian almond (E); Almendro (S) . The nut of the tropical almond here discussed is quite edible raw, while that of the temperate almond, Amygdalus communis L., may be poisonous raw. The kernel, difficult to remove from the woody husk, resembles an almond in flavor and may be eaten raw or roasted (!). Statements that the husk is edible seem doubtful on account of the woody nature of the mature husk. However, it is eaten among some Orinoco tribes. The seedlings should be a source of food. An edible oil has been expressed from the nut and is not so likely to become rancid as true almond oil. It is used in cooking. After a sufficient quantity of nuts have been gathered, dry in the sun for a few days to facilitate opening. Once enough nuts have been extracted, the oil may be expressed by maceration and subsequent flotation in boiling water. Tannin and a black dye can be obtained from the bark, foliage and fruits. Young leaves are taken internally for colic. The astringent bark, leaves and fruits are used to treat diarrhea and as a febrifuge. A decoction of the leaves or fruits is used for haemoptysis. The juice of young leaves is taken internally for headache and externally for scabies. Bathing in water with macerated leaves is supposed to be good for the itch and external ulcers. One La Palma antive claimed that her almond tree was killed by an enemy who had placed a snake's fang in the tree. The timber is little used.

TERMINALIA LUCIDA Hoffm.: Guayabillo (D). This favorite firewood of the Choco keeps the spark overnight. The wood is used in local construction.

Terneritos: Bryophyllum (CR)

Terre: Croton (CR)

Terriago: Phenakospermum (C)

TESSARIA INTEGRIFOLIA R.&P.: Aliso (C); Cenizo (C); Sauce de playa (C); Sauce playero (C); Olivo (C)

Teta negra: Theobroma (CR)

Tetera: Ischnosiphon (C); Stromanthe (C)

Tetona: Bomarea (C)

TETRACERA spp.: Bejuco de agua (C); Bejuco agraz (C); Bejuco guara (C); Bejuco tome (C); Chumico (P); Pasmo del sol (P) . Potable water may be obtained from most Dilleniaceae vines. The water is diuretic and the bark is considered astringent and febrifugal. Many fruits in the family are feared as poisonous.

Teu-kra: Ximenia (CR)

Teuro: Citharexylum (C)

THALIA GENICULATA L.: Swamp lily (E); Platanillo (S). The inner part of the boiled root is edible.

THATCH PLANT: A plant used for making shelter. Acrocomia, Acrostichum, Asterogyne, Attalea, Cryosophila, Geonoma, Gynerium, Heliconia, Manicaria, Musa, Pandanus, Phragmites, Phytelephas, Pyrenglyphis, Sabal, SAccharum, Scheelia.

THEOBROMA BICOLOR H.B.K.: Bacao (C,D); Culuhu (Ch); Pataste (P). The pulp is eaten, and the seeds are used like cacao yieldilng an inferior chocolate, but good cocoa butter. The hard shells are used for crude utensils.

THEOBROMA CACAO L.: Cacao (E,S); Cacau (Ch); Chocolate (E,Ch); Sia (Cu); Zukurate (Ch) . Cacao originated in Central and South American rain forests, but is now grown throughout the humid tropics. The seeds have served to make beverages for ages among the Indians of Panama and elsewhere. The pulp around the seeds is edible like that of most of the wild species found in Panama. Also, the pulp is used for alcoholic beverages and vinegar. Several other plants are often used to flavor the beverage, e.g., the flowers of Quararibea. The seeds were first brought to the attention of Europeans shortly before 1525, when the Spanish invaders of America reported that they were used as money in the New World, although they were not used by the natives for making chocolate. The dried seeds are roasted and ground to form cocoa. chocolate is prepared by grinding even finer, flavoring with something like vanilla, and moulding into shape while hot. The Cuna have a great variety of beverages based on chocolate, and probably consume more cacao than other ethnic groups. Among these are chucula, which is made of corn meal, ripe plantain, and ground cacao , and cuatirre, which is made of rice flour and cocoa. Ochi, a chocolate and cornmeal beverage, is a frequent breakfast beverage. CAcao butter, extracted by compressing the heated seeds, is used for pessaries and suppositories, and for treating burns. Mourning San Blas widows often burn cacao beans over the grave of the deceased (!). In female puberty rites, burning beans are placed on the floor for the participant to inhale the smoke. Pregnant San Blas Indians take decoctions of treen cacao pulp in the belief that it facilitates parturition. Young leaves are applied to wounds as an antiseptic and the flowers are used by the Ailigandi Cuna to treat screwworm of the eye.

THEOBROMA PURPUREUM Pitt.: Wild cocoa (E); CAcao cimarron (P); Chocolatillo (P) (Fig. 301). The pod, covered with stinging hairs, has an edible pulp.

THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland.: Portia tree (E); Tulip tree (E); Algondon de monte (C); Clemon (C); Emajaguilla (S) . The leaf and flower buds are said to be edible raw or cooked. The seeds are applied to scabies and other skin diseases, and are rubbed on swollen joints. The yellowish juice extracted from young fruits is used to treat insect bites, gonorrhea, ringworm, and migraine headache , and is also used for fistula, psoriasis, scabies, sprains, and wart removal.

THEVETIA PERUVIANA Merr.: Trumpet flower (E); Amancay (P); Cabalonga (C); Campanilla (P); Castaneto (C) . The black pulp of the fruit is said to be eaten in Ghana. The poisonous seeds are used in necklaces. If chewed they tend to act as an anesthetic. The wood is used as a fish poison. Cotton soaked in the latex is used to aid toothache. The bark is emetic, febrifugal, and purgative. Thevetia nitida, Colombia's tomate del diablo, is also said to have an edible fruit. This may be the campanillo used as a narcotic by the Choco.

Thsep: Mammea (CR)

Thyme: Thymus (E)

THYMUS VULGARIS L.: Tomillo (CR/ROC); Thyme (E)

Tibar: Escallonia (C)

Tibet tree: Albizia (E)

Tibigaro: Astronium (C)

Tick clover: Desmodium (E)

Tidep: Videx (Cu)

Tierizo: Serjania (CR)

Tiger flower: Tigridia (E)

Tigre: Guarea (C); Platypodium (P)

Tigrillo: Astronium (P)

Tiguilote: Cordia (CR)

Tikagan: Panicum (Cu)

Tilo: Justicia (CR/ROC)

Timber sweetwood: Nectandra (B)

Timbolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Timolillo: Cajanus (CR)

Tinaki: Cuphea (Cu); Phyllanthus (Cu)

Tinajita: Pentagonia (P)

TINDER: A plant with parts that are incendiary. Bixa, Cecropia, Ceiba, Corozo, Elaeis, Hibiscus, Protium.

Tinta: Phytolacca (CR,P)

Tinte: Croton (C)

Tintillo: Miconia (C); Monnina (C)

Tinto: Capparis (C); Cestrum (C); Genipa (C); Hamelia (C); Monnina (C)

Tinto macho: Monnina (C)

Tiquisque: Xanthosoma (CR)

Tiquissaro: Ocotea (CR)

Tira agua: Blakea (C)

Tira buzon: Codiaeum (C)

Tiraco: Pithecellobium (C)

Tiricia: Tournefortia (N)

Tiriguro: Averrhoa (CR)

Tiri Kru: Cedrela (CR)

Tirra: Chaetoptelea (CR); Platymiscium (CR); Viburnum (CR)

Tis: Trema (Cu)

Tispa: Clusia (CR)

Tito: Cleyera (CR)

Tiurugakwit: Drymaria (Cu)

Tivoli vine: Operculina (E)

Tlacaco: Polakowskia (CR)

Tobacco: Nicotiana (E); Pentagonia (B)

TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES: Plants which are smoked like tobacco. Achillea, Cannabis, Cecropia, Nicotiana, Rhizophora, Zea.

Tobusi: Vernonia (CR)

Tocoon: Clibadium (Ch)

Tocoro: Grias (C)

Toldillo: Senegalia (C)

Toltolquelite: Lantana (N)

Tolu: Bombacopsis (C); Myroxylon (C)

Tomama: Mammea (Cu)

Tomate: Lycopersicon (S)

Tomate de arbol: Cyphomandra (CR)

Tomate cimarron: Cyphomandra (CR); Thevetia (C)

Tomatillo: Lycianthes (CR); Lycopersicon (S); Thevetia (C)

Tomato: Lycopersicon (E)

Tomatoquina: Acnistus (C)

Tom Brown: Tamarindus (E)

Tome de orilla: Schlegelia (C)

Tometo: Copaifera (C0

Tomillo: Thymus (C,CR/ROC)

Tominejo: Masdevalia (C)

Tonga: Datura (D); Dipteryx (C)

Tonka bean: Dipteryx (E)

Toonaquirita: Montanoa (CR)

TOOTHACHE PLANTS: Plants used to cure aching teeth. Acacia, Adansonia, Allium, Anacardium, Asclepias, Bocconia, Caesalpinia, Calotropis, Casuarina, Cecropia, Cedrela, Chlorophora, Citrus, Cocos, Cucurbita, Dodonaea, Drimys, Euphorbia, Guaiacum, Isotoma, Jatropha, Mnagifera, Mimosa, Moringa, Murraya, Pedilanthus, Petiveria, Philodendron, Piper, Piscidia, Plumbago, Plumeria, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Ricinus, Salmea, Salvia, Serjania, Spilanthes, Stemodia, Thevetia, Ximenia, Xylopia, Zanthoxylum.

TOOTH EXTRACTION PLANTS: Plants used to facilitate the removal of teeth. Asclepias, Anacardium, Chlorophora, Hura.

Toparejo: Inga (P)

Topeton: Ipomoea (P); Physalis (P)

Topetope: Solanum (Ch)

Topetorope: Physalis (C)

Topochero: Heliconia (C)

Topocho: Heliconia (C)

Toquilla: Carludovica (P)

Tora: Montanoa (CR); Morisonia (C); Podachaenium (CR); Polymnia (CR); Verbesina (CR)

Tora blanca: Podachaenium (CR)

Torchwood: Amyris (E)

TORCHWOOD: Plants whose wood catches and retains fire easily. Amyris, Dodonaea, Symphonia.

Torcidillo: Helicteres (P)

Torete: Annona; Rollinia (P)

Torilla: Verbesina (CR)

Torito: Plumeria (CR); Stanhopea (C)

Torito quetua: Calathea (Ch)

Tornasol: Gynura (CR); Tabernaemontana (C)

Tornillo: Cyclanthus (CR)

Toro: Morisonia (C)

Toronja: Citrus (S); Solanum (C)

Toronjil: Ocimum (P)

Tortolillo: Aralia (C)

Tostao: Cupania (C)

Toston: Cissampelos (C)

Totes: Dichronema (C)

Totuma, Totumbo: Crescentia (P); Eschweilera (C)

Totumito: Capparis (C); Eschweilera (C)

Totumo de monte: Solandra (C)

TOURNEFORTIA HIRSUTISSIMA L. . The fruits are edible, but one must be aware of the stinging hairs on the plant.

Tovar: Aegiphila (C)

TRAPA NATANS L.: Water chestnut (E); Nuez de agua (C) . The fruit is edible.

Trapichero: Manilkara (C)

Traveler's palm: Ravenala (E)

Trebo: Homalium (C); Platymiscium (C)

Trebol: Enallagma (P); Oxalis (CR); Platymiscium (C); Trifolium (CR)

Trebol blanco: Trifolium (CR)

Tree fern: Cyathea (E)

Tree tomato: Cyphomandra (E)

Trementino: Cynometra (C); Prioria (C)

Trementino azucarero: Tetragastris (C)

Trescolores: Lantana (C)

Tres dedos: Dactyloctenium (C); Philodendron (C)

Tres de la tarde: Hibiscus (CR)

TRICHANTHERA sp.: Cajeto (C); Nacedero (C,D). Said to be used for living fence posts in Colombia. In Darien, it is used medicinally for smallpox.

TRICHILLIA ACUTANTHERA C.DC.: Cedrillo (CR); Conejo colorado (P); Huesito (P); Souca (P). The seeds are reportedly used to kill head lice in Nicaragua and Honduaras.

TRICHILIA TUBERCULATA C.DC.: Alfaje (P); Alfajillo (P); Camin (CR,P); Fosforito (P). The wood is supposed to burn when green. The name alfajillo is said to be used for plants used to tie bundles of rice together (!).

TRICHOMANES ELEGANS Rich.: Lorito (C). Used as a snakebite remedy in the Choco.

TRICHOMANES PINNATUM Hedw.: Lengua de tigre (C); Rabo de chucha (C). Used to treat bushmaster bites.


TRIDAX RADIALIS Kuntze: Arnica de monte (C)

Trigo: Triticum (C,CR)

Triguillo: Bromus (CR,C)

Trinitaria: Bouganvillea (C)

Tripa de gallo: Cissus (C)

Tripa de pato: Myriocarpa (C)

Tripa de perro: Philodendron (C)

TRIPLARIS spp.: Long John (E); Arrapau (Ch); Satteuala (Cu); Vara santa (D) . This is the worst ant tree in Panama (!).

Triquetraque: Pyrostegia (CR)

TRITICUM spp.: Wheat (E); Trigo (S) . This common grain is not so important in Panama as rice and corn.

TRIUMFETTA LAPPULA L.: Abrojo (P); Cadillo (P); Cepa de caballo (P) . Related species have served as an emergency potherb. The stems contain a tough fiber and an astringent mucilage that is used to clarify syrup and as a cold remedy. In Western Panama, crushed leaves and twigs are mixed with cinnamon water and honey as a diarrhea cure.

TRIXIS RADIALIS Urban: Chiriqui (P); Chucha (C). The plant is reportedly used as a vulnerary.

Trokro: Hibiscus (CR)

Trompa de chancho: Hypoxis (CR)

Trompete: Bocconia (C); Guarea (C); Monnina (C)

Trompetilla: Siegesbeckia cordifolia (C)

Trompeto: Catoblastus (C); Iriartea (C)

Trompito: Alibertia (P)

TROPHIS RACEMOSA Urban: Breadnut (E); Gallote (P); Lechosa (CR); Morillo (P); Ojoche macho (P); Ramon (S) . The fruits are edible. The leaves make good fodder.

Trompillo: Alibertia (CR); Guarea (C)

Trompo: Alibertia (P)

Tronador: Hura (P)

Trumpet flower: Thevetia (E)

Trumpet tree: Cecropia (E)

Truntago: Vitex (C)

Trupa: Corozo (C,P); Elaeis (C,P); Jessenia (C,P)

Trupi: Acacia (C)

Trupillo: Prosopis (C)

Tsukarate: Theobroma (Ch)

Tsukra: Chlorophora (CR)

Tua-Tua: Jatropha (C)

Tuave: Eschweilera (D)

Tuba: Unidentified plant used by the Bayano Cuna to make rope.

TUBERCULOSIS: An infectious disease of the lungs. Treated with Acacia, Allium, Dialyanthera, Jessenia, Pistia, Rhizophora, Solanum.

Tuberose: Polianthes (E)

Tuburus: Enterolobium (N)

Tubus: Styrax (S)

Tucuico: Ardisia (CR)

Tucuiquillo: Parathesis (C)

Tucuma: Astrocaryum (C)

Tucumo: Ochroma (C)

Tucuno: Ochroma (C)

Tucuso: Carludovica (CR)

Tuetajo: Inga (Ch)

Tuete: Vernonia (CR)

Tuete blanco: Vernonia (CR)

Tugua: Ficus (Ch)

Tula de mate: Lagenaria (P)

Tule balsa: Typha (CR)

Tulipan: Datura (CR); Lilium (C); Meria a (C); Spathodea (S); Tigridia (C)

Tulip tree: Spathodea (E); Thespesia (E)

Tul-tule: Eleocharis (CR)

Tumbo: Passiflora (C)

Tumu: Poulsenia (N)

Tuna: Carludovica (CR); Castilla (N); Epiphyllum (CR); Nopalea (S); Opuntia (P)

Tunica del Nazareno: Gynura (CR)

Tunilla: Cereus (CR)

Tunito: Capparis (C)

Tuno: Miconia (C)

Tunoso: Zanthoxylum (C)

Tuonculape: Cornutia (C)

Tupu: Gustavia (Cu)

Tuqueso: Licania (P)

Tubara: Paspalum (CR)

Turizo: Serjania (CR)

Turma: Solanum (C)

Turma de perro: Tabernaemontana (C)

Turmeric: Curcuma (E)

Turmero: Colocasia (C)

TURNERA DIFFUSA Willd.: Escobilla (S). Dried leaves, substituted for Chinese tea, are regarded as anticatarrhic, antivenereal, aphrodisiac, laxative, and stimulant.

Turnip: Brassica (E)

Turro: Myrcia (C)

Turru, Turrui: Eugenia (CR); Myrcia (CR)

Turu: Eugenia (CR)

Turuara: Paspalum (CR)

Turubuk: Guarea (CR)

Turul: Manicaria (C)

Turumato: Morenia (C)

Tusip: Rollinia (Cu)

TUSSACIA FREDRICHSTHALIANA Hanst.: Desbaratador (Ch); Wilkwa (Cu). This plant is highly regarded by both Choco and Cuna Indians as a snakebite remedy. Among the Guaymi Indians, the tuber of a related species is regarded as a cure for throat cancer (!). Choco use it also for diarrhea (!). This could be the herb so effectively used in snakebite on dogs.

Tusipone: Enterolobium (Ch)

Tuskra: Corozo (CR)

Tutmillo-mito: Enallagma (P)

Tuu: Ficus (Cu)

TYPHA LATIFOLIA L.: Cattail (E); Anea (S); Enea (C); Espadaxa (C); Junco (C); Junco de estera (C); Junco de Pasion (C) . Young roots serve as a vegetable; older roots may be ground to a flour. Stem bases are edible boiled or roasted. The cores of young shoots are edible raw. The pollen is used as flour. The pollen, mixed with water and salt, or ashes, is baked. The cores of flower spikes are edible raw or cooked. The seeds are edible roasted. The rhizomes are a favorite food of rodents. The interior pithy part may be eaten raw or boiled and may be ground up to form a flour. The leaves are used for floor mats, basketry, and caulking. The down from the female spikes is used for stuffing pillows, and the hairs on the seeds are an effective styptic.

TYPHOID: An infectious fever. Treated with Coffea, Costus.

TYPHUS: An infectious disease spread by lice. Treated with Capsicum, Dortenia.