Tico Ethnobotanical Dictionary


Aba: Bombacopsis (N); Pithecellobium (Cu)

Ababol: Papaver (C)

Abaca: Musa (CR)

Abanico: Celosia (P)

Abanico chino: Amaranthus (S)

Abarco: Cariniana (C)

Abataque: Zantholoxylum (C)

Abebe: Renealmia (C)

Abejon: Cassia (CR); Stanhopea (C)

ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Moench. Okra (E); Algalia (C); Candia (C); Gombo (C); Gumbo (J); Guicombo (C); Lagarto (C); Naju (P). . Young okra is good as a vegetable or a pickle; roasted seeds are eaten on toast, sometimes used as a coffee substitute. The fruits are considered antispasmodic, used to treat bites of venomous animals.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medic. Musk okra (E); Wild okra (J); Algalia (C); Almizclillo (C); Lagarto (C). . Cultivated elsewhere for the musk-scented seeds, used in perfumery, and as a fiber plant. In Panama, the plant is apparently cultivated only as an ornament.

Abetoa: Coleus (Cu)

Abgi: Unidentified cultivated shrub used by the Bayano Cuna to stain hammocks black (!).

Abgigastuet: Indigofera (Cu)

ABRASIVE: A coarse-leaved plant used for washing dishes, Curatella, Luffa, Miconia, Pavonia, Solanum, Waltheria.

Abraza palo: Ficus (P)

Abrojito: Tribulus (C)

Abrojo: Alternanthera (C); Cenchrus (CR); Kallstroemia (C); Sloanea (CR); Triumfetta (P)

ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. Crab's eye (E); Rosary pea (E); Jequerite (C); Ojo de cangrejo (P); Peronilla (C,D). . Raw seeds are very poisonous, have served as a contraceptive (4 to 6 white or black seeds are taken daily for several days after each menstruation). Seeds are used as necklace ornaments. Powdered seeds are used as a snuff for headache; boiled seeds used as an aphrodisiac. Roots used as a licorice substitute, chewed as an aphrodisiac, diuretic, for sore throat, and for rheujmatism. Macerated leaves are said to be styptic and to remove freckles. The leaves taste sweet, and a decoction of the leaves and roots is widely used for cought, colds, and colic.

Abugi: Indigofera (Cu)

Acabu: Zanthoxylum (P)

Acacia: Acacia (E); Leucaena (E)

Acacia de aguijote: Parkinsonia (N)

Acacia de Catharino: Prosopis (N)

ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Sweet acacia (E); Aromo (P); Pela (C); Una de Cabra (C). (Fig. 4). The gum is used as a famin food. Flowers are put between linens to scent them and to protect them from moths. Flowers are attractive to bees. Crushed fruits yield an astringent used in conjunctivitis, diarrhea, etc.; also used to mend broken dishes. Bark is considered febrifugal and is tied around the joints by West Indians to alleviate rheumatism.

ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA Dugand Ex Croizat. Dildoe (E); Dildo espinoso (C); Pitajaya (C). Fruits of this, as of all cacti, are safe to sample, avoiding spines and minute hairs that are present on several varieties. the plant is diuretic. These cacti are fairly common in thorn forests of the Azuero Peninsula (!).

ACANTHOSPERMUM AUSTRALA Kuntze. Cancer de loma (C).

ACANTHOSPERMUM HISPIDUM DC. Pacado mortal, espuela de caballo, ericito playero, cacharro, el trejo (C).

Acapalti: Iva (C)

Acapro: Tecoma (C)

Acedera : Oxalis (CR); Trifolium (CR)

Acedejo: Thevetia (C)

Aceite: Calophyllum (C); Copaifera (C); Phyllanthus (C)

Aceite maria: Calophyllum (C)

Aceite de palo: Podocarpus (C)

Aceituno: Guettarda (C); Humiriastrum (C); Simarouba (CR,CR/ROC,P); Vitex (C)

Aceituno negrito: Simarouba (N)

Acerola: Malpighia (CR)

Acesiva: Zamia (C)

Ache: Clarisia (C)

Acheri: Phyllanthus (C)

Achicoria: Elephantopus (CR); Eryngium (CR)

Achihuite: Bixa (C)

ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. Yarrow (E); Colchon de pobre (C). . Leaves used occasionally as a soup vegetable, or as tea or tobacco substitutes. Aerial parts are regarded as depurative.

Achiote: Bixa (S)

Achiote de monte: Sloanea (C)

Achiotillo: Caryocar (C); Fuchia (CR); Lindackeria (C); Mayna (C); Vismia

Achira: Canna (C)

Achira de monte: Alpinia (C)

Achirilla: Curcuma (C)

Achon: Xylopia (C)

Achoncha: Cyclanthera (C)

Achote: Bixa (P)

Achote de monte: Ampelocera (C)

Achotillo: Banara (C); Vismia (CR)

Achueriala: Lippia (Cu)

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. Prickly chaff-flower (E); Rabo de gato (S) . Leaves are eaten as a vegetable . The seeds, though emetic, have served as famine food, also used to treat hydrophobia and snakebite. The branches serve as a toothbrush and the ashes are used for salt. Macerated roots are used on scorpion stings.


ACROCLINIUM ROSEUM Hook. Inmortales dobles (C)

ACROCOMIA ANTIOQUENSIS Posada-Arango. Corozo (C); Corozo a molado (C); Corozo caucano (C); Corozo grande (C). The seeds are a source of oil, and the leaves a source of fiber. The flowers are said to be pectoral.

ACROCOMIA PANAMENSIS Bailey. Prickley palm (E); Coyai (CR); Palma de vino (P); Pacora (P). The seeds are a source of oil, relished by cattle. Sweet sap of this and related species are used to make wine. Root of A. mexicana is regarded as a cure for diabetes.

ACROSTICHUM AUREUM L. Mangrove fern (E); Esnargan (Cu); Helecho de manglar (S). Young leaves and fiddleheads are edible raw or cooked. The leaves are emollients, sometimes used for thatch; rhizomes vulnerary. The Cuna use the young fiddleheads to extract fish bones from the throat (!). The plant is used as a medicinal bath for infants (!).

Acuapar: Hura (C)

Acuasia: Quassia (C)

Acuruco: Mutingia (C)

ADANSONIA DIGITATA L. Baobob (E,S) . The young leaves are eaten as a pot-herb and in soups. The bark and leaves are eaten asa famine food; powdered, they serve as a substitute for salt and pepper. The seeds are febrifugal and are made into a gruel; roasted seeds are applied to aching teeth. Shoots of germinating seeds are edible.

Adelpha: Petrea (P)

ADENANTHERA PAVONINA L. Redhead (E); Coralitos (S) . The leaves are served as famine food. Macerated leaves are used in gout and rheumatism; husked seeds are said to have an agreeable taste. Powdered seeds hasten suppuration of boils and cure prickly heat. The bark is used for washing clothes and hair, and the wood was formally the source of a red dye.

ADENOSTEMMA LAVERIA Kuntze. Dona Juana (C). Used in the Choco to wash wounds, and around Sautata regarded as a snakebite cure.

ADIANTUM sp. Maidenhair Fern (E); Culantrillo de piedra (P). This fern is regarded as an emmenagogue and expectorant.

Adonis: Duranta (C)

Adonis blanco: Duranta (C)

Adonis morado: Duranta (C)

Adorate: Pisonia (C)

Adyanya peso: Trichilia (C)

AECHMEA MAGDALENAE Andre ex Baker. Pingwing (J); Pita (S) . The acid fruits are edible raw or cooked, better for making beverages. Fibers in leaves are used for making rope and methods for commercial production are being studied in the Choco.

AEGIPHILA MARTINICENSIS Jacq. Contra culebra (P); Juan de la Verdad (P) (Fig. 10. The plant is considered alexeritic and aphrodisiac.

Afaja: Trichilia (C)

Agallo: Caesalpinia (P)

Agapanto: Agapanthus (CR)

AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L. Hierba hemostatica (C); Retentina (C); Mejorana (S); Chiba (C); Manrubio, Yerba de chino; Marrubio blanco, Yerba de chivo, Mastranto . A valued hemostatic in Colombia, used elsewhere to treat venereal diseases.

Agra: Vitia (CR)

Agraz: Gouania (C); Vitis (C); Coccoloba (C)

Agrecejo: Gossyopiospermum (C)

Agu: Allium (Cu)

Agua libia: Senecio macrophyllus (C)

Aguacate: Persea (S)

Aguacate asca: Styrax (CR)

Aguacate del monte: Nectandra (P)

Aguacatia: Panopsis (S)

Aguacatilla: Hernandia (CR); various Lauraceae (CR); Persea (P)

Aguacatillo cordillero: Beilschmiedia (C)

Aguacaton: Ocotea (CR,P); Persea (P)

Aguacharaco: Protium (C)

Aguacolda: Sobralia (C)

Aguadija: Odontoglossum (C)

Aguadulce: Palicourea (C)

Aguaje: Chelyocarpus (C); Mauritia (C)

Aguakkalat: Eryngium (Cu)

Aguama: Bromelia (S)

Aguarras: Ocotea (C); Tetragastris (C)

Aguatillo de tierra firma: Grammadenia (C)

Agujade arrea: Casearia (C); Xylosma (C)

Agujilla: Ladenbergia (CR)

Ahumada: Cassia (N)

Ahuyama: Cucurbita (C)

Aikra: Gliricidia (C)

Aili: Avicennia (Cu); Conocarpus (Cu); Laguncularia (Cu); Rhizophora (Cu)

AIPHANES CARYOTIFOLIA Wendl. Chascara (C); Corozo de chascara (C); Mararay (C); Palma de chascara (C). The seeds are oily and edible.

Air Plant: Bryophyllum (E)

Air Potato: Dioscorea (E)

Aje de monte: Stemmadenia (C); Thevetia (C)

Ajenjibre: Zingiber (C)

Ajenjibrillo: Paspalum (CR)

Ajenjillo cimarron: Gnaphalium (CR)

Ajenjo: Artemisia (CR,C)

Aji: Capparis (C); Capsicum (P); Caryocar (CR); Clarisia (C); Coccoloba (C); Diplotrophis (C)

Aji canella: Drimys (C)

Ajicillo: Heisteria (P)

Ajicito: Toxicodendron (C); Capparis (C)

Aji de monte: Stemmandenia (C); Thevetia (C)

Ajillo: Capparis (C); Capsicum (P); Caryocar (CR); Nothoscordum (CR); Petiveria (CR,CR/ROC)

Ajito: Capparis (C)

Ajo: Allium (P); Caryocar (CR); Cassipourea (P); Parkia (D)

Ajonjoli: Sesamum (S)

Akee: Blighia (J)

Ala de angel: Begonia (P); Bignonia (P)

Alacran: Heliotropium (CR,P)

Alacrancillo: Heliotropium (CR); Parosela (CR)

Alagua: Carludovica (C)

Ala de murcielago: Passiflora (P)

Alampana: Lantana (C)

Alasant: Ormosia (CR)

Alazano: Calycophyllum (C,P)

Albaca: Ocimum (D)

Albahaca: Ocimum (CR,CR/ROC)

Albahaca cimarrona: Salvia (CR)

Albarco: Cariniana (C)

Albarica: Aiphanes (C); Pyrenoglyphis (C); Desmoncus (C)

Albarina: Centaurea cyanus (C)

Albarracin: Bocconia (C)

Alcabu: Zanthoxylum (P)

Alcanfor: Cinnamomum (P)

Alcaparra: Capparis (C); Cleome (S)

Alcaparro: Adipera (C)

Alcareto: Aspidosperma (P); Sickingia (P)

Alchoncha: Sechium (C)

Alcornoque: Sechium (C)

Alcornoque: Bowdichia (C); Licania (CR); Mora (CR,P); Ormosia (P); Terminalia (CR)

Alcotan: Baccharis (CR); Cissampelos (S); Piper (CR)

ALEURITES MOLUCCANA Willd. Candlenut tree (E); Nuez de India (S) . The nuts, stimulant and sudorific, are edible after roasting; strung as candlenuts.

ALEXERITIC: A substance to counteract infection or poison. Acalypha, Achyranthes, Aegiphila, Albizia, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Asclepias, Caesalpinia, Cassia, Chiococca, Cissampelos, Clavija, Cocos, Coffes, Dracontium, Entada, Euphorbia, Fevillea, Gustavia, Hibiscus, Jatropha, Lantana, Mikania, Mimosa, Musa, Nicotiana, Piper, Pluchea, Quassia, Sapindus, Simaba, Tabebuia, Tamarindus, Thevetia, Vernonia, Xylopia.

Alfaje: Trichilia (P)

Alfajillo: Podocarpus (P); Trichilia (P)

Alfenique: Dialium(CR)

Alfombra: Mollugo (S)

Alfombrillo hediendo: Lantana (C)

Alforjon: Fagopyrum (C)

Algalia: Abelmoschus (C)

Algarrobo: Cassia (C); Ceratonia (S); Hymenaea (P); Pithecellobium (CR); Prosopis (P)

Alagodon: Cochlospermum (P); Gossypium (S)

Algodoncillo: Baccharis (C); Hibiscus (P)

Algodon lechero: Calotropis (C)

Algodon de monte: Leuhea (C); Thespesia (C)

Algodon de seda: Calotropis (S)

Algofar: Scleria (C)

ALIBERTIA EDULIS A.Rich. Guayabita de monte (D); Lagartillo (P); Madrona de comer (P); Torompito (P); Trompo (P); Wild guava (J). The fruits are eaten by all frugivores, including humans.They are also used by children to make tops.

Alicito: Toxicodendron (CR)

Aligo: Alnus (C); Tessaria (C)

Alisito: Toxicodendron (C)

Aliso: Alnus (C); Vernonia (C); Tessaria integrifolia (C)

Alita: Albizia (C)

Allagua: Phytelephas (C)

Alligator apple: Annona (E)

Alligator pear: Persea (E)

Alligator weed: Philoxerus (E)

ALLIUM spp. Garlic (E); Onion (E); Agu (Cu); Aguakalat (Cu); Ajo Cebolla (S); Dawawat (Cu); Palu ; Pida (Ch) . Presently unknown in the wild, onion has been used more than 4000 years. Garlic, A. sativum L., is regarded as antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, cordiment, diaphoretic, emmenagogic, expectorant, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, and vermifugal; it is used in home remedies for bronchitis, colds, earaches, hysteria, nervous conditions and toothache. The juice can be used to mend china. Oil from the seeds is applied externally to rheumatics. Garlic oil, mixed with cebo de Cuba, is used like a mustard plaster in Panama. Onions are eaten raw or cooked and used for seasoning pickles, curries, stews, "sancochos", etc.(!). They are used as a home remedy for bronchitis, catarrh, colic, dropsy, fever, flatulence, hangover, and scurvy. They are regarded as aphrodisiac, carminative, emmenagogic, and soporific when used internally. They are used externally to treat earaches and insect bites. Maje Choco women, having difficulty delivering, receive a stomach massage with cooking oil mixed with oniion, garlic, oregano, and hierba poleo (perhaps Kallstroemia). Some Indians believe they also repel snakes; the odor repels some humans, so it might actually repel snakes. My Cuna guide from Nargana rubbed his legs with sliced onion to "prevent snakebite" (!). In Western Panama, onions are placed in the eaves of bohiuos as a bat repellent (!); a bat and snake repellent would be useful morale builders for the newcomer in Panama.

Almacigo: Bursera (P)

Alma negra: Bertholettia (C); Dussia (C); Sweetia (C); Swartzia (C)

Almendro: Andira (CR) Buchenavia (C); Dipteryx (P,C); Terminalia (S)

Almendro americano: Terminalia (C)

Almendro de la India: Terminalia (C)

Almendron: Attalea (C); Caryocar (C)

Almirajo: Patinoa (Ch)

Almizcle: Hedyosmum (C)

Almizclillo: Hibiscus (C)

Almond: Dipteryx (E); Terminalia (E)

Almoradua: Eupatorium (C)

Almoraduz: Eupatorium inulaefolium (C)

Almorrana: Alternanthera (C)

ALOE VERA Burm. F. Barbados aloe (E); Sabila (C). The yellow juice is a famous burn remedy. Crushed leaves are used as a cataplasm for boils and ulcers; its yellow resin is cathartic, emmenagogic, insecticidal, vermifugal; used by mothers to make their nipples distasteful to weaning children. Plant used for asthma and ulcers.

ALOPECIA: The state of being bald. Treated or prevented with Achras, Calocarpum, Capraria, Cocos, Colocasia, Giricidia, Guazuma, Gynerium, Persea, Stachytarpheta, Sterculia.

Alousia: Lippia (C)

Alpiste: Phalaris (C)

ALSOPHILA RUFA Fee. Tree Fern (E); Tasi (C). The pith, like a slimy potato, is used as a survival food in the Choco.

Altamica: Chrysanthemum (CR)

Altamisa: Ambrosia cumanensis (C)

Altasara: Phytolacca (C)

ALTERATIVE: A substance used empirically to alter the course of a disease favourably. Calotropis, Centella, Erechtites, Guaiacum, Lepidium, Musa, Phytolacca, Portulaca, Rumex, Solanum, Thespesia, Tragia.

ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS R.Br. Sanguinaria (S) . the leaves serve as a famine food.

Alucema: Artemisia sodiroi (C)

Aluk: Cedrela (CR)

Alum: Alnus (CR)

Alumbre: Tabebuia (C)

Alverja: Pisum (C)

Amamor: Zanthoxylum (C)

Amancal: Thevetia (C)

Amancay: Thevetia (P)

Amancayo: Plumeria (C)

Amansa mujer: Prioria (C,P)

Amansapeon: Psoralea (C)

Amapola: Lycoseris crocata (C); Malvaviscus (CR); Papaver (C); Tagetes (P)

Amapola amarilla: Hibiscus (P)

Amapola mexicana: Argemone (C)

Amapolilla: Malvaviscus (CR)

Amaranth, blood: Amaranthus (E)

AMARANTHUS spp. Amaranth (E); Pigweed (E); Bledo (C,P); Calalu (P) . the seeds serve as a grain, and the leaves as a potherb . The plant finds its way into home cures for venereal diseases.

Amargo: Aspidosperma (C); Centrolobium (P); Coussarea (C); Coutabea (C); Palicourea (C); Psychotria (C); Simaba (C); Simarouba (P); Vatairea (P); Welfia (C)

Amargon: Taraxacum (CR)

Amargoso: Eupatorium angustifolium (C)

Amarillo: Aniba (C); Bucida (P); Centrolobium (D); Lafoensia (P); Nectandra (C); Terminalia (P)

Amarillo carbonero: Oncoba (P)

Amarillo fruto: Lafoensia (P)

Amarillo guayaquil: Centrolobium (P)

Amarillo negro: Lafoensia (P)

Amarillo real: Terminalia (P)

Amarillon: Terminalia (CR)

Amarrabollo: Meriania (C)

Amarradiablo: Schnella (C)

Amata: Ficus (S)

Ambuca: Piptadenia (C); Poponax (C)

Ame: Inga (C)

AMBEICIDE: A substance which kills ameba. Anacardium, Carica, Cephaelis, Chenopodium, Couma.

Amolao: Acrocomia (C)

Amores casados: Asclepias (P)

Amor seco: Acaena (C)

AMYRIS ELEMIFERA L. Torchwood (E); Tea (S). The wood is highly flammable; good for torches.

Anabaptista: Vismia (C)

ANACARDIUM EXCELSUM Skeels. Wild cashew (E); Caracoli (C); Espave (P); Pinuwala (Cu). The fruit is eaten by most frugivores, including man. The bark is used as a fish poison; a favorite wood for dugouts in Darien and San Blas (!). Patino notes that the fruits are consumed as a bread stuff, and the trees are used for cacao shade trees.

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Cashew (E); Maranon (S); Uaipinu (Cu); Merey (C) . The cashew, an excellent food source, is widely cultivated and naturalized in the savannahs of Panama. The swollen stalk of the cashew nut, termed the "apple", is more in demand among Latins than the nut. The antiscorbutic "apple" may be eaten raw, but the hull is astringent, and the nut must be avoided until after it has been roasted (!). Cashews belong to the poison oak family, and hypersensitive people might be wary of the whole cashew plant. The wood was responsible for the "swizzle-stick epidemic" in Georgia in 1958. When roasting the nut, one should carefully avoid the smoke, as it is very caustic. The nuts, once roasted, are very nutritious, having high fat, protein, and vitamin A content. Roasted nuts in Asia are mixed with palm sugar and coconut meat to form a sweetmeat. In Indonesia, the nuts are fried in coconut oil. In Africa, they are boiled in soups. The "apple" juice may be fermented to form alcoholic beverages or vinegars, or made into jelly. The young leaves are eaten raw with rice in Java and Malaya. Cuna Indians shave bark from this and Spondias to make a tea, sweetened to taste, for asthma, colds, and congestion. This is followed by drinking the juice from banana stems to restore strength and contain 4-5% protein. The bark of some species of Anacardium is used as a fish poison, and the flesh of the fish is not rendered toxic by the process. The juice exuding from incisions in the bark is used as an indelible ink. An acrid oil in the hull of the fruit has served as an anesthetic. The seed oil is believed to be amebicidal and alexeritic, and is used to treat gingivitis, malaria, and syphilitic ulcers. The fruit is reputedly antiscorbutic. The juice of the fruit is used to treat haemoptysis. The sap is said to be discutient, fungicidal, and repellent. A gargle of the leaf decoction is used for sore throat. Gum from the bark is said to be obnoxious to insects. Similar uses are reported for cardol. the oil has been used to kill mosquito larvae in Los Santos. A tea is made from the pinkish inner bark, effective in diabetes (!). In Cuba, resin used in cold treatments.

Anaco: Erythrina (C)

Anaja: Maximiliana (C)

ANALGESIC: A substance for killing pain. Bocconia, Indigofera, Piscidia, Tabebuia, Thevetia, Zanthoxylum.

Anamu : Petiveria (P)

ANANAS BRACTEATUS Schult. Pina de Playon (C). The sweet fruits are edible.

ANANAS COMOSUS Merr. Pineapple (E); Osi (Cu); Pina (S); Shiju (Ch). Pineapple is cultivated in various parts of the lowlands of Panama, those from Taboga Island having been highly praised. Darien negroes cook the rind with rice, cream and sugar to make 'chicha de pina'. The rind is also an ingredient in 'mazamoro de platano'. Pineapples produced at Curiche in the humid Choco Department are excellent(!), although pineapples are probably adapted better to semiarid areas such as the Pearl Islands(!). Pineapple fares best in acid, organic, and well-aerated soils. the juice of the fruit is regarded as antiscorbutic, Cholagogic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogic, refrigerant, and useful in jaundice. The juice of the leaves is regarded as anthelmintic, ecbolic, emmenagogic, and purgative. Young vegetative buds are an ingredient in a medicine for respiratory ailments in Choco children. An excellent long-lasting fiber is obtained from the leaves.

ANAPHRODISIAC: A substance to reduce sexual desire. Coffea, Dieffenbachia, Nymphaea, Peperomia.

Anatto: Bixa (E)

Anbuque: Poponax (C)

ANDIRA INERMIS L. Cabbagebark (E); Almendro (CR); Arenillo (P); Carne asado (CR); Cocu (P); Congo (C); Dividive (C); Pilon (P); Quira (P) . The poisonous seeds of this honey tree are anthelmintic, febrifugal, purgative, and vermifugal. The bark is used as a barbasco, narcotic, purgative, and vermifuge. Smoke from the wood is said to be injurious to the eyes. The wood is best suited for heavy construction.

ANEMIA: A deficiency in red corpuscles. Musa.

Angarilla: Chloroleucon (C)

Angela: Moringa (C)

Angelina: Andira (C); Genipa (C)

Angelito: Caesalpinia (C); Genipa (C)

Angel trumpet: Datura (E)

Angero: Enterolobium (C)

Angolito: Ziziphus (C)

Angucha: Bejaria (C)

Anguito: Rauvolfia (C)

Angustora del Brasil: Esenbeckia (C)

ANIBA PERUTILIS Chachajo (C); Comino (C). An esteemed fine-grained timber species in Colombia, very resistant to termites.

Anil: Indigofera (S)

Anileto: Hamelia (CR)

Anime: Casearia (C); Dacryodes (C); Protium (C,P); Polymnia (C); Tetragastris (P)

Anime blanca: Protium (C)

Aninga: Montrichardia (C)

Anis: Pimpinella (S)

Anise: Pimpinella (E)

Anisillo: Hedyosmum (C); Pectis (CR); Piper (CR); Tagetes (CR)

Anjera: Enterolobium (C)

Annatto: Bixa (E)

ANNONA CHERIMOLIA Mill. Bichichinejo (Ch); Chirimoya (C); Usisuti (Cu). Once classified as one of the three best tropical fruits, they take from five or more years to bear fruit.

ANNONA GLABRA L. Pond apple (E); Anon de puercu (P); Corazon cimarron (C) . The fruits are edible, raw or preserved. Light wood, especially of the roots, is used for cork and floats.

ANNONA MURICATA L. Soursop (E); Guanabana (S); Nejo (Ch); Suiti (Cu) . The edible ripe fruits, a good source of vitamins B and C and phosphorus, are made into jellies, preserves, and a delicious beverage (!). Some people chew them up and expectorate the plp in soups. The seeds are insecticidal and piscicidal. A leaf decoction is used to expel head lice. The leaves are made into a tea consumed by the negroes of Darien and Puerto Obaldia. The flowers and leaves are used in the Truando sector to combat kidney problems.

ANNONA PURPUREA Moc. & Sesse. Guanabana torete (P); Guanacona (C). The fruits, with the flavour of pawpaw, are believed by some Indians to induce fever. Darien Negroes insert leaves in their beds to keep spirits of the dead from molesting them.

ANNONA RETICULATA L. Custard apple (E); Anon (S); Anon injerto (C); Anon pelon (C); Corazon (C) . The fruits are edible; attract turtles and fish when they fall into swamps. The roots are used against epilepsy. The bark is tonic and astringent.

ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. Sugar apple (E); Anon (S) . The edible fruits are applied to contusions as a cataplasm. The leaves serve as a barbasco, as a poultice to heal ulcers and boils, and to kill lice and extract guinea worms. Crushed leaves, applied to a fainted person's nostrils, are said to hasten revival. On the other hand, in Colombia, leaves are placed under children's pillows so they will sleep better(!). The seeds are insecticidal, and said to kill lice.

ANODYNE: A substance for killing pain. Bocconia, Carica, Coleus, Datura, Etada, Jessenia, Myroxylon, Persea, Piscidia, Tamarindus, Zanthoxylum.

Anon: Annona (P); Rollinia (CR)

Anona: Annona (P); Rollinia (P)

Anon de azucar: Annona (C)

Anoncito: Rhamnus (C)

Anoncito de tierra firma: Psychotria (C)

Anon domestico: Annona (C)

Anonillo: Desmopsis (B); Guatteria (CR); Rollinia (CR)

Anonillo de cerro: Annona (CR)

Anon pelon: Annona (C)

Anon de puerco: Annona (P)

ANREDERA BASELLOIDES Baill. Maderia vine (E); Arroz con coco (C). The leaves are eaten as a potherb. The tubers are edible.

Anta: Corozo (C); Phytelephas (Ch)

ANTHELMINTHIC: Killing certain types of worms. Achras, Allamanda, Allium, Ananas, Andira, Annona, Asclepias, Carapa, Carica, Cassia, Chenopodium, Coffea, Cyperus, Lawsonia, Mammea, Mangifera, Melia, Momordica, Musa, Passiflora, Pentaclethra, Plumeria, Portulaca, Punica, Sechium, Simarouba, Spigelia, Vernonia.

ANTHEMIS NOBILIS L. Manzanilla de Castilla (C)

ANTHURIUM ACUTANGULUM Engl. A tea of the plant is used by the Choco for whooping cough.

ANTHURIUM RIGIDULUM Schott. Maicillo (CR). The purple fruits are said to be edible.

ANTIBILIOUS: A substance used to treat disorders of the gall bladder. Ananas, Annona, Caesalpinia, Cecropia, Cicer, Desmodium, Eclipta, Euphorbia, Imperata, Momordica, Musa, Polypodium, Solanum, Terminalia, Urera, Vetiveria.

ANTICYSTITIS: Clitoria, Hymenaea.

ANTIDIARRHETIC: A substance for counteracting diarrhea. Acacia, Adenathera, Anacardium, Annona, Avicennia, Bidens, Brownea, Bursera, Byrsonima, Capraria, Carapa, Casuarina, Celosia, Chrysobalanus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Crescentia, Cupania, Drepanocarpus, Elephantopus, Emilia, Erechtites, Euphorbia, Faramea, Haematoxylum, Hernandia, Hymenaea, Hyptis, Ipomoea, Jacobinia, Laguncularia, Mangifera, Melia, Mucuna, Musa, Nectandra, Piscidia, Pistia, Pitcairnea, Psidium, Psoralea, Quassia, Randia, Scoparia, Sida, Simarouba, Spathodea, Spondias, Stachytarpheta, Terminalia, Tourneforita, Triumfetta, Trophis, Waltheria, Wigandia, Ximenia, Zornia.

ANTIDOTAL: A substance used to counteract a noxious substance. Clitoria, Coffea, Colocasia, Gustavia, Maranta, Musa, Saccharum.

ANTIDYSMENORRHEIC: A substance used to relieve painful menstruation. Chrysobalanus, Cissampelos, Dieffenbachia, Mangifera, Morinda, Musa, Ocimum, Persea, Turnera.

ANTIECBOLIC: A substance to counteract an abortifacient. Cissampelos.

ANTIEMETIC: A substance to prevent vomiting. Cocos, Ximenia.

ANTIEPILEPTIC: A substance to prevent or alleviate convulsive seizures. Achras, Andira, Annona, Bixa, Caesalpinia, Calocarpum, Cedrela, Cestrum, Coleus, Cordia, Echinodorus, Eugenia, Indigofera, Parkinsonia, Pothomorphe, Sapindus.

ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS Hook. & Arn. Coral vine (E); Bellisimia (C); Cadena de Amor (P); Colacion (S); Coralillo (P); Coralito (P); Enredadera (P) . The tubers are said to be edible when cooked.

ANTIHEMORRHAGIC: A substance used to prevent excessive bleeding. Brownea, Caesalpinia, Cajanus, Cecropia, Chrysophyllum, Cissampelos, Citrus, Coccoloba, Cocos, Commelina, Cyathula, Dendropogon, Entada, Equisetum, Eryngium, Gossypium, Guarea, Guazuma, Mangifera, Melochia, Momordica, Mucuna, Musa, Pithecellobium, Psidium, Psychotria, Punica, Rhizophora, Scoparia, Sechium, Solanum, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Terminalia, Turnera, Urera, Vernonia, Waltheria.

ANTIHEPATITIC: A substance for the diseases of the liver. Achras, Ananas, Annona, Bursera, Carapa, Cassia, Cecropia, Ceratonia, Citrus, Cochiospermum, Desmodium, Eleusine, Equisetum, Escobedia, Guazuma, Hymenaea, Jatropha, Lepidium, Nasturtium, Ophioglossum, Paullinia, Pothomorphe, Pseudelephantopus, Psidium, Quassia, Rheedia, Tamarindus.

ANTINEPHRITITIC: A substance used to ameliorate infection of the kidney. Abrus, Cassia, Citrus, Cucurbita, Cyperus, Equisetum, Guaiacum, Guazuma, Moringa, Paullinia, Poeppigia, Renealmia, Rheum, Solanum, Tabebuia.

ANTINEURALGIC: A substance used to alleviate the pain associated with irritated nerves. Allium, Moringa.

ANTIPERODIC: A substance used to counteract malaria or periodic fever . Caesalpinia, Cassia, Coffea, Lucuma.

ANTIRHEUMATIC: A substance used to alleviate rheumatism (pain, swelling, and deformity of the joints). Abrus, Adenanthera, Allium, Aniba, Annona, Apeiba, Aristolochia, Bramia, Bursera, Cannabis, Carapa, Cardiospermum, Cassia, Chiococca, Chlorophora, Cissus, Clematis, Clusia, Cocos, Coix, Croton, Dendropogon, Dieffenbachia, Dioscorea, Echites, Eupatorium, Guaiacum, Hamelia, Hura, Hymenaea, Hyptis, Ipomoea, Lantana, Melia, Mikania, Moringa, Myroxylon, Ocimum, Parmentiera, Plumbago, Porophyllum, Pothomorphe, Psychotria, Ricinus, Salvia, Siparuna, Steculia, Tamarindus, Trichilia, Urera, Wigandia, Ximenia.

ANTISCORBUTIC: A substance used to prevent scurvy. Allium, Anacardium, Ananas, Batis, Bramia, Celosia, Citrus, Hymenaea, Lycopersicon, Mangifera, Moringa, Musa, Nasturtium, Oxalis, Portulaca, Pothomorphe, Psidium, Sesuvium, Tamarindus.

ANTISEPTIC: A substance used to kill germs. Allium, Anacardium, Cocos, Faramea, Piper, Spondias, Tamarindus, Theobroma.

ANTISPASMODIC: A substance used to alleviate sustained, often painful, contractions of the muscles. Abelmoschus, Adansonia, Annona, Aristolochia, Bocconia, Boerhaavia, Bursera, Calotropis, Cannabis, Capparis, Cassia, Ceiba, Cestrum, Chenopodium, Clavija, Croton, Datura, Dipteryx, Echinodorus, Eclipta, Indigofera, Justicia, Lawsonia, Melia, Moringa, Muntingia, Pandanus, Passiflora, Peperomia, Petiveria, Spondias, Swietenia, Tournefortia, Vernonia.

ANTISPLENITIC: A substance used to alleviate inflammation of the spleen. Carapa, Carica, Cissampelos, Luffa.

ANTITETANIC: A substance used to counteract or alleviate the condition tetanus (tonic spasm of voluntary muscles). Carapa, Enallagma, Swietenia.

ANTIVENEREAL: A substance used to counteract venereal diseases. Amaranthus, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Arrabidaea, Bauninia, Bocconia, Bursera, Calotropis, Capparis, Capraria, Casearia, Cassia, Cecropia, Chamissoa, Chiococca, Cissus, Clematis, Commelina, Conocarpus, Copaifera, Corchorus, Costus, Crescentia, Drepanocarpus, Eichhornia, Elaeis, Entada, Equisetum, Genipa, Geonoma, Gouania, Guaiacum, Hippomane, Ipomoea, Isotoma, Jacaranda, Jatropha, Luffa, Mangifera, Mikania, Musa, Myroxylon, Parsonia, Petiveria, Piper, Piscidia, Pistia, Plumeria, Polypodium, Pothomorphe, Prioria, Protium, Pseudelephantopus, Ricinus, Sabicea, Scoparia, Serjania, Smilax, Solanum, Spondias, Tagetes, Tephrosia, Tetracera, Thespesia, Tournefortia, Trichilia, Turnera, Waltheria, Ximenia.

Anum: Spondias (C)

Apamate: Tabebuia (C)

Apazote: Chenopodium (S)

APEIBA TIBOURBOU Abul. Monkey comb (E); Burio (CR); Cadillo (C); Cortezo (P); Erizo (C); Fruta de piojo (P); Guacimo (C); Majagua (CR); Malgano (C); Peinecillo (CR); Peine de mico (P,C). The fruits, with their numerous oil=rich seeds, are a favorite with frugivores, and might serve as a famine food for man. The bark contains a rough fiber used for rope making. The plant is regarded as a rheumatism cure. It is said to be used for making rafts in Colombia, and has been used for tinder in primitive fire-making.

APERIENT: A mild laxative. Argemone, Clitoria, Hibiscus, Sesamum, Sesbania, Tamarindus.

Apgi: Paullinia (Cu)

APHRODISIAC: A substance which stimulates sexual desire. Abrus, Aegiphila, Allium, Anacardium, Aristolochia, Avicennia, Bambusa, Bixa, Byrsonima, Cannabis, Capsicum, Ceiba, Celosia, Centella, Cocos, Daucus, Desmodium, Dieffenbachia, Drepanocarpus, Elaeis, Eryngium, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Hyptis, Lepidium, Lippia, Momordica, Moringa, Mucuna, Musa, Myristica, Ocimum, Pandanus, Passiflora, Persea, Petiveria, Peperomia, Rhynchosia, Seasmum, Turnera, Typha.

APHTHOSIS: Hoof and mouth disease. Bidens, Byrsonima, Citrus, Euphorbia, Lagerstroemia, Spondias, Tournefortia.

Apio: Apium (S)

Apior: Dieffenbachia (Cu)

Apompo: Pachira (C)

APOPLEXY: A loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion as a result of obstruction of arterial flow to the brain. Treated with Tamarindus.

Aporromia: Musa (Ch)

Apotocaum: Diffenbachia (Ch)

APPENDICITIS: Inflammation of the appendix. Erythrina.

Aqui: Blighia (P)

Arabian Jasmine: Jasminum (E)

ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. Peanut (E); Cacahuate (C); Mani (P) . The seeds are edible, raw or roasted; seedlings are also edible. Few, if any, peanuts are cultivated along Route 17. They are cultivated on the Azuero Peninsula and around Unguia for food and oil production.

Aramillo: Lysiloma (W)

Arana: Hibiscus (C); Dalechampia (C); Epidendrum (C); Maxillaria (C).

Arana-gato: Solanum (P); Zanthoxylum (C)

Arara: Capparis (C)

Arbol de amor: Gliricidia (C)

Arbol de balsamo: Myroxylon (P)

Arbol de la Cruz: Brownea (C)

Arbol de la Brujas: Parmentiera (P)

Arbol de diablo: Morisonia (C)

Arbol de fuego: Delonix (S)

Arbol de lluvia: Samanea (CR)

Arboloco: Montanoa (C); Polymnia (C)

Arboloco bogotano: Polymnia pyramidalis (C)

Arboloco de Bogota: Montanoa (C)

Arboloco hueco: Polymnia pyramidalis (C)

Arbol de pan: Artocarpus (S)

Arbol de paraiso: Melia (C)

Arbol de las perlas: Moringa (S)

Arbol de sal: Avicennia (S)

Arbol Santo: Jatropha (P)

Arbol de seda: Calotropis (C)

Arbol de viajero: Ravenala (C)

Arbolito: Phyllanthus (C)

Arcabuco: Cupania (C)

Archucha: Cyclanthera (C)

Arco: Tabebuia (C)

ARDISIA sp. Fruta pava (P); Iskarmas (Cu); Margarita (P); Tucuico (CR); Uvito (P). The fruits, with a grape-like flavor, are often gathered and eaten by woodsmen (!). Bayano Cuna use the plant medicinally and the berries to stain their bodies (!).

Arebalo: Cupania (C)

Areng-kra: Clusia (CR)

Arenillero: Hura (C)

Arenillo: Andira (P); Catostemma (C); Dipterodendron (C); Hura (C); Leonia (C); Ternstroemia (C); Weinmannia (C)

Arepito: Ampelocera (C)

Arepo: Piscicia (C)

Argelina: Solanum (C)

ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. Prickly poppy (E); Cardosanto (C). The narcotic weeda are demulcent, emetic, expectorant, laxative, and are used for cancer, itch, and scabies, and applied externally for headache. The seed-oil is used for illumination and soap-making.

Argentina: Cynodon (C)

Arguaco: Pera (C)

ARISTOLOCHIA ARBORESCENS L. Dutchman's pipe (E); Snakeroot (E); Flor de culebra (D); Mato (C). This is a favorite snakebite medicine in Darien. the leaves and/or roots are abortifacient; emmenagogic, febrifugal, sudorific, and are used for chills, colds, dysentery, and venereal disease.

ARISTOLOCHIA MAXIMA L. Cuajilote (CR). The fruits are edible.

Arito: Phyllanthus (C)

Ariza: Brownea (P); Maytenus (C)

Armanga: Baccharis decussata (C)

Arnica: Miconia (C); Senecio formosus (C); Taraxacum (CR)

Arnica ceniza: Senecio niveo-aureus (C)

Arnica de monte: Trixis radialis (C)

Aroma-ieron: Acacia (C)

Aromo: Acacia (S); Calliandra (P); Prosopis (C)

Aromo real: Poponax (C)

Arponcito: Bidens (P)

ARRABIDAEA CHICA Verlot. Bija (S). The vine yields a pink dye popular with the island Cuna.

Arracacha: Arracacia (C)

Arracache: Vochysia (C)

Arracacho: Montrichardia (C)

Arracachuelo: Rumex (C); Spananthe (C); Ranunculus (C)

ARRACACIA XANTHORRHIZA Bancroft. Arracacha (C); Sacarracacha (C). The rhizomes are eaten in stews and soups; also boiled or fried, used to make chichas. The petioles are boiled to make a medicine for a microbe between the toes.

Arracheche: Mouriri (P)

Arraclan: Rhamnus (C)

Arrapau: Triplaris (Ch)

Arrayan: Eugenia (C); Malpighia (C); Myrcia (P); Myrica (CR); Myrtus (C); Psidium (P); Satyria (CR); Vaccinium (CR); Weinmannia (CR)

Arrayancito: Malpighia (C); Myrcia (C)

Arrecachillo: Myrrhidendron (CR)

Arrocillo: Echinochloa (C); Oryza (C)

Arrowhead: Sagittaria (E)

ARROW POISON: A substance used to poison arrows. Calotropsis, Dioscorea, Diospyros, Drepanocarpus, Euphorbia, Hippomane, Hura, Lonchocarpus, Mucuna, Paullinia, Pedilanthus, Pentaclethra, Perebea, Petiveria, Piscidia, Strychnos.

Arrowroot: Maranta (E)

Arroz: Oryza (S)

Arroz con coco: Anredera (C)

Artemisia: Ambrosia (C)


Artera: Cassia (C)

ARTHRITIS: Inflammation of the articulating surfaces of the joints. Treated with Achras, Bramia, Chiococca, Dioscorea, Ipomoea, Oryza, Polygonum, Trichilia.

ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS Fosberg. Breadfruit (E); Breadnut (E); Arbol de pan (S); Fruta de pan (S); Madupura (Cu); Pan de Pepita (S); Pantriba (Ch) . Breadfruits, the main cargo of the H.M.S. Bounty, are still cultivated in Panama. The seeded varieties are capable of natural regeneration (!). Breadfruits of good quality rarely produce seeds and the fruits are eaten, picked before they are ripe, while the pulp is still white and mealy. They are baked, boiled or sliced and "french-fried". Occasionally they may be eaten raw. For storage, it is best to bake or roast, then slice and sun-dry. In some Pacific Islands, they are fermented to form a malodorous paste baked into cakes. Seeds of the seeded varieties are boiled or roasted like chestnuts by the Darien Negroes (!). A fiber can be obtained from the bark and thge latex is used for caulking boats. The leaves may be fed to livestock.

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA L. Jackfruit (E); Jaca (S) . The jackfruit or jaca has dozens of sectors, each with one seed, surrounded by a yellow, pulpy mass with a strong odor. The pulp is eaten raw or cooked; or may be fermented to yield an alcoholic beverage with a strong odor and peculiar flavor. The seeds are usually more palatable to the Yankee than the fruits and when roasted have the flavor of chestnuts. Seeds are often ground into flour, each fruit yielding more than a pound of flour. Unripe fruits may be cut up and cooked in stews and soups. Flowering shoots and very young fruits of the jackfruit are also eaten in salads and spicy stews. Young flower clusters are eaten with syrup and agar-agar in java. A milky juice especially prevalent in the fruits, may be used as birdlime to ensnare birds. The juice also is used as a cement. In the Philippines, slices of the ripe fruit are placed in beds to discourage bedbugs.

Arunagatro: Pisonia (C)

Arvejas: Pisum (C)

Arvellano: Garcia (C)

Asca: Styrax (CR)

Ascae: Desmodium (Cu)

ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L. Bencenuco (C); Malcasada (P); Milkweed (E); Nino muerto (P); Pasorin (P); Quiebraejo (C); Viborana (CR); Yuquillo (P) . In Honduras, the milky sap is used as a vermifuge; dried latex is said to induce sneezing. In Panama, it is reported to be a leprosy cure and a vermifuge. The inflorescence is used as a hemostatic and to cure gonorrhea.

Asnaludo: Thibaudia (C)

ASPILIA TENELLA Blake. Papunga falsa; Guasquilla (C)

Assa: Euterpe (C)

ASTER LAEVIS L. Hortensis (C)

ASTER MARGINATUS H.B.K. Cerrajita cimarnona, Tavera (C)

ASTER SINENSIS L. Montenegro (C)

ASTHMA: Condition of the respiratory system associated with continuous difficulty in breathing. Treated with Aegiphila, Allium, Aloe, Bixa, Boerhaavia, Brosimum, Calotropis, Carica, Cassia, Cecropia, Chenopodium, Cissampelos, Coccoloba, Cocos, Coffea, Coleus, Cornutia, Curatella, Datura, Drymaria, Eclipta, Erythrina, Euphorbia, Hymenaea, Isotoma, Lantana, Lecythis, Lippia, Luffa, Mangifera, Manicaria, Moringa, Mucuna, Musa, Myroxylon, Petiveria, Plumbago, Rhizophora, Sapindus, Solanum, Sterculia, Tamarindus, Terminalia.

Astillo: Cedrela (C)

ASTRINGENT: A mildly binding substance. Acacia, Anacardium, Annona, Bixa, Crescentia, Hesperomeles, Mangifera, Musa, Myrcia, Portulaca, Psidium, Punica, Sapindus, Terminalia, Zea.

ASTROCARYUM STANDLEYANUM Bailey. Black palm (E); Chonta (P); Chunga (P); Guerregue (C); Pejibaye (CR) . The fruits, cabbages, and seedlings are edible (!). The spines are flammable, even in wet weather (!). The hard wood is used for making bows, arrows, canes, etc. A good fiber is obtained from the leaves.

Astromelia: Lagerstroemia (C)

ASTRONIUM GRAVEOLENS Jacq. Conzalo alves (E); Ronron (CR); Tibigaro (C); Yamato (C); Diomate (C); Gusanera (C); Potrico (C); Quebracha (C); Zorro (P) . The lumber is exported to the United States for plywood; it polishes and works well, and is weather and moisture resistant.

Astrominica: Lagerstroemia (S)

Asue: Persea (Cu)

Aswe: Persea (Cu)

Atadero: Carludovica (P)

Ataja sanhgre: Bedsleria (C)

Atana: Inga (CR)

Ate: Protium (C)

ATTALEA AMYGDALINA H.B.K. Almendron (C); Milpesos (C); Taparo (C). The oily seeds are edible. Young fruits yield a pipa-like beverage (!).

ATTALEA COHUNE Mart. Cohune palm (E). The cabbage is edible; the fruits are made into sweetmeats, also used for livestock fodder. Seed oil is used for cooking, illumination, and soapmaking. Sap is used for winemaking. The leaves are used for thatch.

Atusara: Phytolacca (C)

Auoso: Capparis (C)

Auree: Campnosperma (P)

Auso: Capparis (C)

Australian pine: Casuarina (E)

Auyama: Cucurbita (C)

Avellana: Eupatorium (C); Carica (C)

Avelluelo: Vochysia (C)

Avena: Avena (S)

AVENA SATIVA L. Oats (E); Avena (S). The oats make an excellent cereal, rarely, if ever, cultivated in lowland Panama.

AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. Bilimbi (E); Grosella carambola (C) . Fruits are edible (!). Flowers are made into preserves; fruit juice removes stains from linens.

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. Carambola (E,S); Grosella caranbola (C); Tiriguro (CR) . Occasionally cultivated in lowland Panama, the acid fruits are edible and are used for jellies and drinks. The tart juice is used to remove rust and tarnish from metals.

AVICENNIA GERMINANS L. Black mangrove (E); Aili (Cu); Calumate (CR); Mangle salado or negro (P); Palo de sal (CR). the seeds are toxic until germinating, then they are edible cooked. The leaves are coated with salt. The bark is used for tanning. The flowers are much visited by bees. Gum from the trunk is used for throat infections. Smoke from the wood is said to be an effective mosquito smudge. Ashes are added to water for washing clothes. The tree is used for charcoal, fuel, construction, and tanning.

Avichuri: Brosimum (C); Couma (C)

Avicur: Couma (C)

Avinge: Andira (C); Geoffroya (C)

Avinje: Chlorophora (C)

Avispilla de canastilla: Hibiscus (N)

Avispo: Eurya (C)

Avispon: Hibiscus (CR)

Avocado: Persea (E)

Ayahuasca: Banisteriopsis (C)

Ayote: Cucurbita (C)

Ayuelo: Dodonaea (C); Erythroxylum (C)

Azabuche: Pithecellobium (C)

Azafran: Bocconia (C); Crocus (C); Curcuma (C)

Azaharcillo: Hillia (CR)

Azari: Cornutia (CR)

Azota-caballo: Luehea (C); Phytolacca (CR); Pithecellobium (CR,P); Xylopia (C)

Azota-cabeza: Philodendron (P); Syngonium (P)

Azote: Hampea (P)

Azucarerito: Paullinia (C)

Azucarero: Miconia (C)

Azucena: Cattleya (C); Lilium (C,CR); Plumeria (C); Thevetia (C)

Azuceno: Elaeagia (C); Plumeria (C); Saurauia (C); Thevetia (C)

Azufaifa: Ziziphus (C)

Azufre: Curatella (C); Roupala (C)

Azul: Jacobinia (CR)

Azulejo: Centaurea (C)

Azulina: Petraea (C); Plumbago (C)

Azulito: Petraea (C)

Azullillo: Hamelia (CR)

Azul de mata: Jacobinia (CR); Justicia (CR/ROC)