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Taxon: Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch

Genus: Carya section: Apocarya
Family: Juglandaceae
Nomen number: 9253
Place of publication: Dendrologie 1:593. 1869 "illinoensis"
Comments:Name verified on: 24-Jun-1988 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 29-Oct-2007
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Brownwood (BRW).
Accessions: 3623 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • pecan   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • mei guo shan he tao   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • pacanier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • Hickorynußbaum   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Pekannuß   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German
  • Pekannußbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • nogueira-japonêsa   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • nogueira-pecã   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • noz-japonêsa   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • noz-pecã   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • pecã   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • černoj pekan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian
  • nogal americano   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • pecán   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • pecana   (Source: B. León, p.c.) – Spanish
  • pecanero   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • pekanhickory   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

  • Human food: nut   (fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Fuels: charcoal   (esp. for smoking meats fide AH 519)
  • Fuels: fuelwood   (esp. for smoking meats fide AH 519)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of pecan   (based on crossability with pecan fide Acta Hort 859:240. 2010; Crop Germp Comm 2004)
  • Materials: wood   (fide J Arn Arb 53:42. 1972; AH 519)

Distributional range:

      Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • NORTHERN AMERICA (Check conservation status in U.S. & Canada in NatureServe Explorer database)
    Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Indiana [s. & w.]
    North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa [s.e.], Kansas [s.e.], Missouri, Oklahoma
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Arkansas, Kentucky [w.], Louisiana, Mississippi [w.], Tennessee
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    Northern Mexico: Mexico - Chihuahua [s.e.], Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi [s.e.], Tamaulipas
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Veracruz

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    Southern Africa: South Africa
    Caucasus: Azerbaijan
    China: China
    Australia: Australia
    East Europe: Ukraine [incl. Krym]
    United States
    Brazil: Brazil

  • exact native range obscure owing to extensive cultivated


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature.
  • Brummitt, R. K. 1988. Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta: 35. Taxon 37:448. [conservation not recommended].
  • Elias, T. S. 1972. The genera of Juglandaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 53:36.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. 1978–. Flora de Veracruz.
  • Grauke, L. J. & M. A. Mendoza-Herrera. 2012. Population structure in the genus Carya. Acta Hort. 948:143–158.
  • Grauke, L. J. et al. 1986. (808) Proposal to conserve the name of pecan as Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch and reject the orthographic variant Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). Taxon 35:174–177.
  • Grauke, L. J. et al. 1995. Evaluation of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] germplasm collections and designation of a core subset. HortScience 30:950–954.
  • Grauke, L. J. et al. 2010. Plastid microsatellite markers in Carya. Acta Hort. 859:237–246.
  • Grauke, L. J. et al. 2011. Geographic patterns of genetic variation in native pecans. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:917–932.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • León, B. 1995. pers. comm. [re. Spanish common names].
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Little, E. L., Jr. 1978. Important forest trees of the United States.
  • Little, E. L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees, Agric. Handb. 541.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Meyer, F. G. et al. 1994. A catalog of cultivated woody plants of the southeastern United States.
  • Nicolson, D. H. 1988. General Committee Report 1. Taxon 37:440. [conservation proposal rejected, C. illinoinensis remains correct].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehder, A. 1949. Bibliography of cultivated trees and shrubs.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Stone, D. E. et al. 1964. Morphological and chemical evidence of the hybrid nature of bitter pecan, Carya × lecontei. Brittonia 17:97–106.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Zhang, J.-B. et al. 2013. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.). PLoS One 8(7): e70449.


Check other web resources for Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch:

  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP: North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (05 October 2015)

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