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Taxon: Capsicum annuum L.

Genus: Capsicum
Family: Solanaceae subfamily: Solanoideae tribe: Capsiceae
Nomen number: 8904
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:188-189. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 22-Jan-1997 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 10-Dec-2010
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9).
Accessions: 3441 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

  • American bird pepper   (Source: F Panama ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • bell pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • bird pepper   (Source: Baileya 19:151-156.) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • capsicum pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • Cayenne pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • cherry pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • chili pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • cone pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • green pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • long pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • paprika   (Source: Dict Gard ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • pimento pepper   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • red capsicum   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • red cone pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • red pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • sweet pepper   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • sweet pepper   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • turkey pepper   (Source: Native Pl Database ) – English   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • la liao   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • green capsicum   (Source: Econ Pl Aust ) – English (Australia)   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • piment annuel   (Source: L Noms French ed7 ) – French
  • piment doux   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • poivre d'Espagne   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. baccatum var. baccatum]) – French   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • poivre de Cayenne   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. frutescens]) – French   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • poivron   (Source: L Noms French ed7 ) – French
  • poivron doux   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • Cayennepfeffer   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. frutescens]) – German   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • Gemüsepaprika   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • spanischer Pfeffer   (Source: Zander ed14 ) – German   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • peperoncino   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • peperone   (Source: F Ital ) – Italian   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • peperone dolce   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • tō-garashi   (Source: F Okin ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • gochu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:87.) – Transcribed Korean
  • pimentão   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • ají   (Source: F Guat ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • ají   (Source: F PuertoR ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • chile   (Source: F Guat ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • chile pequin   (Source: Native Pl Database ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • chilipiquin   (Source: Baileya 19:151.) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • chiltepe   (Source: F Guat ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • chiltepin   (Source: Ariz SonorDes Mus ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • guindilla   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • jalapeno   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • pasilla   (Source: HerbSpices ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • pimiento   (Source: Names Soukup ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • piquin   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • poblano   (Source: HerbSpices ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • serrano   (Source: HerbSpices ) – Spanish   [Capsicum annuum var. annuum]
  • chiltepinpeppar   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish   [Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum]
  • spanskpeppar   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

Distributional range:

      Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • NORTHERN AMERICA (Check conservation status in U.S. & Canada in NatureServe Explorer database)
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida, Georgia [e.], Louisiana
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona [s.]
    Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan
    Caribbean: Anguilla; Bahamas; Barbados; Cayman Islands; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    Western South America: Colombia

  • naturalized elsewhere

  • widely cultivated


  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. [treats as C. baccatum].
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Balick, M. J. et al. 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 85.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama archipelago.
  • D'Arcy, W. G. & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1974. New World peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae) North of Columbia. A résumé. Baileya 19:98.
  • Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. 1978–. Flora de Veracruz.
  • Howard, R. 1974–1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  • Ibiza, V. P. et al. 2011. Taxonomy and genetic diversity of domesticated Capsicum species in the Andean region. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. DOI: 10.1007/s10722–011–9744–z.
  • Ince, A. G. et al. 2010. Genetic relationships within and between Capsicum species. Biochem. Genet. 48:83–95.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Kearney, T. H. & R. H. Peebles. 1969. Arizona flora, ed. 2. [treats as C. baccatum].
  • Kochieva, E. Z. et al. 2004. Assessment of genetic relationships in the genus Capsicum using different DNA marker systems. In: Voorrips, R. E., ed., Proceedings of the XIIth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Capsicum and eggplant, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, 17-19 May, 2004.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Liogier, A. H. 1981–. Flora of Hispaniola: Part 1; La Flora de la Española. Part II-.
  • Liogier, H. A. 1984–. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2.
  • Moscone, E. A. et al. 2007. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum - Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective. Acta Hort. 745:137–170.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:87.
  • NatureServe. 2009–. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life (on-line resource).
  • Pickersgill, B. et al. 1979. Numerical taxonomic studies on variation and domestication in some species of Capsicum. Pp. 679–699 in: Hawkes, J. G. et al., eds., The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae.
  • Pickersgill, B. 1997. Genetic resources and breeding of Capsicum spp. Euphytica 96:129–133.
  • Proctor, G. R. 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. Kew Bulletin Additional Series XI. [treats as C. baccatum].
  • Rodriguez, J. M. et al. 1999. Variation among and within Capsicum species revealed by RAPD markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99:147–156.
  • Siemonsma, J. S. & Kasem Piluek, eds. 1993. Vegetables. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 8:136–140.
  • Smith, P. G. & C. B. Heiser, Jr. 1951. Taxonomic and genetic studies on the cultivated peppers, Capsicum annuum L. and C. frutescens L. Amer. J. Bot. 38:362–368.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946–1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  • Stevens, W. D. et al., eds. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1-3).
  • Turner, B. L. et al. 2003. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany no. 24.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource).
  • Walsh, B. M. & S. B. Hoot. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two noncoding regions: The chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 162:1409–1418.
  • Weakley, A. S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and surrounding areas.
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943–1980. Flora of Panama.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Wunderlin, R. & B. Hansen. Atlas of Florida vascular plants (on-line resource).


Check other web resources for Capsicum annuum L.:


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.
Jump to Solanaceae Genomics Network

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (05 September 2015)

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