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Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

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Taxon: Brassica rapa L.

Genus: Brassica
Family: Brassicaceae (alt. Cruciferae) tribe: Brassiceae.
Nomen number: 7685
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:666. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Comment: includes miscellaneous groups not included elsewhere (in subspecies)
Name verified on: 02-Jun-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7).
Accessions: 598 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AZ°.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

See also subordinate taxa:


Common names:

  • annual turnip rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. campestris]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma annua]
  • biennial turnip rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. campestris var. autunmalis]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma biennis]
  • bird rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. campestris "annual turnip-rape"]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • bok-choy   (Source: McFerson, p.c.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • broad-beak mustard   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. narinosa]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • brown sarson   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. dichotoma]
  • caisin   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:123.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • canola   (Source: R.Young, p.c.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • celery cabbage   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • celery cabbage   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • celery mustard   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Chinese cabbage   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Chinese cabbage   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • Chinese flat cabbage   (Source: Pl Names ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • Chinese mustard   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Chinese savoy   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. narinosa]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • Chinese white cabbage   (Source: Herklots 1972) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • choisum   (Source: Zander Ency ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • colbaga   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English
  • colza   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. rapa subsp. oleifera]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • false pak-choi   (Source: AH 505 ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • field mustard   (Source: Cover Crop Database ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • flowering white cabbage   (Source: Herklots 1972) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • Indian colza   (Source: Wealth of India [as B. campestris var. sarson]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis]
  • Indian rape   (Source: Wealth of India [as B. rapa var. toria]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. dichotoma]
  • Italian kale   (Source: Mansf Ency [mentions under the synonym B. seticeps]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • kabuna   (Source: McFerson, p.c.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • mock pak-choi   (Source: Gent Herb 2:255.1930) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • mustard cabbage   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • napa cabbage   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • nappa cabbage   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • pak-choi   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • pe-tsai   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • Peking cabbage   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • Polish canola   (Source: Genome 44:738. 2001) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • purple-stem mustard   (Source: Pl Names ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. purpuraria]
  • rapini   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • seven-top turnip   (Source: Hortus 3 ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Shantung cabbage   (Source: Herklots 1972) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • spinach mustard   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • summer turnip rape   (Source: Pl Names ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma annua]
  • tendergreen   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • toria   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. dichotoma]
  • turnip   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • turnip   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • turnip greens   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:121.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • turnip rape   (Source: BSBI ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • tyfon   (Source: Food Feed Crops US ) – English
  • white celery mustard   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. chinensis]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • wild turnip   (Source: F BritStace ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • winter turnip rape   (Source: Zander Ency [as B. rapa subsp. rapa]) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma biennis]
  • yellow sarson   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis]
  • zairainatane   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:121.) – English   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • bai cai   (Source: F ChinaEng [as B. rapa var. glabra]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • cai xin   (Source: Pl Names ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • da bai cai   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • man jing   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • man jing   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • qing cai   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • ta ke cai   (Source: Pl Names ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • wu jing   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • wu ta cai   (Source: Theor Appl Genet 110) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • yun tai   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • zi cai tai   (Source: Pl Names ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. purpuraria]
  • höstoe   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Danish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • kinakaal   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Danish   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • majroe   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Danish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Chinesekool   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Dutch   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • meiraap   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Dutch   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • raapsteeltjes   (Source: McFerson, p.c.) – Dutch   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • stopelknol   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Dutch   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • chou de Chine   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • chou de Chine   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • chou de Shanton   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • moutarde épinard   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • navet   (Source: L Noms French ed7 ) – French
  • navet   (Source: L Noms French ed7 ) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • navette   (Source: L Noms French ed7 ) – French
  • navette   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris]) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • navette d'été   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris f. praecox]) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma annua]
  • navette d'hiver   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris f. autunmalis]) – French   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma biennis]
  • Chinakohl   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Chinakohl   (Source: Zander ed14 ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • chinesischer Senf-Kohl   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Choisum   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • Herbstrübe   (Source: Zander ed14 ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • indischer Kohl   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. dichotoma]
  • indischer Rübsen   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis]
  • Mairübe   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Mosterdspinat   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • Pakchoi   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • Pekingkohl   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • Rübsaat   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • Rübsen   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris]) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • Schantungkohl   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • Senfspinat   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • Sommerrübsen   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris f. praecox]) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma annua]
  • Speiserübe   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Stoppelrübe   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Tsoi-sum   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • Wasserrübe   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • weiße Rübe   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • Winterrübsen   (Source: Mansfeld [as B. rapa var. silvestris f. autunmalis]) – German   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma biennis]
  • sarisan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – India (Bengali)   [Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis]
  • salgam   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – India (Hindi)   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • sarson   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – India (Hindi)   [Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis]
  • kobis cina   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • paksoi   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • pecai   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • sawi hijau   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:124.) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • sawi kembang   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:124.) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • sawi putih   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • sawi putih   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Indonesian   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • cavolo chinese   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • cavolo sedano   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • rapa   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Italian   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • ravizzone   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Italian   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • senape spinacio   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • hakusai   (Source: Kitamura 1950) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • kabu   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • kisaragina   (Source: Kitamura 1950) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • komatsuna   (Source: Kitamura 1950) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • kyōna   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:121.) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica]
  • mibuna   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:121.) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica]
  • mizuna   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:121.) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica]
  • natane   (Source: McFerson, p.c.) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • shaku-shina   (Source: Kitamura 1950 [as B. rapa var. chinensis]) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • tāsai   (Source: Pl Names ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa]
  • tai-sai   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • baechu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:86.) – Transcribed Korean   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • sunmu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:86.) – Transcribed Korean   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • kubis cina   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Malay   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • puhit   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Malay   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • sawi bunga   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:124.) – Malay   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis]
  • sawi putih   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Malay   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • sawi putih   (Source: Pl Res SEAs ) – Malay   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • couve-chinesa   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • nabo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • rábano   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • couve-chinesa-petsai   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • couve-repolho-da-China   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • nabo-selvagem   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • nabo-silvestre   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • kapusta kitajskaja   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • repa   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • turneps   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • col de China   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • col de China   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • mostaza espinaca   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica var. perviridis]
  • nabina   (Source: UPOV ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • nabo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • nabo colza   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • nabo de invierno   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. campestris var. autunmalis]) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma biennis]
  • nabo de verano   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. campestris "annual turnip-rape"]) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera forma annua]
  • nabo forrajero   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • repollo chino   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis]
  • repollo chino   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis]
  • åkerkål   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish   [Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera]
  • rova   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Swedish   [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa]
  • rova   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Human food: vegetable   (fide Food Feed Crops US, for miscellaneous groups not included elsewhere)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for rape   (fide Phytopatologia 97:1391. 2007, for resynthesizing B. napus based on resistant lines)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mustard   (fide Theor Appl Genet 75:784-794. 1988)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of rape   (fide Theor Appl Genet 65:204-205. 1983; Theor Appl Genet 75:792. 1988)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of cabbage/kale   (fide Euphytica 69:16. 1993, based on crossability with B. oleracea and other members of its cytodeme)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of rape   (fide Transgenic Res 3:265. 1994, based on crossability with B. napusas the female donor, and all progeny with reduced pollen fertility)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of Abyssinian cabbage   (based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica carinata fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of arugula   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Eruca vesicaria)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of black mustard   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica nigra)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of crambe   (based on hybrids with Crambe abyssinica via embryo rescue fide Wild Crop Rel Oils 5:111. 2011)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of mustard   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica juncea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish   (based on hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of white mustard   (based on reports of hybridization with Sinapis alba by embryo culture and protoplast fusion fide Warwick et al. 2009)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals   (fide Kellerman et al.; Cooper & Johnson)
More:

Distributional range:

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Southern Africa: South Africa
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Far East
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine [incl. Krym]
    Southeastern Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France [s.]; Spain [incl. Baleares]
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Canada
    Mexico
    United States
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Hispaniola
    Mesoamerica: Nicaragua
    Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay - Alto Paraguay; Uruguay

      Adventive:
  • AFRICA
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zimbabwe
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Barbados; Guadeloupe; Martinique
    Brazil: Brazil

      Cultivated:
  • widely cultivated

      Other:
  • widespread weed, probable origin Eurasia

References:

  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98.
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya.
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Anderson, J. K. & S. I. Warwick. 1999. Chromosome number evolution in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae): evidence from isozyme number. Pl. Syst. Evol. 215:255–285.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Boulos, L. 1999–. Flora of Egypt.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Chen, B.-Y. & W. K. Heneen. 1989. Resynthesized Brassica napus L.: A review of its potential in breeding and genetic analysis. Hereditas (Beijing) 111:255–263.
  • Chen, H.-F. et al. 2007. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids in intertribal crosses between Brassica species (B. rapa, B. napus) and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Pl. Cell Rep. 26:1791–1800.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Chrungu, B. et al. 1999. Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:608–613.
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