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Taxon: Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch

Genus: Brassica
Family: Brassicaceae (alt. Cruciferae) tribe: Brassiceae.
Nomen number: 7666
Place of publication: J. C. Röing, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 3, 4:713. 1833
Comment: valid publication verified from original literature
Name verified on: 02-May-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7).
Accessions: 99 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AZ(as "Brassica niger")°, CO°, IA°, IL°, MA°, MI°, NE°, PA°, SD°, WA(only in rapeseed)°.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

Common names:

More:

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (spice fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Environmental: soil improver   (fide Cover Crop Database)
  • Gene sources: potential for disease resistance in rape   (fide Pl Breed (NY), based on a transgenic line of B. nigra resistant to both Phoma lingam and Plasmodiophora brassicae)
  • Gene sources: potential for disease resistance in turnip   (fide Theor Appl Genet 102:487. 2001, based on the comparison and location of resistance genes in recombinant lines B-genome/B. napus)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of black mustard   (fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of Abyssinian cabbage   (fide Genet Res Crop Evol 53:297. 2006)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mustard   (fide Euphytica 158:214. 2007)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of Abyssinian cabbage   (based on successful hybridization as male parent with Brassica carinata fide Euphytica 158:214, 217. 2007)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of cabbage/kale   (fide Theor Appl Genet 94:605. 1997, based on successful production of F1 hybrids with B. oleracea as male parent)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of mustard   (based on successful hybridization reports with Brassica juncea as the female parent fide Euphytica 158:216. 2007)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish   (based on a record of hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus by ovary culture fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of rape   (fide Pl Breed 113:106. 2006, based on somatic hybridization with B. napus)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of turnip   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica rapa)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of white mustard   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Sinapis alba)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Import Medicinal Pl; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Medicines: source of allyl isothiocyanate   (fide Import Medicinal Pl; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals   (fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Weed CIBA)
More:

Distributional range:

      Native:
  • AFRICA
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
    China: China - Gansu, Jiangsu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Xizang
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: Ireland; United Kingdom
    Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part [s.]; Ukraine
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France [incl. Corsica]; Spain [n.]

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    Southern Africa: South Africa - Mpumalanga
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Eastern Asia: Japan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indo-China: Vietnam
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: Denmark; Norway [s.]; Sweden [s.]
    East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
    Southwestern Europe: Portugal
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Canada
    Mexico
    United States
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: U.S. Outlying Islands - Midway Islands; United States - Hawaii
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Mesoamerica: Guatemala
    Western South America: Ecuador; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

      Cultivated:
  • widely cultivated

      Other:
  • exact native range obscure

References:

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  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Anderson, J. K. & S. I. Warwick. 1999. Chromosome number evolution in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae): evidence from isozyme number. Pl. Syst. Evol. 215:255–285.
  • Arias, T. & J. C. Pires. 2012. A fully resolved chloroplast phylogeny of the brassica crops and wild relatives (Brassicaceae: Brassiceae): Novel clades and potential taxonomic implications. Taxon 61:980–988.
  • Arumugam, N. et al. 2002. Synthesis of somatic hybrids (RCBB) by fusing heat-tolerant Raphanus sativus (RR) and Brassica oleracea (CC) with Brassica nigra (BB). Pl. Breed. (New York) 121:168–170.
  • Boulos, L. 1999–. Flora of Egypt.
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  • Chèvre, A. M. et al. 1997. Identification of the different Brassica nigra chromosomes from both sets of B. oleracea-B. nigra and B. napus-B. nigra addition lines with a special emphasis on chromosome transmission . Theor. Appl. Genet. 94:603–611.
  • Chrungu, B. et al. 1999. Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:608–613.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. [poisonous].
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  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
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  • Erickson, L. R. et al. 1983. Restriction patterns reveal origins of chloroplast genomes in Brassica amphiploids. Theor. Appl. Genet. 65:201–206.
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  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984–. Med-Checklist.
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. 2000. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis Code). Art. 23.5, Ex. 5.
  • Halldén, C. et al. 1987. Distribution and evolution of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence in the family Brassicaceae. J. Molec. Evol. 25:318–323.
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  • Hara, H. et al. 1978–1982. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal.
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  • Hegi, G. et al. 1986. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. ed. 1:1906-1931; ed. 2:1936-68; ed. 3:1966- 4(1):464.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire. 1931–1941. Catalogue des plantes du Maroc.
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen. 1972–. Atlas florae europaeae.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. [poisonous].
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Kunakh, V. A. et al. 2008. Mixoploidy in wild and cultivated species of Cruciferae capable of hybridizing with rapeseed Brassica napus. Cytol. & Genet. 42:204–209.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Meikle, R. D. 1977–1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  • Mouterde, P. 1966–. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie.
  • Nagpal, R. et al. 2008. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera in subtribes Brassicinae, Raphaninae, Moricandiinae, and Cakilinae (Brassicaceae, tribe Brassiceae); the organization and evolution of ribosomal gene families. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157:545–557.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Plieske, J. & D. Struss. 2001. STS markers linked to Phoma resistance genes of the Brassica B-genome revealed sequence homology between Brassica nigra and Brassica napus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:483–488.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979–1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
  • Pradhan, A. K. et al. 1992. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:331–340.
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  • Rao, G. U. et al. 1996. Production of hybrids, amphiploids and backcross progenies between cold-tolerant wild species, Erucastrum abyssinicum and crop brassicas. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:786–790.
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  • Warwick, S. I. & L. D. Black. 1991. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) - chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence. Theor. Appl. Genet. 82:81–92.
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  • Westman, A. L. & S. Kresovich. 1999. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based marker variation in Brassica nigra genebank accessions and weed populations. Euphytica 109:85–92.
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  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1966–. Flora palaestina.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch:


Images:

  • GRIN Images of germplasm accessions.
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds or fruits: Seed ID Workshop image, from Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University
More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.
Jump to Brassica Genome Gateway
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Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?7666 (28 November 2014)

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