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Taxon: Brassica napus L.

Genus: Brassica
Family: Brassicaceae (alt. Cruciferae) tribe: Brassiceae.
Nomen number: 7661
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:666. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 24-Feb-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 24-Feb-2010
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7).
Accessions: 592 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


See also subordinate taxa:


Common names:

  • annual rape   (Source: Federal Seed Act ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma annua]
  • Argentine canola   (Source: Genome 44:738. 2001) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • canola   (Source: McFerson, p.c.) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • colza   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • Hanover-salad   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • oilseed rape   (Source: CRC MedHerbs ed2 ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • rape   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • rape   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • rape kale   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • rutabaga   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • Siberian kale   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • summer rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. annua]) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma annua]
  • swede   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • Swede rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. biennis]) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma napus]
  • Swedish turnip   (Source: Hortus 3 [as B. napus Napobrassica Group]) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • winter rape   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. biennis]) – English   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma napus]
  • man jing gan lan   (Source: F ChinaEng [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • ou zhou you cai   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • ou zhou you cai   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • chou à faucher   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • chou-navet   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • colza d'hiver   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. biennis]) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma napus]
  • colza de printemps   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. annua]) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma annua]
  • navet de Suède   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • navette   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • Kohlrübe   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • Raps   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • Schnittkohl   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • Sommerraps   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. annua]) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma annua]
  • Steckrübe   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • Winterraps   (Source: Misc Publ USDA 643 [as B. napus var. biennis]) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. napus forma napus]
  • Wruke   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – German   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • colza   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • navone   (Source: F Ital [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Italian   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • ravizzone   (Source: F Ital ) – Italian   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • rutabaga   (Source: F Japan [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • seiyō-aburana   (Source: F Japan ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • seiyō-aburana   (Source: F Japan ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • suwhēden-kabu   (Source: F Japan [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • couve-nabiça   (Source: Euphytica 159:111.) – Portuguese   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • nabo   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Portuguese   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • kol'za   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • colinabo   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Spanish   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • nabicol   (Source: Euphytica 159:111.) – Spanish   [Brassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia]
  • nabina   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • nabo   (Source: Dict Rehm [as B. napus var. napobrassica]) – Spanish   [Brassica napus subsp. rapifera]
  • nabo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Brassica napus subsp. napus]
  • raps   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Gene sources: potential for disease resistance in cabbage/kale   (fide Phytopathology 97:1391. 2007, based on new resynthesized lines of B. napus)
  • Gene sources: potential for disease resistance in rape   (fide Theor Appl Genet 102:487. 2001, based on recombinant lines of B. napus carrying resistance genes from A-genome)
  • Gene sources: research in plant biology   (fide Hereditas 111:255, 260. 1989)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of mustard   (fide Transgen Res 3:274. 1994)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of turnip   (fide Transgen Res 3:274. 1994)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of Abyssinian cabbage   (fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of arugula   (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Eruca vesicaria)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of black mustard   (fide Transgenic Res 3:263-278. 1994)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale   (fide Transgen Res 3:274. 1994)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of crambe   (fide Wild Crop Rel Oils 5:112. 2011)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish   (based on records of hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of white mustard   (based on records of hybrid formation by embryo rescue and ovary culture with Sinapis alba fide Chromosome Res 13:819. 2005)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Weed CIBA)
More:

Distributional range:

      Naturalized:
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Afghanistan
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Canada
    Mexico
    United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Mesoamerica: Central America
    Western South America: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

      Cultivated:
  • AFRICA
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania
    West Tropical Africa: Mali
    South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan [n.]
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Far East
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Canada
    Mexico
    United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Mesoamerica: Central America
    South America

      Other:
  • probable origin in cultivated

References:

  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98.
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource).
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Chen, B.-Y. & W. K. Heneen. 1989. Resynthesized Brassica napus L.: A review of its potential in breeding and genetic analysis. Hereditas (Beijing) 111:255–263.
  • Chen, H.-F. et al. 2007. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids in intertribal crosses between Brassica species (B. rapa, B. napus) and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Pl. Cell Rep. 26:1791–1800.
  • Cheung, F. et al. 2009. Comparative analysis between homoeologous genome segments of Brassica napus and its progenitor species reveals extensive sequence-level divergence. Pl. Cell 221:1912–1928.
  • Chrungu, B. et al. 1999. Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:608–613.
  • Clapham, A. R. et al. 1962. Flora of the British Isles ed. 2.
  • Delourme, R. et al. 2006. Major gene and polygenic resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Eur. J. Pl. Pathol. 114:41–52.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Erickson, L. R. et al. 1983. Restriction patterns reveal origins of chloroplast genomes in Brassica amphiploids. Theor. Appl. Genet. 65:201–206.
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape. Euphytica 158:209–230.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • George, A. S., ed. 1980–. Flora of Australia.
  • Hasan, M. et al. 2006. Analysis of genetic diversity in the Brassica napus L. gene pool using SSR markers. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 53:793–802.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Joyeux, A. et al. 1999. Genetic mapping of plant diseases resistance gene homologues using a minimal Brassica napus population. Genome 42:735–743.
  • Kirti, P. B. et al. 1995. Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to Brassica juncea and improvement of the male sterile line through somatic cell fusion. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:517–521.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Kunakh, V. A. et al. 2008. Mixoploidy in wild and cultivated species of Cruciferae capable of hybridizing with rapeseed Brassica napus. Cytol. & Genet. 42:204–209.
  • Lefol, E. et al. 1997. Sexual hybridisation in crosses of cultivated Brassica species with the crucifers Erucastrum gallicum and Raphanus raphanistrum: potential for gene introgression. Euphytica 95:127–139.
  • Li, M. et al. 2006. Intersubgenomic heterosis in rapeseed production with a partial new-typed Brassica napus containing subgenome Ar from B. rapa and Cc from Brassica carinata. Crop Sci. (Madison) 46:234–242.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Mailer, R. J. et al. 2008. Anti-nutritional components, fibre, sinapine and glucosinolate content, in Australia canola (Brassica napus L.) meal. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 85:937–944.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:85.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Nicolas, S. D. et al. 2009. Genetic regulation of meiotic cross-overs between related genomes in Brassica napus haploids and hybrids. Pl. Cell 21:373–385.
  • Plieske, J. & D. Struss. 2001. STS markers linked to Phoma resistance genes of the Brassica B-genome revealed sequence homology between Brassica nigra and Brassica napus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:483–488.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Pradhan, A. K. et al. 1992. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:331–340.
  • Prakash, S., S. R. Bhat & T.-D. Fu. 2009. Chapter 7. Wild germplasm and male sterility. 113–128 In: Gupta, S. K., Biology and breeding of Crucifers. 113–128.
  • Qiong, H. et al. 2009. Chapter 13. Introgression of genes from wild crucifers. 261–308 In: Gupta, S. K., Biology and breeding of Crucifers. 261–308.
  • Rao, G. U. et al. 1996. Production of hybrids, amphiploids and backcross progenies between cold-tolerant wild species, Erucastrum abyssinicum and crop brassicas. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:786–790. [based on close affinities of Erucastrum abyssinicum with the Rapa/Oleracea lineage, this study evaluated crossability of this species using both embryo rescue and bridge-cross methods; it reports the successful use of the amphidiploid E. abyssinicum × B. juncea as a bridge species with B. napus, B. rapa and B. nigra].
  • Rao, G. U. et al. 1998. Isolation of useful variants in alloplasmic crop bassicas in the cytoplasmic background of Erucastrum gallicum. Euphytica 103:301–306.
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica.
  • Rutledge, R. C. et al. 1991. Molecular characterization and genetic origin of the Brassica napus acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family. Molec. Gen. Genet. 229:31–40.
  • Rygulla, W. et al. 2007. Broadening the genetic basis of Verticillium longisporum resistance in Brassica napus by interspecific hybridization. Phytopathology 97:1391–1396.
  • Scheffler, J. A. & P. J. Dale. 1994. Opportunities for gene transfer from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to related species. Transgenic Res. 3:263–278.
  • Siemens, J. 2002. Interspecific hybridisation between wild relatives and Brassica napus to introduce new resistance traits into the oilseed rape gene pool. Czech J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 38:155–157.
  • Snowdon, R. et al. 2007. Chapter 2. Oilseed rape. In G. Kole (ed.) Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants Vol. 2. 55–114 In: Kole. C., ed., Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants (7 vols.). 55–114. [this review recognizes B. napus with two subspecies: napobrassica and napus; the latter with two varieties napus and pabularia; provides a compilation on breeding information].
  • Snowdon, R. et al. 2007. Chapter 7. Brassica oilseeds. 196–230 In: Singh, R. J. et al., eds., Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement. 196–230.
  • Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 1. Genome evolution of diploid and amphidiploid species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 75:784–794.
  • Song, K. et al. 1995. Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:7719–7723.
  • Tsunoda, S. et al. 1980. Brassica crop and wild allies, biology and breeding. 111–112.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Velasco, L. et al. 1998. Variability for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil in a germplasm collection of the genus Brassica. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 45:371–382.
  • Wang, Y. P. et al. 2005. Behaviour of Sinapis alba chromosomes in a Brassica napus background revealed by genomic in-situ hybridization. Chromosome Res. 13:819–826.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2009. PART III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data. 1–91 In: Warwick, S.I. et al., Guide to wild germplasm of Brassica and allied crops (Tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae), ed. 3 (on-line resource). 1–91.
  • Wei, W. et al. 2010. Development of a novel Sinapis arvensis disomic addition line in Brassica napus containing the restorer gene for Nsa CMS and improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and pod shattering. Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:1089–1097.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Yao, X.-C. et al. 2010. Intra- and intergenomic relationships in interspecific hybrids between Brassica (B. rapa, B. napus) and a wild species B. maurorum as revealed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Euphytica 173:113–120.
  • van Treuren, R. et al. 2011. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb's lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. DOI: 10.1007/s10722–011–9738–x.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Brassica napus L.:


Images:

More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.
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Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?7661 (18 April 2014)

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