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Taxon: Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

Genus: Avicennia
Family: Acanthaceae subfamily: Avicennioideae. Also placed in: Avicenniaceae Verbenaceae
Nomen number: 70116
Place of publication: Sp. pl. ed. 3, 2:891. 1764
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 09-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 12-Jul-1999
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA).


Common names:

  • black mangrove   (Source: F Jam ) – English
  • mangle   (Source: F Veracruz ) – Spanish
  • mangle negro   (Source: F Veracruz ) – Spanish

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

      Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon [w.]; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon [w.]; Sao Tome and Principe; Zaire [w.]
    West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire [s.]; Gambia [w.]; Ghana [s.]; Guinea [s.]; Guinea-Bissau [w.]; Mauritania [w.]; Nigeria [s.]; Senegal [w.]; Sierra Leone [s.]; Togo [s.]
  • NORTHERN AMERICA (Check conservation status in U.S. & Canada in NatureServe Explorer database)
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    Mexico [coasts]
    Caribbean: Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Bermuda; Cuba; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Hispaniola; Jamaica; Martinique; Montserrat; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    Northern South America: French Guiana [n.]; Guyana [n.]; Suriname [n.]; Venezuela [n.]
    Brazil: Brazil [n. & e.]
    Western South America: Colombia [n. & w.]; Ecuador [w.]; Peru - Tumbes


  • Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica.
  • Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1961–. Flore du Gabon.
  • Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1963–. Flore du Cameroun.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45.
  • Brunel, J. F. et al., eds. 1984. Flore analytique du Togo. Phanerogames.
  • Compere, P. 1963. The correct name of the Afro-American black mangrove. Taxon 12:150–152. [discusses nomenclature and authorship].
  • Dodd, R. S. et al. 2000. Evolutionary divergence in the pan-Atlantic mangrove Avicennia germinans. New Phytol. 145:115–125. [Old & New World representatives are distinct].
  • Englert, J. M. et al. 1999–. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Gillis, W. T. 1974. Name changes for the seed plants in the Bahama flora. Rhodora 76:113.
  • Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. 1978–. Flora de Veracruz.
  • Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. 1986–. Flora of the Guianas. [lists as A. germinans (L.) Stearn].
  • Howard, R. 1974–1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  • Keay, R. W. J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria.
  • Little, E. L. Jr. 1961. Avicennia nitida (Nomenclature). Phytologia 8:49. [lists as A. germinans L.; = A. nitida Jacq.].
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946–1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  • Stearn, W. T. 1958. A key to West Indian mangroves. Kew Bull. 13:33–37. [lists as A. germinans (L.) Stearn].
  • Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2. [= A. nitida Jacq.].
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943–1980. Flora of Panama.


Check other web resources for Avicennia germinans (L.) L.:


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (04 October 2015)

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