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Taxon: Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore

Genus: Crassocephalum
Family: Asteraceae (alt. Compositae) subfamily: Asteroideae tribe: Senecioneae subtribe: Senecioninae
Nomen number: 447235
Place of publication: J. Bot. 50:211. 1912
Name verified on: 06-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 06-Mar-2012
No species priority site assigned.


Common names:

  • ebolo   (Source: PROTA4U ) – English
  • fireweed   (Source: PROTA4U ) – English
  • red-flower ragleaf   (Source: PROTA4U ) – English
  • thickhead   (Source: PROTA4U ) – English
  • ye tong hao   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • ebolo   (Source: PROTA4U ) – French
  • ebolo   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Nigeria (Yoruba)
  • eyukula   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Portuguese

Economic importance:

Distributional range:

    Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Sudan
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi; Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Sao Tome and Principe; Zaire
    West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone
    South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: South Africa - Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga; Swaziland
    Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
    Arabian Peninsula: Yemen

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius
    Western Asia: Iran; Turkey [n.e.]
    China: China [s.]
    Eastern Asia: Japan; Taiwan
    Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
    Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
    Australia: Australia
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Micronesia; Palau
    South-Central Pacific: Cook Islands; French Polynesia
    Southwestern Pacific: American Samoa; Fiji; New Caledonia; Niue; Solomon Islands; Tonga; Wallis and Futuna Islands
    Caribbean: Hispaniola; Puerto Rico

    West Tropical Africa: Benin; Nigeria


  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98.
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976–. Flores des Mascareignes.
  • Burkill, H. M. 1985–2004. The useful plants of west tropical Africa.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980–. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 10:162.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Fosberg, F. R. & M.-H. Sachet. 1975–. Flora of Micronesia, Smithsonian Contr. Bot.
  • Fosberg, F. R. et al. 1979–1982. Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae/ Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae.
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. 1984–. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Jeffrey, C. 1986. The Senecioneae in East Tropical Africa. Notes on Compositae: IV. Kew Bull. 41:908.
  • Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper. 1953–1972. Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Liogier, H. A. & L. F. Martorell. 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, ed. 2.
  • Missouri Botanical Garden. Flora of China Checklist (on-line resource).
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993–. Flora of India.
  • Smith, A. C. 1979–1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Vanijajiva, O. & J. W. Kadereit. 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for interspecific hybridisation in the introduced African genus Crassocephalum (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) in Asia. Syst. Biodivers. 7:269–276.
  • Wagner, W. L. et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i.
  • Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the flora of Yemen.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).

Check other web resources for Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore:


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (25 November 2015)

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