USDA ARS United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

  GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
Jump to common names  Jump to economic impacts  Jump to distribution  Jump to references  Jump to synonyms  Jump to links to other online resources  Jump to images

***Please tell us why you value GRIN Taxonomy***

Taxon: Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

Genus: Artocarpus subgenus: Artocarpus
Family: Moraceae tribe: Artocarpeae
Nomen number: 4319
Place of publication: J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31:95. 1941
Name verified on: 16-Dec-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 03-Feb-2010
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Hilo (HILO). Alternate site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA).
Accessions: 191 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:


Economic importance:

  • Human food: fruit   (fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)
  • Human food: seeds   (fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)
  • Human food: starch   (fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)
  • Human food: vegetable   (fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of breadfruit   (based on probable natural populations fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)
  • Materials: latex/rubber   (fide J Arn Arb 40:309. 1959)

Distributional range:

    Malesia: Indonesia - Irian Jaya, Moluccas; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
    Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Micronesia [perhaps indigenous]; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau
    Southwestern Pacific: Vanuatu [perhaps indigenous]

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia
    Southwestern Pacific: Solomon Islands [perhaps indigenous]

  • cultivated throughout tropics


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Berg, C. C. 2001. Moreae, Arocarpeae, and Dorstenia (Moraceae) with introductions to the family and Ficus and with additions and corrections to Flora Neotropica Monograph 7. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 83:143.
  • Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980–. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. [= A. incisus L. f.].
  • Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource).
  • Florence, J. 1997–. Flore de la Polynésie française.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Jarrett, F. M. 1959. Studies in Artocarpus and allied genera, III. A revision of Artocarpus subgenus Artocarpus (cont.). J. Arnold Arbor. 40:307–323. [= A. communis J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.].
  • Jones, A. M. P. et al. 2013. Morphological diversity in breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae): insights into domestication, conservation, and cultivar identification. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 60:175–192.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Merrill, E. D. 1922–1926. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. [= A. incisus L. f.].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Ragone, D. 1994. Description of Pacific Island breadfruit cultivars. Acta Hort. 413:93–98.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Salma, I. et al. 2006. Diversity and use of traditional fruit species in selected home gardens or fruit orchards in Malaysia. J. Trop. Agric. Food Sci. 34:149–164.
  • Smith, A. C. 1979–1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  • Smitinand, T. & K. Larsen, eds. 1970–. Flora of Thailand.
  • Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. 1948–. Flora malesiana.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:83.
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora.
  • Witherup, C. et al. 2013. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species. Applic. Pl. Sci. 1(7): 1200423.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= A. communis J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.].
  • Zerega, N. J. C. et al. 2004. Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): Implications for human migrations in Oceania. Amer. J. Bot. 91:760–766.
  • Zerega, N. J. C. et al. 2005. Systematics and species limits of breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae). Syst. Bot. 30:603–615.
  • Zerega, N. J. C. et al. 2010. Phylogeny and recircumscription of Artocarpeae (Moraceae) with a focus on Artocarpus. Syst. Bot. 35:766–782.


Check other web resources for Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg:


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

| USDA | ARS | GRIN | NPGS | New Search |

Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (26 November 2015)

Please send us your comments

Close Window

Ctrl P to print