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Taxon: Xanthium strumarium L.

Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt. Compositae).
Nomen number: 42072
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Comment: treated here in the broad sense
Name verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 25-Mar-2012
No species priority site assigned.
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
DE°, IA°, IA(as Xanthium commune)*, IN(as Xanthium pensylvanicum)°, MD°, MI°, PR*.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

Common names:

  • California-bur   (Source: Econ Pl Aust [as X. orientale]) – English
  • Canada cocklebur   (Source: PLANTS ) – English
  • cocklebur   (Source: Pl Book ) – English
  • ditchbur   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • large cocklebur   (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001 ) – English
  • Noogoora-bur   (Source: Econ Pl Aust [as X. pungens]) – English
  • rough cocklebur   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • Siberian cocklebur   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 [as X. sibiricum]) – English
  • kankerroos   (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001 ) – Afrikaans
  • cang er   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • lampourde glouteron   (Source: F NAmer ) – French
  • gewöhnliche Spitzklette   (Source: Zander Ency ) – German
  • o-namomi   (Source: F Japan ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • carrapicho-de-carneiro   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • carrapicho-grande   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • gullfrö   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

More:

Distributional range:

      Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Northern Africa: Egypt; Morocco
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye, Sakhalin
    China: China - Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
    Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: India
  • EUROPE
    Middle Europe: Austria; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    East Europe: Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine - Krym
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France [incl. Corsica]; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA (Check conservation status in U.S. & Canada in NatureServe Explorer database)
    Subarctic America: United States - Alaska
    Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine [s.], Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz, Yucatan
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Northern South America: Venezuela

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania
    West Tropical Africa: Nigeria
    South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa; Swaziland
    Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    Western Asia: Israel; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: Nepal
    Indo-China: Thailand
    Malesia: Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine [incl. Krym]
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: U.S. Outlying Islands - Midway Islands; United States - Hawaii
    South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia
    Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda - Antigua; Bahamas; Cuba; Dominica; Hispaniola; Martinique; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis - Nevis; Virgin Islands (British) - Tortola; Virgin Islands (U.S.)

      Other:
  • exact native range obscure

References:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98.
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • BernhardSmith, A. 1923. Poisonous plants of all countries, 2nd ed. [poisonous].
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976–. Flores des Mascareignes.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Boulos, L. 1999–. Flora of Egypt.
  • Breedlove, D. E., ed. 1981–. Flora of Chiapas.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. [poisonous].
  • Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama archipelago.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. 1972–. Intermountain flora.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Grubov, V. I. 2001. Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia.
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  • Hara, H. et al. 1978–1982. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal.
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000)
  • Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12.
  • Henderson, M. et al. 1987. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413.
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California.
  • Hitchcock, C. L. et al. 1955–1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest.
  • Hokche, O. et al. 2008. Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezola.
  • Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds.
  • Howard, R. 1974–1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  • Hyde, M. et al. Flora of Mozambique (on-line resource).
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. [poisonous].
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. [poisonous].
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. [= X. orientale L.].
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2.
  • Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles. 1999. Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York.
  • Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico.
  • McGregor, R. L. et al. (The Great Plains Flora Association). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
  • McVaugh, R. 1983–. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora.
  • Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University. 1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21.
  • Oh, S.-Y. & J.-H. Pak. 2001. Distribution maps of vascular plants in Korea.
  • Pammel, L. H. 1911. Manual of poisonous plants. [poisonous].
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. [recognize three species usually included in X. strumarium complex].
  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979–1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
  • Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980–. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States.
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica.
  • Rzedowski, J. & G. Rzedowski, eds. 1991–. Flora del Bajio y de regiones adyacentes.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978–1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually).
  • Thulin, M., ed. 1993–. Flora of Somalia.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Valdés, B. et al., eds. 2002. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource).
  • Wagner, W. L. et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i.
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the flora of Yemen.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Wursten, B. et al. Flora of Zimbabwe (on-line resource).
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Xanthium strumarium L.:


Images:

  • GRIN Images of germplasm accessions.
  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit: Seed ID Workshop image, from Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University
  • Fruit inner wall: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

| USDA | ARS | GRIN | NPGS | New Search |

Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?42072 (31 October 2014)

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