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Taxon: Xanthium spinosum L.

Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt. Compositae).
Nomen number: 42071
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 25-Mar-2012
No species priority site assigned.

NO ACCESSIONS IN NPGS UNDER THIS NAME.

SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
OR*, WA*.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

Common names:

  • Bathurst-bur   (Source: Noxweed Aust ) – English
  • clotweed   (Source: Zander Ency ) – English
  • common cocklebur   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • prickly burweed   (Source: Noxweed Aust ) – English
  • spiny cocklebur   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English
  • boetebos   (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001 ) – Afrikaans
  • lampourde épineuse   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • dornige Spitzklette   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • carrapicho-de-Santa-Helena   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • cachurrera menor   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • pegotes   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • tistelgullfrö   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

More:

Distributional range:

      Native:
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Brazil: Brazil - Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina
    Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay; Uruguay

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa
    Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Tyumen [s.]
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye
    China: China - Beijing, Henan
    Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: India
    Malesia: Papua New Guinea
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Middle Europe: Austria; Hungary; Poland
    East Europe: Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Italy
    Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec
    Western Canada: Canada - Saskatchewan
    Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia
    North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska
    Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    Mexico

      Other:
  • exact native range in Americas obscure

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976–. Flores des Mascareignes.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. [= Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr.].
  • Cronquist, A. et al. 1972–. Intermountain flora.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Everest, S. L. 1981. Poisonous plants of Australia. [poisonous].
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Foreman, D. B. & N. G. Walsh. 1993–. Flora of Victoria.
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000)
  • Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12.
  • Henderson, M. et al. 1987. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413.
  • Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds.
  • Huang, Q. Q. et al. 2009. Identifying the most noxious invasive plants in China: role of geographical origin, life form and means of introduction. Biodivers. & Conservation 18:305–316.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Jorgensen, P. M., ed. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia) (on-line resource).
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75.
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. [poisonous].
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. [poisonous].
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000–. Flora of Siberia (English translation).
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Löve, D. & P. Dansereau. 1959. Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: taxonomic appraisal and ecological status. Canad. J. Bot. 37:204.
  • McVaugh, R. 1983–. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  • Pammel, L. H. 1911. Manual of poisonous plants. [poisonous].
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. [mentions].
  • Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980–. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States.
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978–1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  • Sell, P. & G. Murrell. 1996–. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993–. Flora of India.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the flora of Yemen.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
More:

Check other web resources for Xanthium spinosum L.:


Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?42071 (23 July 2014)

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