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Taxon: Arachis hypogaea L.

Genus: Arachis section: Arachis
Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae) subfamily: Faboideae tribe: Dalbergieae. Also placed in: Papilionaceae
Nomen number: 3785
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:741. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 22-Dec-2009 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 22-Dec-2009
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9).
Accessions: 6983 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • only available ) NPGS core subset accessions for the crop ‘PEANUTS’ ) or .
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

  • goober   (Source: AH 505 ) – English
  • groundnut   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • peanut   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • Spanish peanut   (Source: Bonplandia 8:154.) – English   [Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris]
  • Valencia peanut   (Source: Bonplandia 8:153.) – English   [Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. fastigiata]
  • Virginia peanut   (Source: Crit Rev Pl Sci [8:189.]) – English   [Arachis hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea]
  • ful sudane   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Arabic
  • luo hua sheng   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • arachide   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • cacahuète   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • pistache de terre   (Source: PROTA4U ) – French
  • Erdnuß   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • arachide   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian
  • nankin-mame   (Source: F Korea ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • rakka-sei   (Source: F Okin ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • ttangkong   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:78.) – Transcribed Korean
  • amendoim   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • caranga   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Portuguese
  • mandobi   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Portuguese
  • avellana americana   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • cacahuete   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • cocos   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Spanish
  • huasquillo   (Source: Bonplandia 8:154.) – Spanish   [Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. aequatoriana]
  • maní   (Source: Bonplandia 8:147.) – Spanish
  • zaruma   (Source: Bonplandia 8:154.) – Spanish (Ecuador)   [Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. aequatoriana]
  • karanga   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Swahili
  • mjugu nyasa   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Swahili
  • mnjugu nyasa   (Source: PROTA4U ) – Swahili
  • jordnöt   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

    Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Central African Republic; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon
    West Tropical Africa: Benin; Burkina Faso; Cote D'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Togo
    South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia; South Africa
    Western Indian Ocean: Comoros; Madagascar; Mauritius; Reunion; Seychelles
    Western Asia: Iraq; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea; Taiwan
    Indian Subcontinent: India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
    Indo-China: Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
    East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Ukraine
    Southwestern Europe: Spain
    United States [s.e.]
    Northwestern Pacific: Northern Mariana Islands
    South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia - Society Islands
    Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; Niue
    Caribbean: West Indies
    Mesoamerica: Central America
    Northern South America: French Guiana
    Brazil: Brazil
    Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina


  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Burow, M. D. et al. 2001. Transmission genetics of chromatin from a synthetic amphidiploid to cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): broadening the gene pool of a monophyletic polyploid species. Genetics 159:823–837.
  • Burow, M. D. et al. 2009. Molecular biogeographic study of recently described B- and A-genome Arachis species, also providing new insights into the origins of cultivated peanut. Genome 52:107–109.
  • Butler, R. A. 2006. High oil prices fuel bioenergy push. [re. potential use as fuel substitute].
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. [poisonous].
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Galgaro, L. et al. 1998. Genetic variation between several species of sections Extranervosae, Caulorrhizae, Heteranthae, and Triseminatae (genus Arachis) estimated by DNA polymorphism. Genome 41:445–454.
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Hermann, F. J. 1954. A synopsis of the genus Arachis. Agric. Monogr. U.S.D.A. 19:13.
  • Hilu, K. W. & H. T. Stalker. 1995. Genetic relationships between peanut and wild species of Arachis sect. Arachis (Fabaceae): evidence from RAPDs. Pl. Syst. Evol. 198:167–178.
  • International Legume Database & Information Service. International Legume Database and Information Service (on-line resource).
  • International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  • Johansen, E. L. & B. W. Smith. 1956. Arachis hypogaea X A. diogoi. Embryo and seed failure. Amer. J. Bot. 43:250–257.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. [poisonous].
  • Krapovickas, A. & V. A. Rigoni. 1960. La nomenclatura de las subespecies y variedades de Arachis hypogaea L. Revista Invest. Agríc. 14:221–227.
  • Krapovickas, A. & W. C. Gregory. 1994. Taxonomía del género Arachis (Leguminosae). Bonplandia 8:147–151.
  • Kumar, S & P. V. Sane. 2003. Legumes of South Asia: a checklist.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Lee, Y. N. 1997. Flora of Korea.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Lock, J. M. 1989. Legumes of Africa: a checklist.
  • Maesen, L. J. G. van der & Sadikin Somaatmadja, eds. 1989. Pulses. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 1:35.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:78.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Raina, S. N. et al. 2001. RAPD and ISSR fingerprints as useful genetic markers for analysis of genetic diversity, varietal identification, and phylogenetic relationships in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars and wild species. Genome 44:763–772.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Resslar, P. M. 1980. A review of the nomenclature of the genus Arachis L. Euphytica 29:815.
  • Subramanian, V. et al. 2000. Identification of DNA polymorphism in cultivated groundnut using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. Genome 43:656–660.
  • Terrell, E. E. et al. 1986. Agric. Handb. no. 505.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).


Check other web resources for Arachis hypogaea L.:

Images or nodulation data:

  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (09 October 2015)

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