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Taxon: Solanum viarum Dunal

Genus: Solanum subgenus: Leptostemonum section: Acanthophora
Family: Solanaceae subfamily: Solanoideae tribe: Solaneae
Nomen number: 317433
Place of publication: A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1):240. 1852
Name verified on: 29-Nov-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 29-Nov-2010
Species priority site is: Potato Germplasm Introduction Station (NR6).
Accessions: 4 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

A declared noxious weed by USDA-APHIS.
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AL*°, AR*°, AZ*°, FL*°, GA°, LA°, MA*, MS*°, NC*, PR*, SC°, TN*, TX*°.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.
Link to species profile at National Invasive Species Information Center

Common names:


Economic importance:

Distributional range:

    Brazil: Brazil - Acre, Amazonas, Espirito Santo, Federal District, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo
    Southern South America: Argentina - Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fe; Paraguay; Uruguay

    China: China - Xizang, Yunnan
    Indian Subcontinent: India; Nepal
    Indo-China: Myanmar
    Australia: Australia - New South Wales
    United States [s.e.]
    Caribbean: West Indies
    Mesoamerica: Honduras


  • Babu, C. R. & F. N. Hepper. 1979. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Solanum khasianum and some of its relatives. Kew Bull. 34:409.
  • Babu, C. R. 1971. The identity of Solanum khasianum Cl. var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta (Solanaceae). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67:610.
  • Bryson, C. T. & J. D. Byrd, Jr. 1994. Solanum viarum (Solanaceae), new to Mississippi. Sida 16:382.
  • Bryson, C. T. & J. D. Byrd, Jr. 2007. Biology, reproductive potential, and winter survival of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Weed Technol. 21:791–795.
  • Coile, N. 1993. Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal: the plant from hell. Bot. Circ. Div. Pl. Industr. Florida 27:1–4.
  • Conant, P. et al. 1997. Appendix. Selected plant species interfering with resource management goals in North American natural areas. Pp. 255–267 in: Luken, J. O. & J. W. Thieret, eds., Assessment and management of plant invasions.
  • Deb, D. B. 1979. Solanaceae in India. P. 105 in: Hawkes, J. G. et al., eds., The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae.
  • Freire de Varvalho, L. d'A. 1997. Diversidade taxônomica das Solanáceas no estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) - II - Lycianthes e Solanum. Albertoa 4:300.
  • Hosking, J. R. 2010. pers. comm. via e–mail on 31 Aug. [re. occurrence in Australia].
  • Kammathy. R. V. et al. 1974. Pharmacognostic studies on the genus Solanun Linn. I. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 13:224.
  • Levin, R. A. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships among the "spiny solanums" Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 93:157–169.
  • Miller, L. M. F. & M. E. Davies. 1979. The characteristics of solasodine accumulation in C. B. Clarke var. Chatterjeeanum Sengupta and S. laciniatum Ait. grown under field conditions in Birmingham. P. 231 in: Hawkes, J. G. et al., eds., The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae.
  • Mullahey, J. J. 1996. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a biological pollutant threatening Florida. Castanea 61:255–260.
  • Nee, M. 1991. Synopsis of Solanum section Acanthophora: a group of interest for glycoalkaloids. P. 264 in: Hawkes, J. G. et al., eds., Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution.
  • Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World. P. 328 in: Nee, M. et al., eds., Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization.
  • PBI Solanum Project. Solanaceae source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family (on-line resource).
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Reed, M. D. et al. 2004. Solanum viarum (Solanaceae) - tropical soda-apple - confirmed from Texas. Sida 21:1171–1174.
  • Reitz, R., ed. 1965–. Flora ilustrada catarinense.
  • USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource).
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Welman, W. G. 2003. The genus Solanum (Solanaceae) in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva. Bothalia 33:10–11.
  • Whalen, M. D. 1984. Conspectus of species groups in Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum. Gentes Herbarum 12:253.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Wunderlin, R. P. et al. 1993. Solanum viarum and S. tampicense (Solanaceae): two weedy species new to Florida and the United States. Sida 15:605–611.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74., 1999 [= S. reflexum Schrank].


Check other web resources for Solanum viarum Dunal:


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.
Jump to Solanaceae Genomics Network

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (25 November 2015)

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