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Taxon: ×Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands

Genus: Citrofortunella
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 313479
Place of publication: Baileya 22:135. 1984
Comment: = Citrus reticulata × Fortunella japonica
Name verified on: 07-Oct-2008 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 08-Jan-2014
No species priority site assigned.
Accessions: 4 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • calamandarin   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – English
  • calamondin   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • calamonding   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – English
  • China-orange   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 2:117.) – English
  • golden-lime   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 2:117.) – English
  • musk-lime   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – English
  • Panama-orange   (Source: Cornucopia [as ×C. mitis]) – English
  • Philippine-lime   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – English
  • szu kai kat   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Transcribed Chinese
  • hazara   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – India
  • djerook kastoori   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Indonesian
  • shikikitsu   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • tōkinkan   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • limoeiro-do-Japão   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – Portuguese
  • naranjita de San José   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Citrus madurensis]) – Spanish

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:117. 1991)
  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:117. 1991)
  • Human food: beverage base   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:117. 1991)
  • Human food: fruit   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:117. 1991)
  • Gene sources: cold tolerance for citrus   (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 116. 2009)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:117. 1991)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Ecocrop)

Distributional range:

    Malesia: Philippines
  • also cultivated elsewhere

  • origin China


  • Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece. 1969. Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). [cites basionym; = Citrus madurensis Lour.].
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 2008. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. [= ×C. mitis].
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2009. Citrus breeding. Pp. 105–134 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species. ["limequats"].
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. [= Citrus madurensis].
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1998. Australian Citreae with notes on other Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:337. [= Citrus ×microcarpa Bunge].
  • Pateña, L. F. et al. 2005. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in calamansi (× Citrofortunella microcarpa Bunge). Acta Hort. 694:141–144.
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:140. [cites basionym; = Citrus madurensis Lour.].
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:117.
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= Citrus ×microcarpa Bunge].


Check other web resources for ×Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (05 October 2015)

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