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Taxon: Raphanus sativus L.

Genus: Raphanus
Family: Brassicaceae (alt. Cruciferae) tribe: Brassiceae.
Nomen number: 30857
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:669. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 15-Feb-1989 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 29-Sep-1994
Species priority site is: Northeast Regional PI Station (NE9).
Accessions: 770 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


See also subordinate taxa:


Common names:

  • Chinese radish   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • fodder radish   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • garden radish   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • Japanese radish   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • oil radish   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • Oriental radish   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • radish   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • radish   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rat-tail radish   (Source: Hortus 3 [as R. sativus var. caudatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • serpent radish   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. caudatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • small radish   (Source: Mansfeld ) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • tail-pod radish   (Source: Breed Sci [as R. sativus var. caudatus]) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • turnip radish   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • fijl   (Source: Ill L Qatar ) – Transliterated Arabic   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • lai fu   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Radish Group]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • luo bo   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • luo bo   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Radish Group]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • shu wei luo bo   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. caudatus]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • ying tao luo bo   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Small Radish Group]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • petit rave   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • radis   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • radis de Madras   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. caudatus]) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • radis fourrager   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • radis japonais   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • radis oléifère   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • radis serpent   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • ravon   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Small Radish Group]) – French   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • Ölrettich   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • chinesischer Rettich   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – German   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • Radieschen   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • Rettich   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • Schlangenrettich   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • mungra   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. caudatus]) – India (Hindi)   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • lobak   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:234. [as R. sativus Chinese Radish Group]) – Indonesian   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • mougri   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. caudatus]) – Indonesian   [Raphanus sativus var. mougri]
  • radice   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Small Radish Group]) – Italian   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rafano   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Radish Group]) – Italian   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rafano da foraggio   (Source: Pl Names ) – Italian   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • ramolaccio   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • ravanello   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Small Radish Group]) – Italian   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • daikon   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • hatsuka-daikon   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Small Radish Group]) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • mu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:124 [as R. sativus var. niger]) – Transcribed Korean   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • lobak   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 8:234. [as R. sativus Chinese Radish Group]) – Malay   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rábano   (Source: Mansf Ency [as R. sativus convar. sativus Radish Group]) – Portuguese   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rábano-de-azeite   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • rabanete   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • nabo-forrageiro   (Source: Pl Names ) – Portuguese (Brazil)   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • rábano   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rábano blanco   (Source: Dict Rehm [as R. sativus var. longipinnatus]) – Spanish   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rábano oleaginoso   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis]
  • rabanillo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • rabanito   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
  • trädgårdsrättika   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish   [Raphanus sativus var. sativus]
More:

Economic importance:

  • Gene sources: cytoplasmic male sterility for cabbage/kale   (fide Biol Breed Crucifer 322. 2009, mentions the commercial use of the CMS Ogura system in B. oleracea)
  • Gene sources: cytoplasmic male sterility for mustard   (fide Theor Appl Gen 91:517. 1995)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of Abyssinian cabbage   (based on hybrids with Brassica carinata fide Euphytica 158:213. 2007)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of arugula   (fide Cruc Newsl 12:7. 1987)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of black mustard   (based on a record of hybrid formation with Brassica nigra by ovary culture fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale   (fide Pl Breed(NY) 121:168. 2002, records hybrids with Brassica oleracea through embryo rescue)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of mustard   (fide Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:517-521. 1995)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of rape   (fide Theor Appl Genet 83:887. 1992)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of turnip   (fide Euphytica 158:216. 2007, cites several successful hybridization studies with Brassica rapa)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of white mustard   (based on records of hybrids with Sinapis alba using embryo rescue fide Warwick et al. 2009)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Weed CIBA)
More:

Distributional range:

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores; Spain - Canary Islands
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania
    South Tropical Africa: Angola; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: South Africa - Limpopo
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
    Western Asia: Cyprus; Turkey
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: Finland; Norway
    Middle Europe: Austria; Hungary
    East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
    Southeastern Europe: Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Canada
    Mexico
    United States
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Barbados; Bermuda; Cuba; Hispaniola; Puerto Rico
    Mesoamerica: Guatemala
    Brazil: Brazil [s.]
    Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay - Misiones; Uruguay

      Cultivated:
  • widely cultivated

      Other:
  • origin unknown

References:

  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98.
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource).
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Arumugam, N. et al. 2002. Synthesis of somatic hybrids (RCBB) by fusing heat-tolerant Raphanus sativus (RR) and Brassica oleracea (CC) with Brassica nigra (BB). Pl. Breed. (New York) 121:168–170.
  • Bang, S. W. et al. 1997. Production of new intergeneric hybrids between Raphanus sativus and Brassica wild species. Breed. Sci. 47:223–228.
  • Bett, K. E. & D. J. Lydiate. 2003. Genetic analysis and genome mapping in Raphanus. Genome 46:423–430.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Campbell, L. G. & A. A. Snow. 2009. Can feral weeds evolve from cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae)? Amer. J. Bot. 96:498–506.
  • Chen, H. G. & J. S. Wu. 2008. Characterization of fertile amphidiploid between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra and the crossability with Brassica species. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 55:143–150.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960–. Flora zambesiaca.
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Figueiredo, E. & G. F. Smith. 2008. Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279.
  • FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape. Euphytica 158:209–230.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  • George, A. S., ed. 1980–. Flora of Australia.
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Hegi, G. et al. 1986. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. ed. 1:1906-1931; ed. 2:1936-68; ed. 3:1966- 4(1):503.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen. 1972–. Atlas florae europaeae.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75.
  • Kalia, P. 2009. Chapter 16. Genetic improvement in vegetable crucifers. 310–342 In: Gupta, S. K., Biology and breeding of Crucifers. 310–342.
  • Kirti, P. B. et al. 1995. Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to Brassica juncea and improvement of the male sterile line through somatic cell fusion. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:517–521.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption.
  • Lelivelt, C. L. C. & F. A. Krens. 1992. Transfer of resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) into the Brassica napus L. gene pool through intergeneric somatic hybridization with Raphanus sativus L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83:887–894.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Miller, A. G. & T. A. Cope. 1996–. Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra.
  • Mouterde, P. 1966–. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Norton, J. et al. 2009. Illustrated checklist of the flora of Qatar.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Pradhan, A. K. et al. 1992. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:331–340.
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962–1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  • Ridley, C. E. et al. 2008. Bidirectional history of hybridization in California wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae), as revealed by chloroplast DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 95:1437–1442. [this study examined the origin and parentage of 11 populations of the California wild radish; it recognized eight haplotypes (A-H), of which one was unique for this taxon, and other haplotypes were shared with R. sativus (23% of individuals) and R. raphanistrum (64% of individuals); a haplotype network analysis revealed two clusters (A-C and D-H); this study also showed that R. sativus and R. raphanistrum did not share common cpDNA haplotypes; California wild radish shared three haplotypes with R. raphanistrum, and two with R. sativus, and there was not haplotype geographical structure suggesting multiple introductions especially from Europe].
  • Siemonsma, J. S. & Kasem Piluek, eds. 1993. Vegetables. 8:233 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 8:233.
  • Smith, A. C. 1979–1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946–1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  • Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Flora of Missouri.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource).
  • Wagner, W. L. et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i.
  • Wang, N. et al. 2008. Genetic diversity of radish (Raphanus sativus) germplasms and relationships among worldwide accessions analyzed with AFLP markers. Breed. Sci. 58:107–112.
  • Warwick, S. I. & L. D. Black. 1991. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) - chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence. Theor. Appl. Genet. 82:81–92.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2006. Brassicaceae: Species checklist and database on CD-Rom. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:249–258. [lists in database].
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2009. PART III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data. 1–91 In: Warwick, S.I. et al., Guide to wild germplasm of Brassica and allied crops (Tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae), ed. 3 (on-line resource). 1–91.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Yamagishi, H. & T. Terachi. 2003. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus. Genome 46:89–94.
  • Yamagishi, H. et al. 2009. Inter- and intraspecific sequence variations of the chloroplast genome in wild and cultivated Raphanus. Pl. Breed. (New York) 128:172–177.
  • Yamame, K. et al. 2005. Chloroplast DNA variations of cultivated radish and its wild relatives. Pl. Sci. (Elsevier) 168:627–634.
  • Yang, Y.-W. et al. 2002. A study of the phylogeny of Brassica rapa, B. nigra, Raphanus sativus, and their related genera using noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 23:268–275.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Raphanus sativus L.:


Images:

  • GRIN Images of germplasm accessions.
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds or fruits: Seed ID Workshop image, from Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University
More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?30857 (29 August 2014)

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