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Taxon: Pyrus ×bretschneideri Rehder

Genus: Pyrus section: Pashia
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Maleae subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 30462
Place of publication: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 50:231. 1915, pro sp.
  • probably a complex hybrid fide M. N. Westwood (pers. comm.)
  • valid publication verified from original literature
Name verified on: 06-Jul-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 30-Aug-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Corvallis (COR).
Accessions: 20 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • Chinese white pear   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – English
  • white pear   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – English
  • bai li   (Source: F ChinaEng [as P. bretschneideri]) – Transcribed Chinese
  • weiße Birne   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German

Economic importance:

Distributional range:

    China: China - Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang

    China: China [n.]


  • Bao, L. et al. 2007. Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:959–971. [not as hybrid; suggests that Chinese white pears should be included under P. pyrifolia var. sinensis (a nom. inval.)].
  • Bell, R. L. & A. Itai. 2011. Chapter 8. Pyrus. Pp. 147–177 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, temperate fruits. [lists as P. ×bretschneideri Rehder].
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. [not as hybrid].
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. [not as hybrid].
  • Fischer, M. 2009. Pear breeding. Pp. 135–160 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species. [lists as P. ×bretschneideri Rehder].
  • Fu, Y. C. et al. 1977–. Flora intramongolica. [not as hybrid].
  • Hancock, J. F. & G. A. Lobos. 2008. Pears. In: Hancock, J. F., ed., Temperate fruit crop breeding: germplasm to genomics 10:299–335.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. [not as hybrid].
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. [not as hybrid].
  • Katayama, H. et al. 2012. Phylogenetic utility of structural alterations found in the chloroplast genome of pear: hypervariable regions in a highly conserved genome. Tree Genet. Genomes 8:313–326. [accepts, but not as hybrid].
  • Kimura, T. et al. 2002. Identification of Asian pear varieties by SSR analysis. Breed. Sci. 52:115–121. [not as hybrid].
  • Krüssmann, G. 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). [not as hybrid].
  • Pan, Z. et al. 2002. Genetic diversity of cultivated resources of pear in North China. Acta Hort. 587:187–194. [not as hybrid].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Seemüller, E. et al. 2009. Pear decline resistance in progenies of Pyrus taxa used as rootstocks. Eur. J. Pl. Pathol. 123:217–223. [not as hybrid].
  • Teng, Y & K. Tanabe. 2004. Reconsideration on the origin of cultivated pears native to East Asia. Acta Hort. 634:175–182. [lists as P. ×bretschneideri Rehder].
  • Teng, Y.-W. et al. 2001. Genetic relationships of pear cultivars in Xinjiang, China, as measured by RAPD markers. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 76:771–779. [not as hybrid].
  • Teng, Y.-W. et al. 2002. Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:262–270. [lists as P. ×bretschneideri Rehder].
  • Teng, Y. 2011. The pear industry in China. Chron. Hort. 51:23–27. [lists as P. ×bretschneideri Rehder].
  • Tuz, A. S. 1972. K voprosu klassifikatsii roda Pyrus L. (Up-to-date systematics of the genus Pyrus L.). Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2):79. [accepts, but not as hybrid].
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:273. [not as hybrid].
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora. [not as hybrid].
  • Westwood, M. N. 1985. pers. comm.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [not as hybrid].
  • Zheng, X. et al. 2008. Non-concerted ITS evolution, early origin and phylogenetic utility of ITS pseudogenes in Pyrus. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 48:892–903. [not as hybrid].

Check other web resources for Pyrus ×bretschneideri Rehder:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (08 October 2015)

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