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Taxon: Pyrus betulifolia Bunge

Genus: Pyrus section: Pashia
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Maleae subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 30458
Place of publication: Enum. pl. China bor. 27. 1833 (Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 2:101. 1835) "betulaefolia"
  • spelling corrected in accordance with Melbourne ICN Art. 60.8 and Rec. 60G
  • valid publication verified from original literature
Name verified on: 18-Jul-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 21-May-2013
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Corvallis (COR).
Accessions: 65 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • birch-leaf pear   (Source: Zander ed16 ) – English
  • du li   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • birkenblättriger Flügelstorax   (Source: Zander ed16 ) – German

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide F ChinaEng)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for pear   (fide Eur J Pl Pathology 123:221. 2009)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for Asian pear   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:274. 1991)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for pear   (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 156, 157. 2009)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of Asian pear   (based on genetic affinities to Pyrus pyrifolia fide Korean J Breed Sci 41:444. 2009)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of Ussurian pear   (based on genetic affinities to Pyrus ussuriensis fide Genet Res Crop Evol 54:967, 969. 2007)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of pear   (fide Scient Hort 125:262. 2010)

Distributional range:

    China: China - Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xizang, Zhejiang
    Indo-China: Laos

  • also cultivated


  • Bao, L. et al. 2007. Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:959–971.
  • Bao, L. et al. 2008. An assessment of genetic variability and relationships within Asian pears based on AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Sci. Hort. 116:374–380. ["betulaefolia"].
  • Barbosa, W. et al. 2007. Asian pear tree breeding for subtropical areas of Brazil. Fruits 62:21–26. [as "Pyrus betulaefolia"].
  • Bell, R. L. & A. Itai. 2011. Chapter 8. Pyrus. Pp. 147–177 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, temperate fruits.
  • Challice, J. S. & M. N. Westwood. 1973. Numerical taxonomic studies of the genus Pyrus using both chemical and botanical characters. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 67:123.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2000. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 16. Auflage.
  • Fischer, M. 2009. Pear breeding. Pp. 135–160 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species.
  • Fu, Y. C. et al. 1977–. Flora intramongolica.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2. 1977–1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
  • Kang Hee, C. et al. 2009. Analysis of genetic relationship of pear (Pyrus spp.) germplasms using AFLP markers. Korean J. Breed. 41:444–450.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Seemüller, E. et al. 2009. Pear decline resistance in progenies of Pyrus taxa used as rootstocks. Eur. J. Pl. Pathol. 123:217–223.
  • Seeüller, E. et al. 1998. Pear decline resistance in Pyrus communis rootstocks and progenies of wild and ornamental Pyrus taxa. Acta Hort. 472:681–692.
  • Teng, Y.-W. et al. 2002. Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:262–270. ["betulaefolia"].
  • Teng, Y. 2011. The pear industry in China. Chron. Hort. 51:23–27.
  • Tuz, A. S. 1972. K voprosu klassifikatsii roda Pyrus L. (Up-to-date systematics of the genus Pyrus L.). Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2):76.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:274.
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Yamamoto, T. & E. Chevreau. 2009. Pear genomics. In: Folta, K. M. et al., eds., Genetics and genomics of Rosaceae 8:163–186. ["betulaefolia"].
  • Zheng, X. et al. 2008. Non-concerted ITS evolution, early origin and phylogenetic utility of ITS pseudogenes in Pyrus. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 48:892–903.
  • Zisovich, A. H. et al. 2010. Syrian pear (Pyrus syriaca) as a pollinator for European pear (Pyrus communis) cultivars. Sci. Hort. 125:256–262.

Check other web resources for Pyrus betulifolia Bunge:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Pyrus betulifolia cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (05 October 2015)

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