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Taxon: Prunus mandshurica (Maxim.) Koehne

Genus: Prunus subgenus: Prunus section: Armeniaca
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Amygdaleae
Nomen number: 30037
Place of publication: Deut. Dendrol. 317. 1893
Comment: valid publication verified from original literature
Name verified on: 03-May-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 03-May-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Davis (DAV).
Accessions: 3 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • Manchurian apricot   (Source: Mansf Ency [as Armeniaca mandshurica]) – English
  • dong bei xing   (Source: F ChinaEng [as Armeniaca mandshurica]) – Transcribed Chinese

Economic importance:

  • Gene sources: cold tolerance for apricot   (fide Pl Breed (NY) 122:465. 2003)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for apricot   (a controversial trait fide Pl Breed (NY) 122:465. 2003; Tree Genet Genomes 4:414. 2008)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for apricot   (fide Temp Fruit Cr Breed 64. 2008)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of apricot   (based on crosses with Prunus armeniaca fide Pl Breed (NY) 122:465. 2003)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of Japanese plum   (based on affinities to Prunus salicina fide J Integr Pl Biol 55:1073. 2013)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of myrobalan plum   (based on affinities to Prunus cerasifera fide J Integr Pl Biol 55:1073. 2013)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of plum   (based on affinities to hexaploid Prunus domestica fide J Integr Pl Biol 55:1073. 2013)

Distributional range:

    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye
    China: China - Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
    Eastern Asia: Korea

    Eastern Asia: Japan


  • Badenes, M. L. et al. 1996. Genetic diversity in apricot, Prunus armeniaca, aimed at improving resistance to plum pox virus. Pl. Breed. (New York) 115:133–139. [this study in discussing probable origins of resistance to the virus in apricot cited Prunus mandshurica as a potential source among North American cultivars through hybridization; however Rubio et al. (2003) did not find the used accession of this species (see Pl Breed 122:465-466) "a good progenitor in breeding apricot for PPV resistance" and questioning its contribution to resistance in general].
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of morphology in Prunus reveals extensive homoplasy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:53–71.
  • Chin, S.-W. et al. 2014. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 76:34–48. [it used USDA accession DPRU 2311].
  • Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). [= Armeniaca mandshurica].
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Folta, K. M. & S. E. Gardiner. 2009. Genomics-based opportunities in apricot. In: Folta, K. M. et al., eds., Genetics and genomics of Rosaceae 15:315–335.
  • Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Kitagawa, M. 1979. Neo-lineamenta florae Manshuricae.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Ledbetter, C. A. 2008. Chapter 2. Apricots. Pp. 39–82 in: Hancock, J. F., ed., Temperate fruit crop breeding: germplasm to genomics.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third. [= P. armeniaca var. mandshurica Maxim.].
  • Martínez-Gómez, P. et al. 2003. New approaches to Prunus tree crop breeding. J. Food Agric. Environm. 1:52–63. [this review cited Prunus mandshurica as a gene source for apricot].
  • Mehlenbacher, S. A. et al. 1991. Apricots (Prunus). Acta Hort. 290:65–110.
  • Nakai, T. 1939. Notulae ad plantas Asiae Orientalis (IX). J. Jap. Bot. 39:679. [description of Prunus mandshurica var. glabra and var. barbinervis].
  • Rehder, A. 1949. Bibliography of cultivated trees and shrubs.
  • Rubio, M. et al. 2003. Susceptibility to sharka (plum pox virus) in Prunus mandshurica × P. armeniaca seedlings. Pl. Breed. (New York) 122:465–466. [this study did not find the used accession of this species (see Pl Breed 115:133-139. 1996) "a good progenitor in breeding apricot for PPV resistance" and questioning its contribution to resistance in general].
  • Shaw, J. & R. L. Small. 2004. Addressing the "hardest puzzle in American pomology:" Phylogeny of Prunus sect. Prunocerasus (Rosaceae) based on seven noncoding chloroplast DNA regions. Amer. J. Bot. 91:985–996.
  • Shi, S. et al. 2013. Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae). J. Integr. Pl. Biol. 55:1069–1079.
  • Tai Hyun Chung. 1965. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna & flora of Korea, vol. 5, Tracheophyta.
  • Takeda, T. et al. 1998. Classification of apricot varieties by RAPD analysis. J. Jap. Soc. Hort. Sci. 67:21–27. [mentions].
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= Armeniaca manshurica (Maxim.) Skvortsov].
  • Zhebentyayeva, T. N. et al. 2008. Origin of resistance to plum pox virus in apricot: what new AFLP and targeted SSR data analyses tell. Tree Genet. Genomes 4:403–417. [this study found support for recognizing Prunus mandshurica as a source of resistance to plum pox virus].


Check other web resources for Prunus mandshurica (Maxim.) Koehne:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (27 November 2015)

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