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Taxon: Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb

Genus: Prunus subgenus: Amygdalus
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Amygdaleae
Nomen number: 29890
Place of publication: Feddes Repert. 74:24. 1967
Name verified on: 12-Apr-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 23-May-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Davis (DAV).
Accessions: 206 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • almond   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • bitter almond   (Source: Cornucopia [as Amygdalus communis ‘Amara’]) – English
  • sweet almond   (Source: HerbSpices [as P. dulcis var. dulcis]) – English
  • bian tao   (Source: F ChinaEng [as Amygdalus communis]) – Transcribed Chinese
  • amandier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • amandier commun   (Source: L Noms French ed6 ) – French
  • Bittermandelbaum   (Source: Zander ed14 [as P. dulcis var. amara]) – German
  • Knackmandel   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German
  • Mandel   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – German
  • Mandelbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • mandorio   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Italian
  • āmondo   (Source: Edible Nuts ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • amendoeira   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • amêndoa-amarga   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • amêndoa-doce   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • almendro   (Source: F Int Apico ) – Spanish
  • bittermandel   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish
  • mandel   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

    Western Asia: Israel; Jordan [w.]; Lebanon; Turkey [s.]
    Middle Asia: Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan

    Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran
    Caucasus: Armenia
    Middle Europe: Switzerland
    Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Croatia; Italy [incl. Sicily]; Macedonia; Serbia
    Southwestern Europe: France - Corsica; Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]

  • cultivated mainly in Mediterranean region, temperate Asia, N. & S. America, South Africa, & Australia


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya. [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Aradhya, M. K. et al. 2004. Molecular characterization of variability and relationships among seven cultivated and selected wild species of Prunus L. using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Sci. Hort. 103:131–144.
  • Badenes, M. L. & D. E. Parfitt. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of cultivated Prunus species from analysis of chloroplast DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90:1035–1041.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2001. Phylogeny and systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as determined by sequence analysis of ITS and the chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer DNA. Syst. Bot. 26:797–807.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of morphology in Prunus reveals extensive homoplasy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:53–71.
  • Browicz, K. & D. Zohary. 1996. The genus Amygdalus L. (Rosaceae): species relationships, distribution and evolution under domestication. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:233. [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Chin, S.-W. et al. 2014. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 76:34–48. [= Prunus amygdalus].
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. 1986–1987. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols. [= P. dulcis var. dulcis].
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Demilly, D. et al. 1996. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 6.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Duke, J. A. 1989. Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage. [= P. dulcis var. amara].
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Gradziel, T. M. & P. Martínez-Gómez. 2013. Chapter 4. Almond breeding. Pl. Breed. Rev. 37:207–255.
  • Gradziel, T. M. 2009. Almond (Prunus dulcis) breeding. Pp. 1–31 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species. [hybrids with Prunus persica used as graft stock].
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Kester, D. E. et al. 1991. Almonds (Prunus). Acta Hort. 290:701–760. [as Prunus communis].
  • Krüssmann, G. 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976).
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Martínez-Gómez, P. et al. 2003. New approaches to Prunus tree crop breeding. J. Food Agric. Environm. 1:52–63. [mentions interspecific crosses between Prunus dulcis and P. persica for almond graft stock breeding].
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Meikle, R. D. 1977–1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  • Mowrey, B. D. & D. J. Werner. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Prunus as inferred by isozyme markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 80:129–133.
  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. 1987. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Rosengarten, F. 1984. The book of edible nuts.
  • Sorkheh, K. et al. 2009. Phenotypic diversity within native Iranian almond (Prunus spp.) species and their breeding potential. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 56:947–961. [this study evaluated nine samples of this species recognized as Prunus communis].
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq. [= P. amygdalus (L.) Batsch].
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= Amygdalus communis L.].
  • Yazbek, M. & S.-H. Oh. 2013. Peaches and almonds: phylogeny of Prunus subg. Amygdalus (Rosaceae) based on DNA sequences and morphology. Pl. Syst. Evol. 299:1403–1418.
  • Zeinalabedini, M. et al. 2010. The origin and dissemination of the cultivated almond as determined by nuclear and chloroplast SSR marker analysis. Sci. Hort. 120:593–601.


Check other web resources for Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb:

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (29 August 2015)

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