USDA ARS United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

  GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
Jump to common names  Jump to economic impacts  Jump to distribution  Jump to references  Jump to synonyms  Jump to links to other online resources  Jump to images

***Please tell us why you value GRIN Taxonomy***

Taxon: Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

Genus: Poncirus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 29344
Place of publication: Sylva tellur. 143. 1838
Name verified on: 15-May-2008 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 15-May-2008
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 81 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • hardy-orange   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – English
  • Japanese bitter-orange   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • trifoliate-orange   (Source: Bot Citrus 368. 1943) – English
  • zhi   (Source: F ChinaEng [as Citrus trifoliata]) – Transcribed Chinese
  • oranger trifoliolé   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • poncirus   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • dreiblättrige Bitterorange   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • taengjanamu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:119) – Transcribed Korean
  • limoeiro-trifoliado   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • naranjo trébol   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • citrontörne   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Bot Citrus)
  • Gene sources: cold tolerance for citrus   (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for citrus   (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: dwarfing for citrus   (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: graft stock for kumquats   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:171. 1991)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (based on crosses with several species of Citrus fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 117. 2009)
  • Gene sources: poor-soil tolerance for citrus   (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of citrus crops   (based on crossing barriers with Citrus fide Wild Crop Rel Trp Fr 3:46. 2011)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals   (fide Lampe & McCann)

Distributional range:

    China: China - Anhui, Gansu [s.], Guangdong [n.], Guangxi [n.], Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi [n.w.], Shaanxi [s.], Shandong, Shanxi [s.], Zhejiang

  • widely cultivated in temperate regions


  • Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509–512. [this study tested Poncirus trifoliata for flood and drought tolerance; it found it to be drought tolerant].
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Cantuarias-Avolés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks. Sci. Hort. 123:318–322.
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1998. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. [= Citrus trifoliata L.].
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain. 1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. [re. French common names].
  • Dambier, D. et al. 2011. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry. Pl. Cell Rep. 30:883–900. [as a source of novel tetraploid hybrids with Citrus resistant to citrus Tristeza virus].
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants.
  • Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea.
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61. [this study examined the origin and maternal phylogeny of cultivated citrus; it included two samples of Poncirus trifoliata; these samples clustered together and apart from other mitotypes of Citrus - Fortunella].
  • Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2009. Citrus breeding. Pp. 105–134 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2. 1977–1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:119.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University. 1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574.
  • Rao, N. M. et al. 2011. Chapter 3. Citrus. Pp. 46, 49 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, tropical and subtropical fruits. [as a "sexually incompatible genus"].
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Spiegel-Roy, P. & E. E. Goldschmidt. 1996. Biology of Citrus. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Steward, A. N. 1958. Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze valley.
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:171.
  • Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= Citrus trifoliata L.].


Check other web resources for Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.:

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

| USDA | ARS | GRIN | NPGS | New Search |

Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (26 November 2015)

Please send us your comments

Close Window

Ctrl P to print