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Taxon: Pinus brutia Ten.

Genus: Pinus subgenus: Pinus section: Pinus subsection: Pinaster
Family: Pinaceae
Nomen number: 28422
Place of publication: Fl. napol. 1:lxxii. 1811-1815
Name verified on: 25-May-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 30-Sep-2008
Species priority site is: National Arboretum (NA).


See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

  • Black Sea pine   (Source: Phytol Mem ) – English   [Pinus brutia var. pityusa]
  • Calabrian pine   (Source: Dict Gard ) – English
  • Eilar pine   (Source: Phytol Mem ) – English   [Pinus brutia var. eldarica]
  • Turkish pine   (Source: Dict Gard ) – English
  • türkische Kiefer   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – German

Economic importance:

Distributional range:

    Western Asia: Cyprus; Iraq; Lebanon; Syria [w.]; Turkey
    Caucasus: Georgia
    East Europe: Ukraine - Krym
    Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria [s.]; Greece [incl. Crete & Aegean Islands]; Italy - Calabria [extirpated?]

  • also cultivated


  • Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature. [= P. halepensis var. brutia (Ten.) A. Henry].
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage.
  • Farjon, A. 1984. Pines, drawings and descriptions of the genus Pinus.
  • Farjon, A. 1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers.
  • Farjon, A. 2001. World checklist and bibliography of conifers, ed. 2.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Gallis, A. T. & C. P. Panetsos. 1997. Use of cortical terpenes to discriminate Pinus brutia (Ten.), Pinus halepensis (Mill.) and their hybrids. Silvae Genet. 46:82–88. [occurrence of various chemotypes within parental species and hybrids in different rates has the result to separate the taxa and distinguish the hybrids].
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984–. Med-Checklist.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen. 1972–. Atlas florae europaeae.
  • Kaundun, S. S. et al. 1997. Genetic differences between Pinus halepensis, Pinus brutia and Pinus eldarica based on needle flavonoids. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 25:553–562. [needle flavonoids showed that P. halepensis and P. brutia are 2 distinct species].
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Krüssmann, G. 1985. Manual of cultivated conifers (English translation of Die Nadelgeholze, ed. 2. 1983).
  • Meikle, R. D. 1977–1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  • Panetsos, C. P. 1975. Natural hybridization between Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia in Greece. Silvae Genet. 24:163–168.
  • Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d'Italia.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Silba, J. 1986. Encyclopaedia Coniferae. Phytologia Mem. 8:133.
  • Strid, A. & K. Tan, eds. 1997–. Flora hellenica. [= P. halepensis subsp. brutia (Ten.) Holmboe].
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1993. Flora europaea, second edition. [= P. halepensis subsp. brutia (Ten.) Holmboe].
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora. [= P. halepensis var. brutia].


Check other web resources for Pinus brutia Ten.:

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Gymnosperm Database of Christopher J. Earle
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Pinus brutia cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (27 November 2015)

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