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Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

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Taxon: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

Genus: Phragmites
Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Arundinoideae tribe: Arundineae.
Nomen number: 28091
Place of publication: Nomencl. bot. ed. 2, 1:143. 1840; 2:324. 1841
Name verified on: 18-Aug-2006 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9).
Accessions: 7 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AL*, CT*, ID*, MA*, MIª, NCª, NE(as P. australis var. australis)*°, NHª, NH(as Phragmites communis)ª, OR*, PRª, SCª, VTª, WAª*.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.
Link to species profile at National Invasive Species Information Center

See also subordinate taxa:


Common names:


Economic importance:

More:

Distributional range:

      Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon [n.]
    West Tropical Africa: Gambia; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal
    South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; Namibia; South Africa - Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal; Swaziland
    Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain; Kuwait; Yemen
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Checheno-Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar, North Ossetia, Stavropol
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia [s.]
  • EUROPE
    Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part, Rostov, Volgograd; Ukraine [incl. Krym]
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France [incl. Corsica]; Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]
  • NORTHERN AMERICA (Check conservation status in U.S. & Canada in NatureServe Explorer database)
    Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory [s.w.]
    Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas [n.], Delaware, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Bahamas; Dominican Republic; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Puerto Rico; St. Lucia
    Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
      Other:
  • exact native range obscure

References:

  • Plants of southern Africa: an online checklist.
  • Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica.
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya.
  • Arechavaleta, M. et al., eds. 2005. Lista preliminar de especies silvestres de Cabo Verde: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.
  • Boulos, L. & M. N. El-Hadidi. 1984. The weeds of Egypt.
  • Boulos, L. 1995. Flora of Egypt checklist.
  • Boulos, L. 1999–. Flora of Egypt.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama archipelago.
  • Davidse, G. et al., eds. 1994. Flora mesoamericana.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Englert, J. M. et al. 1999–. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960–. Flora zambesiaca.
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Fedorov, A. A., ed. 1999–. Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Engl. transl.).
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • George, A. S., ed. 1980–. Flora of Australia.
  • Gibbs-Russell, G. E. et al. 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa vol. 58.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49:139–247.
  • Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. 1986–. Flora of the Guianas.
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  • Herrera-Arrieta, Y. 2001. Las Gramíneus de Durango.
  • Howard, R. 1974–1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75.
  • Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  • Kharkevich, S. S., ed. 1985. Vascular plants of the Russian Far East.
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000–. Flora of Siberia (English translation).
  • Liogier, H. A. & L. F. Martorell. 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, ed. 2.
  • Mal, T. K. & L. Narine. 2004. The biology of Canadian weeds. 129. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 84:365–396.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Meikle, R. D. 1977–1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:117.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Norton, J. et al. 2009. Illustrated checklist of the flora of Qatar.
  • Ostendorp, W. 1996. Estimation of mechanical resistance of lakeside Phragmites stands. Aquatic Bot. 51:87–101.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Renvoize, S. A. 1998. Gramineas de Bolivia.
  • Saltonstall, K. et al. 2004. Recognition of Phragmites australis subsp. americanus (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) in North America: evidence from morphological and genetic analyses. Sida 21:683–692.
  • Saltonstall, K. 2011. Remnant native Phragmites australis maintains genetic diversity despite multiple threats. Conservation Genet. 12:1027–1033.
  • Sell, P. & G. Murrell. 1996–. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Steyermark, J. A. et al., eds. 1995–. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq.
  • Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR.
  • USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource).
  • Ugarte, E. et al. 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile. Check List 7:365–380.
  • Valdés, B. et al., eds. 2002. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification.
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the flora of Yemen.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1966–. Flora palaestina.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74., 1999
  • Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:537.
  • Webster's third new international dictionary.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.:


Images:

More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?28091 (24 July 2014)

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