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Taxon: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.

Genus: Pennisetum
Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Paniceae.
Nomen number: 27208
Place of publication: Beskr. Guin. pl. 44. 1827
Comment: authorship verified from original literature, where the name and diagnosis together (Melbourne ICN Art. 46, Ex. 9, 12, & 22) and the description are all ascribed to Schumacher
Name verified on: 17-Jan-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 21-May-2013
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9).
Accessions: 52 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
PR*.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

Common names:

  • barner grass   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • elephant grass   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • Merker grass   (Source: Websters Dict ) – English
  • Napier grass   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • olifantsgras   (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001 ) – Afrikaans
  • napier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • Elefantengras   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • capim-elefante   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • capim-napiê   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • capim-napier-elefante   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • hierba elefante   (Source: Grass Cuba II) – Spanish
  • pasto elefante   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control   (fide Grass US)
  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide F NAmer)
  • Animal food: fodder   (fide Pl Res SEAs 4:191. 1992)
  • Animal food: forage   (fide Pl Res SEAs 4:191. 1992)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of pearl millet   (fide Rao & de Wet 1999)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Weed CIBA; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional range:

      Native:
  • AFRICA
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia [s.]
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon
    West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Togo
    South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Morocco
    Southern Africa: South Africa; Swaziland
    Western Indian Ocean: Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Cyprus
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India
    Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia - New South Wales [e.], Northern Territory [n.], Queensland [e.], Western Australia [s.w.]
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida
    South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas [s.]
    Northern Mexico: Mexico - Nuevo Leon
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Micronesia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau
    South-Central Pacific: Cook Islands; French Polynesia
    Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia; Niue; Solomon Islands; Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda; Cuba; Grenada; Jamaica; Puerto Rico; St. Lucia
    Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    Brazil: Brazil
    Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador - Galapagos Islands; Peru
    Southern South America: Argentina; Paraguay; Uruguay

      Adventive:
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Western Asia: Israel

      Cultivated:
  • AFRICA
    Africa

References:

  • 't Mannetje, L. & R. M. Jones, eds. 1992. Forages. 4:191 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 4:191.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. Flora of the West Indies (on-line resource). [= Cenchrus purpureus].
  • Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica.
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Burkill, H. M. 1985–2004. The useful plants of west tropical Africa.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Catasús Guerra, L. J. 2002. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, II. Cavanillesia Altera 3:1–163.
  • Chemisquy, M. A. et al. 2010. Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum (Poaceae): a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106:129. [= Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone].
  • Davidse, G. et al., eds. 1994. Flora mesoamericana.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960–. Flora zambesiaca.
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  • Funk, V. et al. 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55:1-584.
  • George, A. S., ed. 1980–. Flora of Australia.
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.
  • Gibbs-Russell, G. E. et al. 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa vol. 58.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49:139–247. [= Cenchrus purpureus].
  • Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. 1986–. Flora of the Guianas.
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. 1984–. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000)
  • Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Hokche, O. et al. 2008. Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezola.
  • Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds.
  • Howard, R. 1974–1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. [= Cenchrus purpureus].
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  • Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper. 1953–1972. Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2.
  • Lazarides, M. 1980. The tropical grasses of Southeast Asia.
  • Liogier, H. A. & L. F. Martorell. 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, ed. 2.
  • Lowe, A. J. et al. 2003. Characterisation of germplasm accessions of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum and P. purpureum × P. glaucum Hybrids) and comparison with farm clones using RAPD. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 50:121–132.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Mejía-Saulés, M. T. & P. Dávila A. 1992. Gramíneas Útiles de México. Cuad. Inst. Biol. 16.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Randall, R. P. 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status.
  • Rao, S. A. & J. M. J. de Wet. 1999. Chapter 2. Taxonomy and evolution. 31–47 In: Khairwal, I. S. et al., eds., Pearl millet breeding. 31–47.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Shukla, U. 1996. Grasses of north-eastern India.
  • Sreekumar, P. V. & V. J. Nair. 1991. Flora of Kerala - grasses.
  • Tovar, Ó. 1993. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) del Perú. Ruizia 13:408.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource).
  • Villaseñor, J. L. & F. J. Espinoza-Garcia. 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity & Distrib. 10:113–123.
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Westphal, E. & P. C. M. Jansen, eds. 1989. A selection. A:220 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). A:220.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Zon, A. P. M. van der. 1992. Graminées du Cameroun.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 1994. Catalogo de la familia Poaceae en la Republica Argentina. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 47.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:533.
  • Webster's third new international dictionary.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.:


Images:

More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?27208 (19 September 2014)

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