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  GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
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Taxon: Malus pumila Mill.

Genus: Malus section: Malus
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Maleae subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 23261
Place of publication: Gard. dict. ed. 8: Malus no. 3. 1768
Comment: non Malus pumila auct. (= M. domestica Borkh.)
Name verified on: 12-Oct-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 27-Aug-2008
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Geneva (GEN).
Accessions: 15 in National Plant Germplasm System.

Common names:

  • paradise apple   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • pommier paradis   (Source: M. Chauvet, p.c.) – French
  • Paradies-Apfel   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – German

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Dict Gard)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for apple   (fide Pl Breed (NY) 124:197. 2005)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of apple   (fide Pl Breed (NY) 113:156. 1994; J. Sauer, Historical geography of crop plants 110. 1993)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional range:

    Middle Europe: Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovakia
    East Europe: Russian Federation - European part [s.]
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Macedonia; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia

  • also cultivated


  • Applequist, W. L. 2014. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 66. Taxon 63:1359. [proposal not recommended].
  • Bell, R. L. & J. M. Leitão. 2011. Chapter 1. Cydonia. P. 7 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, temperate fruits. [cites Malus pumila as a progenitor of "× Cydomalus" (= × Cydolus), a hybrid derived from crosses with Cydonia oblonga using embryo rescue].
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Chauvet, M. 2008. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Duneman, F. et al. 1994. Genetic relationships in Malus evaluated by RAPD 'fingerprinting' of cultivars and wild species. Pl. Breed. (New York) 113:150–159. [this study used two samples of Malus pumila; it found support for considering this species one of the ancestors of domesticated apple].
  • Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Forte, A. V. et al. 2002. Phylogeny of the Malus (apple tree) species, inferred from the morphological traits and molecular DNA analysis. Russian J. Genet. 38:1357–1369. [as Malus niedwetzkyana Dieck].
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  • Krüssmann, G. 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976).
  • Mabberley, D. J. et al. 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9:421–430. [accepts as name of domesticated apple].
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Oraguzie, N. C. et al. 2005. DNA fingerprinting of apple (Malus spp.) rootstocks using simple sequence repeats. Pl. Breed. (New York) 124:197–202.
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1975. What is Malus pumila Mill.? Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 60:1574–86. [M. pumila doesn't conform to wild type].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Qian, G.-Z. et al. 2010. (1933) Proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica against M. pumila, M. communis, M. frutescens, and Pyrus dioica (Rosaceae). Taxon 59:650–652.
  • Sauer, J. D. 1993. Historical geography of crop plants. 110.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [accepts as name of domesticated apple].


Check other web resources for Malus pumila Mill.:

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Malus pumila cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (07 October 2015)

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