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  GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
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Taxon: Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.

Genus: Malus section: Gymnomeles
Family: Rosaceae subfamily: Amygdaloideae tribe: Maleae subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 23219
Place of publication: Theor. prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2:1280. 1803
Name verified on: 16-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 16-Jun-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Geneva (GEN).
Accessions: 67 in National Plant Germplasm System.

See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

  • Chinese crab apple   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • Siberian crab   (Source: BSBI ) – English
  • Siberian crab apple   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • jin xian shan jing zi   (Source: F ChinaEng [as M. jinxianensis]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Malus baccata var. jinxianensis]
  • li jiang shan jing zi   (Source: F ChinaEng [as M. rockii]) – Transcribed Chinese   [Malus baccata var. himalaica]
  • shan jing zi   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • shan jing zi   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • pommier à baies   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • pommier à petits fruits   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – French   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • Beerenapfelbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • Beerenapfelstrauch   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • Osagedorn   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • yagwangnamu   (Source: Gen Res Cr Ev 44:365) – Transcribed Korean
  • jablonja jagodnaja   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian
  • jablonja sibirskaja   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Russian
  • manzano   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish   [Malus baccata var. baccata]
  • bärapel   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental   (for M. pumila & M. asiatica fide F ChinaEng)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for apple   (source of resistance to apple scab fide Euphytica 118:282. 2001)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for apple   (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 39. 2009)
  • Gene sources: potential for cold tolerance in apple   (F1 hybrids derived of crosses with Malus domestica fide Euphytica 14:179. 1965)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of apple   (based on crosses with Malus domestica fide Euphytica 14:179. 1965)

Distributional range:

    Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia [s.]
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye
    China: China - Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Xizang [s.e.]
    Eastern Asia: Korea
    Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India [n.]; Nepal

  • also cultivated


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource).
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Cornille, A. et al. 2012. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: Secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties. PLoS Genet. 8(5): e1002703. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002703.
  • Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
  • Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage.
  • Hancock, J. F. et al. 2008. Chapter 1. Apples. Pp. 1–37 in: Hancock, J. F., ed., Temperate fruit crop breeding: germplasm to genomics.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Hara, H. et al. 1978–1982. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal.
  • Hoang, H.-D. et al. 1997. Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexes. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:365.
  • Hokanson, S. C. et al. 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118:281–294. [evaluated seven USDA accessions (PI 322713, 588960, 437055, 286599, 594110, 589833, 589838)].
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Krüssmann, G. 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976).
  • Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):27.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:107.
  • Oraguzie, N. C. et al. 2005. DNA fingerprinting of apple (Malus spp.) rootstocks using simple sequence repeats. Pl. Breed. (New York) 124:197–202.
  • Pemberton, R. W. & N. S. Lee. 1996. Wild food plants in South Korea; market presence, new crops, and exports to the United States. Econ. Bot. 50:60.
  • Pereira-Lorenzo, S. et al. 2009. Breeding apple (Malus × domestica). Pp. 33–81 in: Jain, S. M. & P.M. Priyadarshan, eds., Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species.
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1978. On the systematics of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 62(3):24–35.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Velasco, R. et al. 2010. The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Nat. Genet. 42:833–841. [this study included Malus baccata].
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characterists and utilisation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:603.
  • Zhukovsky, P. M. 1965. Main gene centres of cultivated plants and their wild relatives within the territory of thw U.S.S.R. Euphytica 14:177–188. [this review cited Malus baccata as part of the East-Asiatic center, and it commented on crosses with M. domestica to transfer winter hardiness].


Check other web resources for Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Malus baccata cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (26 November 2015)

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