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Taxon: Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd.

Genus: Aleurites
Family: Euphorbiaceae subfamily: Crotonoideae tribe: Aleuritideae subtribe: Aleuritinae
Nomen number: 2191
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 4(1):590. 1805 "moluccana"
Comment: a masculine genus according to Melbourne ICN Art. 62.4
Name verified on: 28-Jan-2002 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 21-Jan-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA).
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • candleberry   (Source: Websters Dict ) – English
  • candlenut   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • candlenut-tree   (Source: F TE Afr ) – English
  • Indian-walnut   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English
  • lumbangtree   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English
  • varnishtree   (Source: CRC MedHerbs ) – English
  • noyer de bancoul   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • noyer des Moluques   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • Lichtnußbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • kukui   (Source: web document) – Hawaiian
  • noz-da-Índia   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • nogueira-brasileira   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • nogueira-da-Índia   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • nogueira-de-iguape   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • calumbán   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • camirio   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • lumbán   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • mkaa   (Source: PROTA4U [as A. "moluccana"]) – Swahili

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Taiwan
    Indian Subcontinent: India - Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Sri Lanka
    Indo-China: Cambodia; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
    Australia: Australia - Queensland [n.]

  • widely naturalized in tropics

  • widely cultivated in tropics

  • exact native range obscure


  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource). ["moluccana"].
  • Airy Shaw, H. K. 1975. The Euphorbiaceae of Borneo. Kew Bull. add. ser., 4:29. ["moluccana"].
  • Airy Shaw, H. K. 1980. The Euphorbiaceae of New Guinea. Kew Bull. add. ser., 35:596. ["moluccana"].
  • Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1967–. Flore de la Nouvelle Caledonie et dependances. ["moluccana"].
  • Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. 1963–1968. Flora of Java. ["moluccana"].
  • Balakrishnan, N. P. & T. Chakrabarty. 2007. The family Euphorbiaceae in India; a synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography.
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976–. Flores des Mascareignes. ["moluccana"].
  • Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature. ["moluccana"].
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. ["moluccana"].
  • Duke, J. A. 1985. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource).
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. ["moluccana"].
  • Govaerts, R. et al. 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae. ["moluccana"].
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. [poisonous].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. ["moluccana"].
  • Robertson, S. A. 1989. Flowering plants of Seychelles. ["moluccana"].
  • Schultes, R. E. 1987. Members of Euphorbiaceae in primitive and advanced societies. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 94:80. ["moluccana"].
  • Smith, A. C. 1979–1991. Flora vitiensis nova. ["moluccana"].
  • Smith, R. J. Botanical beads of the world (on-line resource).
  • Stuppy, W. et al. 1999. Revision of the genera Aleurites, Reutealis and Vernicia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44:80. ["moluccana"].
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa. ["moluccana"].
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:371.
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora. ["moluccana"].
  • Webster's third new international dictionary.


Check other web resources for Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd.:

  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (13 October 2015)

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