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Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

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Taxon: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

Genus: Imperata
Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Andropogoneae.
Nomen number: 19864
Place of publication: Ess. Agrostogr. 8, 165, 177, t. 5, fig. 1. 1812 (E. A. Raeuschel, Nomencl. bot. 10. 1797, nom. nud.)
Comments:
  • Raeuschel gives no evidence his I. cylindrica, nom. nud. is based on Lagurus cylindricus L.
  • his adoption of Imperata whose only prior species included L. cylindricus in synonymy isn't enough (Melbourne ICN Art. 41.4)
Name verified on: 15-Jul-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 06-Sep-2013
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9).

NO ACCESSIONS IN NPGS UNDER THIS NAME.

SPECIES RESTRICTED AS A FEDERAL AND STATE NOXIOUS WEED
A declared noxious weed by USDA-APHIS.
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AL*, AR*, FL*, HI*°, MS*, NC*, PR*, TN*.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.
Link to species profile at National Invasive Species Information Center

Common names:

  • alang-alang   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – English
  • blady grass   (Source: Genet Res Comm 21:2.) – English
  • cogon   (Source: Websters Dict ) – English
  • cogongrass   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • cotton-wool grass   (Source: Grass SAfr ) – English
  • imperata   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – English
  • Japanese blood grass   (Source: Dict Gard ) – English
  • kunai grass   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • kura-kura   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • halfa   (Source: F Egypt ) – Arabic
  • shishmallah   (Source: Weeds Saudi Arabia ) – Arabic
  • bai mao   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • impérate   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • chi-gaya   (Source: Grass Japan ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • fushige-chi-gaya   (Source: Dict Gard ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • lalang   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Malay
  • caminhadora   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • sapé   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • bomullsgräs   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control   (fide Pl Res SEAs 4:140-142. 1992)
  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Dict Gard)
  • Animal food: potential as forage   (fide Pl Res SEAs 4:140-142. 1992)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of sugarcane   (fide Bot Gaz 118:154-155. 1957, citing a 1938 cross that resulted in a 2n+n hybrid)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Pl Res SEAs 12(1):310. 1999; Herbs Commerce ed2, as I. cylindrica var. major)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Weed CIBA; Invasive Pl Spec)
More:

Distributional range:

      Native:
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
    East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Gabon; Rwanda; Zaire
    West Tropical Africa: Benin; Burkina Faso; Cote D'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mali; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
    South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; Namibia; South Africa - Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal; Swaziland
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Arabian Peninsula: Oman; Saudi Arabia; Yemen
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan
    Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    China: China
    Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku; Korea
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
    Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia [n.e.]
  • EUROPE
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France [s. & Corsica]; Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
  • AFRICA
    Macaronesia: Cape Verde
    Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar; Seychelles
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indo-China: Thailand
    Malesia: Papua New Guinea
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Australia: Australia - Lord Howe Island
    New Zealand: New Zealand
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    United States
  • PACIFIC
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Micronesia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau
    Southwestern Pacific: American Samoa; Vanuatu
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Caribbean: West Indies
    Mesoamerica: Central America
    Western South America: Colombia
    Southern South America: Chile
    South America

      Cultivated:
  • also cultivated

References:

  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • 't Mannetje, L. & R. M. Jones, eds. 1992. Forages. 4:140–142 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 4:140–142. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Abbiw, D. K. 1990. Useful plants of Ghana.
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Boulos, L. 1999–. Flora of Egypt.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988)
  • Cameron, A. G. et al. 1995. Performance of forages introduced into Kalimantan, Indonesia, by the South-East Asian Forage Seeds Project. Genet. Res. Commun. 21:2.
  • Chaudhary, S. A. 1987. Weeds of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. Australian plant census (APC) (on-line resource).
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960–. Flora zambesiaca. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • George, A. S., ed. 1980–. Flora of Australia.
  • Ghazanfar, S. A. 1992. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2.
  • Gibbs-Russell, G. E. et al. 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa vol. 58. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. 1984–. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000) [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds.
  • Holttum, R. E. et al. 1953–1971. A revised flora of Malaya. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.
  • Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper. 1953–1972. Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Koyama, T. 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Lazarides, M. 1980. The tropical grasses of Southeast Asia. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Mouterde, P. 1966–. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Padua, L. S. de et al., eds. 1999. Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. 12(1):310 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 12(1):310.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Price, S. 1957. Cytological studies in Saccharum and allied genera. III. Chromosome numbers in interspecific hybrids. Bot. Gaz. 118:146–159.
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. 1999. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act.
  • Shukla, U. 1996. Grasses of north-eastern India. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Soerjani, M. et al., eds. 1987. Weeds of rice in Indonesia. 434.
  • Sreekumar, P. V. & V. J. Nair. 1991. Flora of Kerala - grasses. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.].
  • USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource).
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the flora of Yemen. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Zon, A. P. M. van der. 1992. Graminées du Cameroun. [lists as I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.].
  • Webster's third new international dictionary.
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.:


Images:

More:
  • Check PlantSystematics.org for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?19864 (24 July 2014)

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