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Taxon: Cynara cardunculus L.

Genus: Cynara
Family: Asteraceae (alt. Compositae) subfamily: Carduoideae tribe: Cardueae subtribe: Carduinae
Nomen number: 12839
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:827. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Comment: cultivated forms include C. cardunculus Cardoon and Scolymus Groups
Name verified on: 05-Jan-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Northeast Regional PI Station (NE9).
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.

See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

  • artichoke   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • artichoke thistle   (Source: Noxweed Aust ) – English
  • cardoon   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • globe artichoke   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • Scotch thistle   (Source: Noxweed Aust [but this adjective is best avoided, may cause offence in Scotland]) – English
  • Scottish thistle   (Source: Noxweed Aust ) – English
  • Spanish artichoke   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • artichaut commun   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. scolymus]) – French
  • cardon d'Espagne   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • Artischocke   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. scolymus]) – German
  • Gemüseartischocke   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • Kardone   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • carciofo   (Source: Mult Glossary Crops ) – Italian
  • alcachofra   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. scolymus]) – Portuguese
  • cardo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • alcachofa   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. scolymus]) – Spanish
  • alcaucil   (Source: Dict Rehm [as C. scolymus]) – Spanish
  • cardo   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • cardo de comer   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • kardon   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

    Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    Northern Africa: Algeria [n.]; Libya [n.w.]; Morocco [n.]; Tunisia
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Croatia; Greece; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]
    Southwestern Europe: France [s. & Corsica]; Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    Western Asia: Cyprus; Turkey
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
    Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California
    Southern Mexico: Mexico - Guanajuato, Michoacan, Queretaro
    Western South America: Ecuador
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

    Western South America: Peru
  • widely cultivated


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961–. Flora of New Zealand.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto. Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23, 1988)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Gominho, J. et al. 2001. Cynara cardunculus L. - a new fibre crop for pulp and paper production. Industr. Crops Prod. 13:1–10.
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  • Hu, S.-Y. 1970. Compositae of China. 340.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.
  • Jessop, J. P. & H. R. Toelken, eds. 1986. Flora of South Australia, ed. 4.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Lanteri, S. & E. Portis. 2008. Globe artichoke and cardoon. In: Prohens, J. & F. Nuez, eds., Handbook of Plant Breeding. Vegetables I 1:49–74. [this review used the names "Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus" to refer to artichoke, and "var. altilis" for cardoon; the latter a name of unresolved nomenclatural status].
  • Lanteri, S. et al. 2011. Morphology and SSR fingerprinting of newly developed Cynara cardunculus genotypes exploitable as ornamentals. Euphytica DOI: 10.1007/s10681–011–0509–8.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Meikle, R. D. 1977–1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora.
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia.
  • Pignone, D. & G. Sonnante. 2004. Wild artichokes of south Italy: did the story begin here? Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 51:577–580.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. [= C. scolymus].
  • Robba, L. et al. 2005. The monophyly and evolution of Cynara L. (Asteraceae) sensu lato: evidence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer region of nrDNA. Pl. Syst. Evol. 253:53–64.
  • Rottenberg, A. & D. Zohary. 1996. The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:53–58.
  • Rottenberg, A. et al. 1996. Isozyme relationships between cultivated artichoke and the wild relatives. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:59–62.
  • Rzedowski, J. & G. Rzedowski, eds. 1991–. Flora del Bajio y de regiones adyacentes.
  • Sonnante, G. et al. 2007. On the origin of artichoke and cardoon from the Cynara gene pool as revealed by rDNA sequence variation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:483–495.
  • Sonnante, G. et al. 2007. The domestication of artichoke and cardoon: from Roman times to the genomic age. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 100:1095–1100.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1976. Flora europaea. 4:248.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource).
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wiklund, A. 1992. The genus Cynara L. (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 109:113.
  • Willis, J. H. 1970–1972. A handbook to plants in Victoria.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74., 1999


Check other web resources for Cynara cardunculus L.:


  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (26 November 2015)

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