Taxon: Citrus unshiu Marcow.
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10793
Place of publication: Izv. Sochin. Obl. Sukhum. Sadov. Sel. Opyt. Stantsii 2(2):5. 1921
Comment: or C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’
Name verified on: 12-Jan-1989 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 04-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
47 in National Plant Germplasm System.
database of Botanic Gardens
Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.
- Satsuma mandarin (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – English
- Satsuma orange (Source: T. Tanaka) – English
- mandarinier satsuma (Source: Les Agrumes
) – French
- Satsuma (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
- unshū-mikan (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Japanese Rōmaji
- gyulnamu (Source: F Korea
) – Transcribed Korean
- Human food: fruit (fide L Edible Pl; Food Feed Crops US; also with seedless cultivars fide J Amer Soc Hort Sci 132:777. 2007)
- Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus (fide Pak J Biol Sci 5:509. 2002)
- Gene sources: progenitor of mandarin cultivars (citrus) (fide HortScience 45:977, 978. 2010)
- widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics
- Bhusal, R. C. et al.
2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci.
5:509–512. [this study tested a complex hybrid (Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) × C. reticulata that showed drought tolerance].
- Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al.
2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks. Sci. Hort.
123:318–322. [source of 'Okitsu Satsuma mandarin'].
- Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece.
1969. Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae).
[lists as C. unshiu (Makino) Marcow.].
- Chinese Academy of Sciences.
1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
[= C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’].
- Choi, S.-Y. et al.
2007. Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various Citrus fruits. Biol. Pharm. Bull.
30:772–778. [comments on traditional medicinal uses of dried peels called "chinpi"].
- Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee.
1997. pers. comm.
[re. common names].
- Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain.
1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats.
[re. French common names].
- Cuenca, J. et al.
2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid. HortScience
45:977–980. [this study reported a complex hybrid as a result of a cross between (Citrus clementina × C. tangerina) × (C. unshiu ×: C. nobilis)].
- Federici, C. T. et al.
1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
- Forest Experimental Station, Korea.
1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea.
- Froelicher, Y. et al.
2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes
7:49–61. [this study examined the origin of cultivated citrus; it included six samples of Citrus unshiu; these samples clustered in the 'Mandarin mitotype' one of the seven recognized].
- Grosser, J. W. et al.
2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an efefctive tool to facilitate variety improvement. In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant
36:434–449. [this review cites complex hybrids involving Citrus unshiu for both graft stock improvement and expanding germplasm (with the genus Aegle)].
- Hackett, C. & J. Carolane.
1982. Edible Horticultural Crops.
- Hanelt, P., ed.
2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
- Honsho, C. et al.
2009. Reproductive characteristics for self-incompatibility and seedlesness in 'Nishiushi Kontasu', a bud mutation of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka). HortScience
44:1547–1551. [this study mentioned Citrus unshiu as a parental species of mandarin cultivars (page 1547)].
- Hu, Z. et al.
2007. Abnormal microspore development leads to pollen abortion in a seedless mutant of 'Ougan' mandarin (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
- Huang, Y. et al.
2011. Impact of grafting on cold responsive gene expression in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Euphytica
177:25–32. [this study examined the mechanism of cold acclimation for the introduction of 'Satsuma mandarin' (Citrus unshiu); it used Poncirus trifoliata as graft stock; it confirmed the complexity of cold acclimation as a polygenic controlled trait , and the interaction effects of graft stock-scion regarding auxin with "transcript levels of auxin-responsive GH3 in the scion were positively impacted by the rootstock during cold acclimation"].
- Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2.
1977–1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
- Kunkel, G.
1984. Plants for human consumption.
- Lee, Y. N.
1997. Flora of Korea.
- Markle, G. M. et al., eds.
1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
- Nakano, M. et al.
2013. Characterization of genes associated with polyembryony and in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Citrus. Tree Genet. Genomes
9:795–803. [cites Citrus unshiu "Marcow" as an example of apomictic cultivar "to yield true seed"].
- Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University.
1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21.
- Nito, N. et al.
2007. Germplasm conservation of indigenous Citrus. Acta Hort.
760:105–108. [a cultivar maintained for potential breeding purposes, and considered the most commercially important cultivated Citrus in Japan].
- Penjor, T. et al.
2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One
8(4): e62574. [this study included five accessions of Citrus unshiu that clustered within the main group of mandarin species together with C. nobilis, C. reticulata and C. tangerina].
- Porcher, M. H. et al.
Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
- Reichel, S.
1998. pers. comm.
[re. German common names].
- Singh, R. & N. Nath.
1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium. 1:439. [= C. reticulata var. unshiu].
- St. John, H.
1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands.
[= C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’].
- Tanaka, T.
1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:129.
- Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds.
1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:136.
- Walker, E.
1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
- Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds.
1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
[= C. reticulata Blanco].
- Ye, X.-Q. et al.
2011. Identification of bioactive composition and antioxidant activity in young mandarin fruits. Food Chem.
Check other web resources for Citrus unshiu Marcow.:
- Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
- Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
- ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
- AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
- Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed
citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
Check other web resources for images:
Note: Be advised that their identity may be
inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require
specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with
properly documented herbarium material.
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USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville,
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov.4/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?10793 (26 May 2015)
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