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Taxon: Citrus unshiu Marcow.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10793
Place of publication: Izv. Sochin. Obl. Sukhum. Sadov. Sel. Opyt. Stantsii 2(2):5. 1921
Comment: or C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’
Name verified on: 12-Jan-1989 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 04-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 47 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • Satsuma mandarin   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – English
  • Satsuma orange   (Source: T. Tanaka) – English
  • mandarinier satsuma   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • Satsuma   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • unshū-mikan   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • gyulnamu   (Source: F Korea ) – Transcribed Korean

Economic importance:

  • Human food: fruit   (fide L Edible Pl; Food Feed Crops US; also with seedless cultivars fide J Amer Soc Hort Sci 132:777. 2007)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (fide Pak J Biol Sci 5:509. 2002)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mandarin cultivars (citrus)   (fide HortScience 45:977, 978. 2010)

Distributional range:

  • widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics


  • Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509–512. [this study tested a complex hybrid (Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) × C. reticulata that showed drought tolerance].
  • Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks. Sci. Hort. 123:318–322. [source of 'Okitsu Satsuma mandarin'].
  • Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece. 1969. Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). [lists as C. unshiu (Makino) Marcow.].
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. [= C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’].
  • Choi, S.-Y. et al. 2007. Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various Citrus fruits. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30:772–778. [comments on traditional medicinal uses of dried peels called "chinpi"].
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1997. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain. 1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. [re. French common names].
  • Cuenca, J. et al. 2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid. HortScience 45:977–980. [this study reported a complex hybrid as a result of a cross between (Citrus clementina × C. tangerina) × (C. unshiu ×: C. nobilis)].
  • Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812–822.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea. ["unshu"].
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61. [this study examined the origin of cultivated citrus; it included six samples of Citrus unshiu; these samples clustered in the 'Mandarin mitotype' one of the seven recognized].
  • Grosser, J. W. et al. 2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an efefctive tool to facilitate variety improvement. In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant 36:434–449. [this review cites complex hybrids involving Citrus unshiu for both graft stock improvement and expanding germplasm (with the genus Aegle)].
  • Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Honsho, C. et al. 2009. Reproductive characteristics for self-incompatibility and seedlesness in 'Nishiushi Kontasu', a bud mutation of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka). HortScience 44:1547–1551. [this study mentioned Citrus unshiu as a parental species of mandarin cultivars (page 1547)].
  • Hu, Z. et al. 2007. Abnormal microspore development leads to pollen abortion in a seedless mutant of 'Ougan' mandarin (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:777–782.
  • Huang, Y. et al. 2011. Impact of grafting on cold responsive gene expression in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Euphytica 177:25–32. [this study examined the mechanism of cold acclimation for the introduction of 'Satsuma mandarin' (Citrus unshiu); it used Poncirus trifoliata as graft stock; it confirmed the complexity of cold acclimation as a polygenic controlled trait , and the interaction effects of graft stock-scion regarding auxin with "transcript levels of auxin-responsive GH3 in the scion were positively impacted by the rootstock during cold acclimation"].
  • Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2. 1977–1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
  • Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption.
  • Lee, Y. N. 1997. Flora of Korea.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Nakano, M. et al. 2013. Characterization of genes associated with polyembryony and in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Citrus. Tree Genet. Genomes 9:795–803. [cites Citrus unshiu "Marcow" as an example of apomictic cultivar "to yield true seed"].
  • Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University. 1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21.
  • Nito, N. et al. 2007. Germplasm conservation of indigenous Citrus. Acta Hort. 760:105–108. [a cultivar maintained for potential breeding purposes, and considered the most commercially important cultivated Citrus in Japan].
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574. [this study included five accessions of Citrus unshiu that clustered within the main group of mandarin species together with C. nobilis, C. reticulata and C. tangerina].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Singh, R. & N. Nath. 1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium. 1:439. [= C. reticulata var. unshiu].
  • St. John, H. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. [= C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’].
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:129.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:136.
  • Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= C. reticulata Blanco].
  • Ye, X.-Q. et al. 2011. Identification of bioactive composition and antioxidant activity in young mandarin fruits. Food Chem. 124:1561–1566.


Check other web resources for Citrus unshiu Marcow.:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

| USDA | ARS | GRIN | NPGS | New Search |

Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (26 November 2015)

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