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Taxon: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10782
Place of publication: Reise Ostindien 250. 1765
Comment: or C. aurantium Sweet Orange Group
Name verified on: 01-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 01-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 314 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • blood orange   (Source: Cornucopia ) – English
  • navel orange   (Source: Cornucopia ) – English
  • orange   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – English
  • sweet orange   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • Valencia orange   (Source: Cornucopia ) – English
  • tian cheng   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • Sinaasappel   (Source: S. Staten) – Dutch
  • navel   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • orange douce   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French
  • oranger   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • oranger doux   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • sanguine   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • Apfelsine   (Source: Zander ed14 ) – German
  • Apfelsinenbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • Orange   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Orangenbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • arancio dolce   (Source: HerbSpices 2:212.) – Italian
  • danggyulnamu   (Source: Kulturpflanze 34:91.) – Transcribed Korean
  • laranja-doce   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Portuguese
  • laranjeira   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • laranjeira-doce   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Portuguese
  • laranja-amarga   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • laranja-azeda   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • laranja-bigarade   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • laranja-da-terra   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • laranja-de-sevilha   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • naranja   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Spanish
  • naranjo duce   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Spanish

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Bee plants: honey production   (fide F Int Apico)
  • Human food: beverage base   (fide CultTropS)
  • Human food: fruit   (fide CultTropS)
  • Human food: oil/fat   (fide CultTropS)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (based on crosses with Poncirus trifoliata fide Wild Crop Rel Tr Fr 3:48. 2011)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of grapefruit (citrus)   (fide Syst Bot 7:174. 1982)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mandarin cultivars (citrus)   (fide Tree Genet Genomes 7:58. 2011)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of tangor (citrus)   (in crosses with Citrus reticulata, but also C. maxima fide Ann Bot 111:9, 12. 2013)
  • Materials: essential oils   (fide Mansf Ency)
  • Materials: lipids   (fide Mansf Ency)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals   (fide Kingsbury)

Distributional range:

  • widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics

  • probable origin s.e. Asia


  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya.
  • Cano, A. & A. Bermejo. 2011. Influence of rootstock and cultivar on bioactive compounds in citrus peel. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:1702–1711.
  • Chen, C. et al. 2008. EST-SSR genetic maps for Citrus sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Tree Genet. Genomes 4:1–10.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1995. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain. 1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. [re. French common names].
  • Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. 1986–1987. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource).
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. [lists as C. sinensis (L.) Pers.].
  • Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage.
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants.
  • Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812–822. [this study included three samples of Citrus sinensis that grouped within the mandarin cluster].
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61.
  • Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1–19. [this study found that the genomic composition of Citrus sinensis did not support a F1 or BC1 origin involving C. maxima and C. reticulata].
  • Grosser, J. W. et al. 2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an efefctive tool to facilitate variety improvement. In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant 36:434–449. [this review cites complex hybrids involving Citrus sinensis for both scion and graft stock improvement].
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2.
  • Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341–350.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Long, R. W. & O. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:171. [= C. aurantium Sweet Orange Group].
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:91.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. 1987. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos.
  • Pajaujis Anonis, D. 1993. Flower oils and floral compounds in perfumery. [lists as C. sinensis L.].
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574. [this study included two cultivars of Citrus sinensis that grouped within the pummelo cluster].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rao, N. M. et al. 2011. Chapter 3. Citrus. Pp. 43–59 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, tropical and subtropical fruits.
  • Rehm, S. & G. Espig. 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Scora, R. W. et al. 1982. Contribution to the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae). Syst. Bot. 7:170–177. [this study confirmed by electrophoresis the maternal role of Citrus sinensis in the origins of the grapefruit].
  • Staten, S. 2006. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:124.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:138.
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943–1980. Flora of Panama.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [= C. ×aurantium L.].
  • Xu, Q. et al. 2013. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Nat. Genet. 45:59–66. [this study sequenced the genome of a "double haploid line derived from the anther culture" of Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia].
  • Yaacob, O. & S. Subhadrabandhu. 1995. The production of economic fruits in South-East Asia.


Check other web resources for Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck:


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (03 September 2015)

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