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Taxon: Citrus reticulata Blanco

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10778
Place of publication: Fl. Filip. 610. 1837
Name verified on: 01-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 11-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 165 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • culate mandarin   (Source: PrEcFr ) – English
  • mandarin   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – English
  • mandarin orange   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • mandarine orange   (Source: Aust Pl Common Names ) – English
  • Swatow orange   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – English
  • tangerine   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • gan ju   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • mandarinier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • Mandarinen   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Mandarinenbaum   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • Tangerine   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • santara   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – India
  • mandarina   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Italian
  • ponkan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • mandarina   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • bergamota   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • tangerina   (Source: D. Groth, p.c. 2005) – Portuguese (Brazil)
  • mandarina   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • småcitrus   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (fide Cornucopia)
  • Human food: beverage base   (fide Cornucopia)
  • Human food: fruit   (fide Cornucopia)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (fide Scient Hort 123:319, 321. 2010)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of lemon (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:16. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mandarin cultivars (citrus)   (for clementines fide Ann Bot 111:15. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of sweet orange (citrus)   (fide Nature Genetics 45:65. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of tangelo (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:16. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of tangor (citrus)   (from crosses with Citrus sinensis fide Ann Bot 111:3. 2013)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals   (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)

Distributional range:

    Indo-China: Vietnam

  • widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics

  • probable origin s.e. Asia


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Bañuls, J. & E. Primo-Millo. 1995. Effects of salinity on some Citrus scion-rootsock combinations. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 76:97–102. [this study examined the cultivar Cleopatra mandarine attributed to Citrus reticulata (see also Moya et al. 2003 J Experim Bot 54:825 for C. reshni)].
  • Bayer, R. J. et al. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 96:668–685.
  • Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks. Sci. Hort. 123:318–322. [this study tested a graft stock cultivar 'Sun ChuSha Kat' of Citrus reticulata, and a hybrid ('Changska mandarin') derived from a cross C. reticulata × Poncirus trifoliata].
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1998. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Cornélio, M. T. M. N. et al. 2003. Chromosomal relationships among cultivars of Citrus reticulata Blanco, its hybrids and related species. Pl. Syst. Evol. 240:149–161.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource).
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants.
  • Fang, D. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships among selected Citrus germplasm accessions revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123:612–617.
  • Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812–822. [this study examined affinities among of 45 species of Citrus; C. reticulata, one of the three "basic" species was represented by one accession; it was resolved apart from the other "basic" species, but probably due to sampling its group had low support].
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2008. Characterization of microsatellite markers in mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Molec. Ecol. Resources 8:119–122.
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61.
  • Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1–19.
  • Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2007. Citrus fruits. In: Kole. C., ed., Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants (7 vols.) 14:265–279.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. [re. Brazilian common names].
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341–350.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:171.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Merrill, E. D. 1922–1926. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. [= Citrus nobilis Lour.].
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  • Nicolosi, E. et al. 2000. Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:1155–1166.
  • Ollitrault, P. et al. 2012. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae), phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping. B. M. C. Genomics 13:13. [this study examined the usefulness of SNP markers derived from Citrus clementina for understanding the "origin of some secondary species and important cultivars"; it confirmed the status of C. reticulata as one of the "basic taxa" in the genus, and it showed its role in the origin of most mandarin, clementine, sweet orange cultivars].
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574. [this study included one cultivar ('Ponkan') accession of Citrus reticulata resolved within the main "mandarin cluster" together with C. nobilis, C. unshiu, C. tangerina and others].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rao, N. M. et al. 2011. Chapter 3. Citrus. Pp. 43–60 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, tropical and subtropical fruits.
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Reitz, R., ed. 1965–. Flora ilustrada catarinense.
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:131.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq. [= Citrus deliciosa Ten.].
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:135.
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943–1980. Flora of Panama.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Xu, Q. et al. 2013. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Nat. Genet. 45:59–68.
  • Yaacob, O. & S. Subhadrabandhu. 1995. The production of economic fruits in South-East Asia.


Check other web resources for Citrus reticulata Blanco:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (07 October 2015)

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