USDA ARS United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

  GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
Jump to common names  Jump to economic impacts  Jump to distribution  Jump to references  Jump to links to other online resources  Jump to images

***Please tell us why you value GRIN Taxonomy***

Taxon: Citrus medica L.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae.
Nomen number: 10745
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 06-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 08-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 86 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


See also subordinate taxa:


Common names:

  • Buddha's-Hand   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 2:133.) – English   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • citron   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • etrog citron   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – English   [Citrus medica var. ethrog]
  • finger citron   (Source: Pl Res SEAs 2:133.) – English   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • flesh-finger citron   (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2 ) – English   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • small citron   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – English   [Citrus medica var. ethrog]
  • fo shou gan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • xiang yuan   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • cédrat   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French
  • cédrat digité   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • cédratier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • main de Bouddha   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • sarcodactyle   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • Buddhafinger   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – German   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • gefingerte Zitrone   (Source: Zander ed17 ) – German   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • medischer Apfel   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Zitronatzitrone   (Source: Zander ed14 ) – German
  • cedrato   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Italian
  • bushukan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Japanese Rōmaji   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • cidra   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • cidreira   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • cidro   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • toronja   (Source: Names Soukup ) – Spanish (Peru)
  • etrogcitron   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish   [Citrus medica var. ethrog]
  • fingercitron   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish   [Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis]
  • suckatcitron   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:132. 1991)
  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:133. 1991)
  • Human food: fruit   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:132. 1991)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of combava (citrus)   (fide Pl Genet Res Char Ut 9:219, 220. 2011)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of lemon (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:8. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of lime (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:8. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of rough lemon (citrus)   (as paternal parent fide J Amer Soc Hort Sci 135:347. 2010)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)
More:

Distributional range:

      Native:
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Indian Subcontinent: India

      Cultivated:
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    China: China
  • EUROPE
    Europe

      Other:
  • possible origin n.e. India and China

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya.
  • Bayer, R. J. et al. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 96:668–685. ["native to India"].
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  • Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource).
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage.
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61. [this study examined the origin of cultivated citrus; it included a sample of Citrus medica; it obtained seven mitotypes, one of which only included C. medica; it supported the interpretation of its role as paternal ancestor of "lemon, 'rough' lemon, 'Mexican' lime, 'Volkamer' lemon, 'Rangpur' line, 'Bergamot', and 'Palestine' lime"].
  • Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1–19.
  • Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2007. Citrus fruits. 14:265–279 In: Kole. C., ed., Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants (7 vols.). 14:265–279.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341–350.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Long, R. W. & O. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida.
  • Luro, F. et al. 2011. Analysis of genetic diversity in Citrus. Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 9:218–221. [this study recognized Citrus medica as one of the ancestral species of citrus cultivars, and confirmed by primary metabolic compounds; it also provided additional support for linking C. medica to the origin of "lemon, lemon hybrids, limes and combayas"].
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:169.
  • Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. 1936–1971. Flora of Peru.; new ser. 1980-
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Matthew, K. M. 1983. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. ["occurs truly wild"].
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Nicolosi, E. et al. 2000. Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:1155–1166.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574. [this study included two samples of Citrus medica that clustered together, and apart from the mandarins, pummelo, Poncirus and Fortunella clades].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Reitz, R., ed. 1965–. Flora ilustrada catarinense.
  • Scora, R. W. 1975. On the history and origin of Citrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102:369–375. [as one of the "basic" species in the genus].
  • Soukup, J. 1970. Vocabulario de los nombres vulgares de la flora peruana.
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. 9:113 In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum. 9:113.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952–. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. 2:131 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:131.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
More:

Check other web resources for Citrus medica L.:

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Check other web resources for images:

  • PlantSystematics.org
  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

| USDA | ARS | GRIN | NPGS | New Search |

Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?10745 (21 August 2014)

Please send us your comments

Close Window

Ctrl P to print