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Taxon: Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10744
Place of publication: Interpr. Herb. amboin. 296. 1917
Comment: Burman's basionym dates from 1755
Name verified on: 27-Dec-1988 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 08-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 120 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

Common names:

  • pomelo   (Source: Websters Dict ) – English
  • pummelo   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • shaddock   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • you   (Source: F ChinaEng ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • zhu luan   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transcribed Chinese
  • pamplemousse   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French
  • pamplemoussier   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French
  • shadek   (Source: Les Agrumes ) – French
  • Adamsapfel   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – German
  • Pampelmuse   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Pomelo   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • Pumelo   (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) – German
  • limau   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Indonesian
  • pompelmo   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Italian
  • buntan   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • zabon   (Source: Citrus CGC, p.c.) – Japanese Rōmaji
  • jamboa   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Portuguese
  • toronja   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
  • pompelmus   (Source: Vara kulturvaxt namn ) – Swedish

Economic importance:

  • Human food: fruit   (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:129. 1991)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus   (fide HortTechnology 12:145, 146. 2002)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of grapefruit (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:8. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of lemon (citrus)   (fide Ann Bot 111:9. 2013)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of sweet orange (citrus)   (fide Nature Genomics 45:65. 2013)
  • Materials: essential oils   (fide Mansf Ency)

Distributional range:

    Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia

  • widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1998. pers. comm. [re. common names].
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain. 1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. [re. French common names].
  • Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980–. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. [= C. grandis (L.) Osbeck].
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812–816.
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49–61. [this study examined the origin and maternal phylogeny of cultivated citrus; it included three samples of Citrus maxima; it obtained seven mitotypes, one of which included C. maxima together with C. aurantium, C. bergamia, C. latifolia, C. limetta, C. limon, C. paradisii, C. pseudolimon and C. sinensis].
  • Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1–19.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Jung, Y.-H. et al. 2005. Investigation of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related species in Korea using plastid trnL-trnF sequences. Sci. Hort. 104:179–188. [= Citrus grandis].
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:170.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2.
  • Merrill, E. D. 1922–1926. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants.
  • Nicolosi, E. et al. 2000. Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:1155–1166. [as Citrus grandis].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. [re. German common names].
  • Scora, R. W. & D. H. Nicolson. 1986. The correct name for the shaddock, Citrus maxima, not C. grandis (Rutaceae). Taxon 35:592.
  • Smith, A. C. 1979–1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946–1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  • Stover, E. & W. Castle. 2002. Citrus rootstock usage, characteristics ,and selection in the Florida Indian River region. HortTechnol. 12:143–147.
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. [= C. grandis (L.) Osbeck].
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum 9:117. [= Citrus grandis].
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq. [= C. grandis].
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 2:128.
  • Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. [= C. grandis].
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • Xu, Q. et al. 2013. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Nat. Genet. 45:59–68. [as Citrus grandis].
  • Yaacob, O. & S. Subhadrabandhu. 1995. The production of economic fruits in South-East Asia. [= Citrus grandis].
  • Webster's third new international dictionary.


Check other web resources for Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.:

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (10 October 2015)

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