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Taxon: Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae subfamily: Aurantioideae tribe: Aurantieae subtribe: Citrinae.
Nomen number: 10698
Place of publication: Hist. nat. orangers 1:111, t. 53-56. 1819
Comment: considered by some as the hybrid C. medica × (C. maxima × C. reticulata)
Name verified on: 17-Dec-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 04-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV).
Accessions: 3 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.


Common names:

  • bergamot orange   (Source: World Econ Pl ) – English
  • lim meschi   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Transliterated Arabic
  • bergamotier   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – French
  • bergamotte   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – French
  • Bergamotte   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – German
  • bergamotto   (Source: HerbSpices 2:211.) – Italian
  • baranjeira-bergamota   (Source: Mansf Ency ) – Portuguese
  • bergamota   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Portuguese
  • bergamoto   (Source: Dict Rehm ) – Spanish
More:

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: adulterant   (of lemon juice fide J Agric Food Chem 56:5407. 2008)
  • Food additives: flavoring   (for Earl Gray tea & tobacco fide Pl Res SEAs 19:83. 1999)
  • Materials: essential oils   (used extensively in perfumery fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional range:

      Cultivated:
  • EUROPE
    Southeastern Europe: Italy [s.]

References:

  • Bayer, R. J. et al. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 96:668–685. [= "Citrus × limon bergamot group (Citrus × bergamia, bergamon)"].
  • Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece. 1969. Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae).
  • Cautela, D. et al. 2008. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:5407–5414.
  • Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. 1986–1987. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols.
  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. [= C. aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso & Poit.) Wight & Arn. ex Engl.].
  • Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. [= C. ×bergamia Risso & Poit.].
  • Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2.
  • Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341–350.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:171. [= C. ×bergamia Risso & Poit.].
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2.
  • Oyen, L. P. A. & Nguyen Xuan Dung, eds. 1999. Essential-oil plants. 19:83–86 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 19:83–86.
  • Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d'Italia. [mentions].
  • Polat, I. et al. 2012. Molecular characterization of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) accessions and their relatives using SSR and SRAP markers. Genet. Molec. Res. 11:3267–3276. [this study supported Citrus aurantium as the maternal parent of C. bergamot].
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants.
  • Singh, R. & N. Nath. 1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium. 1:439.
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. 9:112 In: Tanaka, T., Revisio Aurantiacearum. 9:112.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. [mentions].
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). [lists as C. ×bergamia Risso; = C. ×limon (L.) Osbeck].
More:

Synonyms:


Check other web resources for Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.:


Check other web resources for images:

  • PlantSystematics.org
  • Google Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?10698 (22 July 2014)

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