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Taxon: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake

Genus: Melaleuca
Family: Myrtaceae subfamily: Myrtoideae tribe: Melaleuceae.
Nomen number: 105723
Place of publication: Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 69:76. 1958
Name verified on: 14-Dec-2004 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 14-Dec-2004
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA).


A declared noxious weed by USDA-APHIS.
A declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed and/or noxious-weed seed in these U.S. states (see state noxious weed lists), with links to state information or web documents:
AL*, FL*, MAª, NCª, OKª, SCª, TXª.
ªAquatic. *Terrestrial. °In seed.
noxious weed information from Invaders Database System for northwestern U.S.
Link to species profile at National Invasive Species Information Center

Common names:

Economic importance:

  • Bee plants: honey production   (fide Econ Pl Aust)
  • Environmental: ornamental   (fide Econ Pl Aust; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Materials: essential oils   (source of niaouli or gomen oil, substitute of cajeput oil fide Pl Res SEAs 19:127. 1999)
  • Materials: gum/resin   (source of niaouli or gomen oil, substitute of cajeput oil fide Pl Res SEAs 19:127. 1999)
  • Materials: wood   (source of niaouli or gomen oil, substitute of cajeput oil fide Pl Res SEAs 19:127. 1999)
  • Medicines: folklore   (fide Econ Pl Aust)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide Rep NCEPPC; Castanea 61:252. 1996; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional range:

    Malesia: Papua New Guinea
    Australia: Australia - New South Wales, Queensland
    Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

      Naturalized: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)
    Africa [s.]
    Indian Subcontinent: India
    Malesia: Philippines
    Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida
    North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    Caribbean: West Indies
    Northern South America: Guyana

  • also cultivated


  • Austin, D. F. 1996. Book Review: CRC handbook of alternative cash crops. Econ. Bot. 50:25. [mentions].
  • Blake, S. T. & C. Roff. 1958. The honey flora of south-eastern Queensland.
  • Campbell, F. T., ed. 1995. Report of National Coalition of Exotic Plant Pest Councils. (unpublished draft)
  • Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Florida state list aquatic & wetland noxious weeds - from Department of Environmental Protection (on-line resource).
  • Conant, P. et al. 1997. Appendix. Selected plant species interfering with resource management goals in North American natural areas. 255–267 In: Luken, J. O. & J. W. Thieret, eds., Assessment and management of plant invasions. 255–267.
  • Craven, L. A. & B. J. Lepschi. 1999. Enumeration of the species and infraspecific taxa of Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) occurring in Australia and Tasmania. Austral. Syst. Bot. 12:899.
  • Dray, F. A., Jr. et al. 2006. Invasion history of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake in Florida. Castanea 71:210–225.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource).
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. [mentions].
  • Oyen, L. P. A. & Nguyen Xuan Dung, eds. 1999. Essential-oil plants. 19:127; 131–135 In: Faridah Hanum, I. & L. J. G. van der Maesen, eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 19:127; 131–135. [mentions].
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. 1999. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act.
  • Serbesoff-King, K. 2003. Melaleuca in Florida: a literature review on the taxonomy, distribution, biology, ecology, economic importance and control measures. J. Aquatic Pl. Managem. 41:98–112.
  • USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource).
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds.
  • Wrigley, J. W. & M. Fagg. 1993. Bottlebrushes, paperbarks and tea trees.


Check other web resources for Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake:

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP: North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Melaleuca quinquenervia cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (01 August 2014)

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