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Taxon: Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.

Genus: Eruca
Family: Brassicaceae (alt. Cruciferae) tribe: Brassiceae
Nomen number: 104951
Place of publication: G. Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt._Eur. 4(1):201. 1918
Name verified on: 01-Apr-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 01-Apr-2010
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7).
Accessions: 239 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions. or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.
  • Check PlantSearch database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International for possible non-NPGS germplasm.

See other conspecific taxa:

Common names:

Economic importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring   (fide Genet Res Charact Ut 5:143. 2007, as spice in sauces or prepared mustard)
  • Human food: oil/fat   (seeds are source of Jamba oil or Taramira oil fide Use Pl WT Afr, as E. sativa)
  • Human food: vegetable   (fide Genet Res Charact Ut 5:143. 2007, as pungent or non-pungent vegetable for salads)
  • Animal food: fodder   (fide F Iraq, as E. sativa)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of arugula   (fide Genet Res Crop Evol DOI 10.1007/s10722-011-9738-x)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale   (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites studies reporting hybrids with Brassica oleracea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of mustard   (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites one study reporting hybrids with Brassica juncea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish   (based on records of hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of rape   (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites studies reporting hybrids with Brassica napus)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of turnip   (fide Biol Breed Crucifer 264. 2009 as E. sativa, this review cites a study reporting sexual hybrids with Brassica rapa)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant   (fide F Iran, as E. sativa; Cruc NAmer)

Distributional range:

    Northern Africa: Algeria [n.]; Egypt [n.]; Libya [n.]; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad [n.]
    Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    Middle Asia: Turkmenistan
    Mongolia: Mongolia
    China: China - Gansu, Guangdong, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang
    Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
    East Europe: Ukraine - Krym
    Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy - Sardinia, Sicily; Romania [s.]; Serbia [e.]
    Southwestern Europe: France [s. & Corsica]; Portugal; Spain [incl. Baleares]

    Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Sudan
    South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
    Southern Africa: South Africa
    Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu
    Indian Subcontinent: India
    Australia: Australia
    New Zealand: New Zealand
    Northern Europe: Norway [s.]; Sweden [s.]
    Middle Europe: Austria; Germany; Hungary; Switzerland
    East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation - European part [w.]; Ukraine
    Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    Southwestern Europe: France
    United States
    Western South America: Ecuador - Loja
    Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

    Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
    West Tropical Africa: Mali; Mauritania; Niger
    Indian Subcontinent: India [n. & c.]; Pakistan
    Europe [s.]
    United States
  • lesser cultivated elsewhere

  • exact native range obscure


  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Eriksson, O. et al. 1979. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 2.
  • FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
  • FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape. Euphytica 158:209–230. [this review cites studies reporting hybrid formation between this taxon (as E. vesicatia) with Brassica juncea, B. napus].
  • Girija, T. & Tabish. Flowers of India (on-line resource).
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984–. Med-Checklist. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989–. Flora of Ethiopia. (and Eritrea. 2000)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. [= E. vesicaria (L.) Cav.].
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993–. Flora of Japan.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. [= E. vesicaria (L.) Cav.].
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000–. Flora of Siberia (English translation).
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Pignone, D. & C. Gómez-Campo. 2011. Chapter 8. Eruca. Pp. 145–160 in: Kole, C., ed., Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, oilseeds.
  • Qiong, H. et al. 2009. Chapter 13. Introgression of genes from wild crucifers. Pp. 261–308 in: Gupta, S. K., Biology and breeding of Crucifers. [this review recognized this taxon as Eruca sativa citing sexual hybridization records with Brassica rapa].
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica. [= E. sativa Mill.].
  • Rollins, R. C. & I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 1986. Weeds of south-west Asia in North America with special reference to the Cruciferae. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 89B:294.
  • Rollins, R. C. 1993. The Cruciferae of continental North America.
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993–. Flora of India.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2006. Brassicaceae: Species checklist and database on CD-Rom. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:249–258.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2007. Genetic variation in Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 5:142–153.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2009. PART III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data. Pp. 1–91 in: Warwick, S.I. et al., Guide to wild germplasm of Brassica and allied crops (Tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae), ed. 3 (on-line resource).
  • Warwick, S. I. 1995. New taxonomic views within Eruca and Diplotaxis genera in the light of hybridization and molecular findings. In S. Padulosi, ed., Rocket Genetic Resources Network. Report of the first meeting, Lisbon, Portugal. Rocket Genet. Res. Netw. 22–35.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
  • van Treuren, R. et al. 2011. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb's lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. DOI: 10.1007/s10722–011–9738–x. [= E. sativa Mill.].


Check other web resources for Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.:


  • GRIN Images of germplasm accessions.
  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Cite as:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (28 November 2015)

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